%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 51 0 R 56 0 R 64 0 R 97 0 R 145 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221203153+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221203153+00'00') /Title (The British Empire Debate) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2778 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The British Empire Debate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the autumn of 2011 the near-simultaneous publication of a number of books on the British Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1216)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Paxman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780670919574)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viking)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Gott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781844677382)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(576pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Verso)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Jackson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8700 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised to add fresh momentum to the debate, if debate is the word, on the memories ? or lack of them ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the British people currently carry for their empire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.628 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.628 780.819 m 309.620 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 309.620 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Jeremy Paxman, with )] TJ ET BT 419.276 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire: What Ruling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Did to the British, )] TJ ET BT 156.692 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised a robust, ?clear-eyed? look at the imperial past but fell for the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic premise of all ? that there could be a single story that, delivered with enough incision and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(panache, could speak to the very imagined community \(?the British people?\) that the narrative itself invokes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The excerpt from the book reproduced for the back cover is itself instructive. ?If we accept,? it begins, ? ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any thoughtful Indian does ? that the British Empire had a shaping influence on India, then where is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common sense in claiming that the same history has not had at least as important a role in Britain??. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be an unflinching, unsentimental view, is the message, one that appeals to rational thought, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proviso that the colonisers were as equally transformed by empire as the colonised suggesting an approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that can be nothing but even-handed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet one cannot help but feel that there is something deliberately provocative about that opening line. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(As any thoughtful Indian does)] TJ ET BT 178.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. What is it there that irks? Is it the stress on Indians? potential to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughtful, as though there is a distance deliberately being forced here between the author and his imperial ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racist ? heritage? Or is it the combination of that stress with the assumption that thoughtful Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily care very much today about the balance sheet of empire. ?Any thoughtful Indian? implies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of Indian who would enjoy talking to Paxman, on Newsnight perhaps, or maybe over lunch, weighing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up the famines against the railways, the pros against the cons: all very suggestive of that unbiased, impartial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirit that implies the perceptiveness and magnanimity of those that enjoy it above all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central premise of Paxman?s book is that whilst we know enough already about the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain changed the world, we know very little about the ways in which the world, through the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter, changed Britain. On one level, this appears a welcome shift from the triumphalism of so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial historiography, from Seeley?s )] TJ ET BT 224.324 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Expansion of England)] TJ ET BT 351.992 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1883\) to Ferguson?s )] TJ ET BT 459.980 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How Britain Made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Modern World )] TJ ET BT 125.672 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.664 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.664 443.187 m 174.656 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 174.656 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet the effect that empire had on Britain has been a major \(if not the major\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupation for imperial historians for almost 30 years now, ever since John Mackenzie?s )] TJ ET BT 479.252 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Empire)] TJ ET BT 90.344 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( launched Manchester University Press?s )] TJ ET BT 290.636 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Imperialism)] TJ ET BT 398.636 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series, soon to publish its 100th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.016 400.419 m 87.008 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 87.008 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This book is intended for a non-academic audience, to be sure, but it nevertheless seems strange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for an author to make such grand claims for originality when so much scholarship ? the same scholarship on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which that author depends ? suggests otherwise. If, on the other hand, Paxman?s task was not to offer an