%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818062257+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818062257+01'00') /Title (How Britain won the War of 1812: The Royal Navy's Blockades of the United States, 1812-1815) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4181 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(How Britain won the War of 1812: The Royal Navy's Blockades of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the United States, 1812-1815)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the new books that have emerged coincident with the commemoration of the bicentennial of the War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1812, Brian Arthur's )] TJ ET BT 148.496 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How Britain Won the War of 1812: The Royal Navy's Blockades of the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812?1815)] TJ ET BT 88.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one that should win attention, both for its provocative title and its revelatory content. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most carefully researched book on the effectiveness of the British blockade of the United States during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this conflict to have yet been published. Arthur demonstrates how a bold use of sea power, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantages of mobility and surprise, can be a very effective weapon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the time-honored techniques of maritime warfare is the establishment of a blockade off an enemy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coast. It must be fairly clear that the nation which attempts a blockade must have sea control, at least in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate area of the conflict. The goals of naval blockade are to destroy or render useless an enemy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warships and to interfere with and preferably ruin that nation's seaborne commerce. The strategy of a sea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blockade is two-fold. It assumes the blockading nation has sufficient naval vessels at hand to guard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively the coast and its sea approaches. It does no good for a nation to declare a blockade it cannot or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not intend to enforce thoroughly. In application, it is designed to prevent or discouraging an enemy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warships and merchant vessels from departing from or returning to a port. If rigorously applied, this strategy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can throttle a nation's navy, trade, and damage its economy, thereby diminishing its resources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1215)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Arthur)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843836650)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Dudley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8534 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermining the morale of the enemy population. Depending on the number of ships available, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blockading nation may choose to establish a close or distant blockade or a combination of both if it has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient number of ships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Long before the War of 1812, the Anglo-Dutch wars provided a good example of what a blockade could do, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Royal Navy's ships blockading the Dutch coast in 1653, thus creating havoc in the Dutch economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British blockade of the American coast during the American Revolution was somewhat less effective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Navy was obliged simultaneously to keep watch on the French fleet in the ports along the rock-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strewn coasts of Normandy and Brittany, and in North America, to assist the British Army in amphibious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations. Both nations maintained ships to protect bases and trade in the West Indies. The Admiralty often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacked enough vessels to cover the American coastline thoroughly from Massachusetts to Georgia. A classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blockade was the British fleet's enduring and dangerous monitoring of French naval activities off the coast of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Normandy, Brittany, and in the Bay of Biscay during the Napoleonic Wars, in addition to monitoring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naval base at Toulon on the French Mediterranean coast. This blockade was successful in preventing an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion of the British Isles and bottled up French naval fleets and merchantmen, though it required keeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a large fleet in commission at great expense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This prolonged conflict coincided with the onset of war between the United States and Britain. Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great distance from Europe and the few regular troops Britain had in Canada, a naval blockade was essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in demonstrating to the United States that its government would pay a serious price for its declaration of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 18 June 1812. During the first months of the war, the slender force of British Army and Canadian militia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did well in repulsing the American military attacks and the US Navy, outnumbered though it was, had some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stunning initial successes in single-ship actions. The British blockade under the command of Admiral Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Borlase Warren began to make itself felt in early 1813, and its impact increased thereafter, as the war in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe came to an end and the Admiralty ordered its ships to reinforce the squadrons on the North American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(station. In August 1812, Admiral Warren's command had been united \(expanded\) to include all stations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commands from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland to Jamaica and the Leeward Islands, an area of vast extent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Complicating factors were the neutral trade as well as the British need for American grain and other goods to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply their armies in Portugal and Spain. The British consul in Boston was authorized to issue licenses to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ship captains which allowed them to pass through the blockade. Until 1814, the Royal Navy allowed neutral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vessels to enter Boston and New York in the hope of weaning the northeastern states away from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government at Washington.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Numerous historians have pointed to the damaging effects of the British blockade of the American coast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the War of 1812. Donald Hickey argues ?the British blockade had a deadly effect on the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States. Foreign trade dropped sharply and government revenue dried up ... the coasting trade became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perilous, too, forcing American merchants to resort to overland transportation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.280 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.280 288.627 m 429.272 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.272 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The parlous American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy was thrown into chaos with prices soaring and unexpected shortages causing hardship. The Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navy's close blockade, particularly off the Middle Atlantic and New England coasts, forced the US Navy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanders to use caution in dealing with the blockading vessels, which were usually either 74-gun ships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or frigates operating in squadrons of two or more. During 1813 and 1814, the frigate )] TJ ET BT 442.280 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constellation)] TJ ET BT 506.960 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to leave its protected berth at Norfolk, and the frigates )] TJ ET BT 331.952 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(United States )] TJ ET BT 399.284 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 419.612 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Macedonian)] TJ ET BT 479.600 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were bottled up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Long Island Sound by British warships hovering off Sandy Hook, Montauk Point, and Block Island. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frigate )] TJ ET BT 68.336 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chesapeake)] TJ ET BT 126.320 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sortied from Boston harbor only to be captured by the frigate )] TJ ET BT 424.940 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shannon)] TJ ET BT 466.940 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( during a savage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gun duel. The frigates )] TJ ET BT 142.328 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(President, Constitution, )] TJ ET BT 259.676 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 277.004 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Congress)] TJ ET BT 325.340 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were occasionally able to escape from Boston )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the blockade when conditions were favorable. In 1814, the sloop of war )] TJ ET BT 421.604 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Adams)] TJ ET BT 454.268 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( escaped through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chesapeake Capes blockade but only after a year's wait in the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, Wade G. Dudley \(no relation\) in )] TJ ET BT 285.296 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splintering the Wooden Wall: The British Blockade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the United States, 1812-1815)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.008 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.008 105.555 m 191.000 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.000 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, attempted to establish that the blockade was quite ineffective in punishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States, pointing out areas where it was weakest, such as in the South and on the Gulf Coast. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarked that, in 1814, ?the country as a whole was quite self-sufficient ? no one starved, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implements of war continued to be produced ? its government had little money, thanks to the tremendous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenses associate with warfare, Madison's embargo, and the blockade?. The blockade, he suggested, ?was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.2797 288.9415 429.2717 300.8215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.0077 105.8695 190.9997 117.7495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never the overwhelmingly successful operation painted by [Alfred Thayer] Mahan and numerous other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Daughan's recent )] TJ ET BT 157.796 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812: The Navy's War )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.352 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.352 754.563 m 282.344 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 282.344 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( mentioned the naval blockade as an impediment to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US Navy but expends no effort to examine the British blockade's effectiveness in reducing the flow of trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lack of customs receipts, and the virtually bankrupt treasury which was forced rely on loans from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens to finance the war in its last two years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Arthur's book, we have a study that analyzes in detail the process of how the blockade was set up and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what degree it succeeded in grinding down the American war effort. Early in his account, Arthur poses a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct challenge to Wade Dudley's study about which he states ?Dudley's conclusion that the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blockades [commercial and naval] of the United States were comparatively unsuccessful neither appraises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their consequences nor bears close examination?. Arthur has garnered from Admiralty reports the numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of American vessels captured, including name, rig and date of capture; the US Navy vessels blockaded, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken, or destroyed with date and place of the event; in other appendices, based on research in US historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics, we see lists and graphs of US imports, exports, customs revenues, the US national debt, rise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall of various commodities' prices, wholesale prices, the yields of US direct taxes and internal excise duties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money supply and prices, net freight earnings, for the period, 1807?1815, and several other measures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American economic health during the war, as compared with the preceding period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through his careful scrutiny of these numbers, the author argues that British economic warfare had deprived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the US government of the means of continuing the war into 1815. Dramatically lower customs receipts, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major source of government income, created budget deficits which forced the government to depend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly on public credit. The curtailing of American coastal trade meant that goods had to proceed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and from markets by land, taking more time and at greater expense. In Arthur's view, the result of all this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was unemployment and currency inflation which created popular hardships and discontent with the war. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US Navy's few unblockaded frigates were unable to lift the British blockade and to prevent British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amphibious landings. The number of American merchant ship owners willing to risk voyages declined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharply meaning there were far fewer vessels engaged in foreign trade. Most of this is no doubt true, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year of 1814 was a dismal time from an economic point of view for most Americans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, paradoxically, this was a time of resurgence and renewal for the American military, who performed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well in campaigns at Niagara and at Plattsburg, maintained control of Lake Erie, stood firm on Lake Ontario, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and won a crucial battle on Lake Champlain. Despite British amphibious attacks on the shores of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chesapeake Bay, the burning of Washington and the ransoming of Alexandria, Baltimore's naval and militia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defenders repulsed the British who withdrew quickly from the Chesapeake to shift their attention to New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orleans. The one major element Arthur does not seriously account for is American privateering enterprise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was successful in both naval and financial terms, despite the blockade. Privateer owners were an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting blend of profit-minded entrepreneurs and patriotic sea warriors. To license and hold them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accountable, the government issued 517 commissions for privateer and letter of marque vessels, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captured 1,345 British prizes and inflicted an estimated $45.5 million in damage on the British merchant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleet. The privateers sallied forth from Massachusetts, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Maine, New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Virginia, Louisiana, and Georgia. Indeed, many of the sailors who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formerly had manned trading vessels signed on as privateersmen in major ports from Portsmouth to New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orleans. The large numbers of these swift-sailing, highly maneuverable schooners and brigs which slipped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the blockade, were a continuing irritation to the blockade commanders as they harried British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convoys from the West Indies and took the war even to the chops of the Channel. Arthur minimizes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privateers' efforts as having little impact on Britain's aggregate overseas trade but whether by this he means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global or North Atlantic trade he does not say. He balances the losses to privateers and American naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vessels by pointing out that the United States lost 1,407 merchantmen to the Royal Navy. But by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison, American privateers did fairly well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to recommend in this scholarly account of the British use of a naval and commercial blockade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the War of 1812. Arthur's use of historical statistics as an analytical tool is impressive and blends )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.3517 754.8775 282.3437 766.7575 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 4689 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well with his firm grasp of the Royal Navy's official correspondence in dealing with the North American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Station. It is interesting to see that he does not condone the asperity with which Admiralty First Secretary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Wilson Croker treated Admiral Warren; indeed Arthur sympathizes with the admiral whose assignment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to guard a tremendous extent of coastline with a grudging allowance of vessels. Warren repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked for reinforcements to deal with the privateers which evaded his blockading vessels. His successor Vice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane received much more accommodating treatment from the Admiralty when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the North American Station was re-divided into two separate commands and assigned more ships in 1814, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following Warren's departure. For American scholars, this volume is one to be read, studied, and added to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their bookshelves, for it fills a gap in the economic historiography of the War of 1812. The author did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive research in primary and secondary sources in both the United Kingdom and the United States. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another flawed element is the title, which, whether it was the author's choice or that of the publisher, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound to get the attention of American and Canadian readers. This book does not establish who ?won? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, though it certainly explains well many of the difficulties the United States endured in not ?losing? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Hickey, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict)] TJ ET BT 331.004 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.320 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.320 544.227 m 486.308 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wade G. Dudley, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splintering the Wooden Wall: The British Blockade of the United States, 1812?1815)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Annapolis, MD, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.672 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.672 515.715 m 233.660 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Daughan, )] TJ ET BT 154.652 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812: The Navy's War )] TJ ET BT 265.208 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 379.844 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 379.844 501.459 m 433.832 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historic Naval Fiction)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historicnavalfiction.net/t1107-how-britain-won-the-war-of-1812-the-royal-navy-s-blockades-of-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 446.691 m 553.904 446.691 l S BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the-united-states-1812-1815-by-brian-arthur)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 432.435 m 246.632 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 249.632 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 429.103 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 411.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 411.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1215)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 409.929 m 328.316 409.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 384.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7872)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historicnavalfiction.net/t1107-how-britain-won-the-war-of-1812-the-royal-navy-s-blockades-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of-the-united-states-1812-1815-by-brian-arthur)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.3197 544.5415 486.3077 556.4215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.6717 516.0295 233.6597 527.9095 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 379.8437 501.7735 433.8317 513.6535 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 447.0055 553.9037 458.8855 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historicnavalfiction.net/t1107-how-britain-won-the-war-of-1812-the-royal-navy-s-blockades-of-the-united-states-1812-1815-by-brian-arthur) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 432.7495 246.6317 444.6295 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historicnavalfiction.net/t1107-how-britain-won-the-war-of-1812-the-royal-navy-s-blockades-of-the-united-states-1812-1815-by-brian-arthur) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 410.2435 328.3157 422.1235 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1215) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000004909 00000 n 0000005018 00000 n 0000005128 00000 n 0000005237 00000 n 0000008798 00000 n 0000008926 00000 n 0000009010 00000 n 0000009101 00000 n 0000017688 00000 n 0000017718 00000 n 0000017846 00000 n 0000017882 00000 n 0000017912 00000 n 0000018040 00000 n 0000018076 00000 n 0000018160 00000 n 0000025575 00000 n 0000025605 00000 n 0000025733 00000 n 0000025769 00000 n 0000025888 00000 n 0000030630 00000 n 0000030758 00000 n 0000030813 00000 n 0000030941 00000 n 0000030996 00000 n 0000031124 00000 n 0000031179 00000 n 0000031306 00000 n 0000031505 00000 n 0000031632 00000 n 0000031831 00000 n 0000031959 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32055 %%EOF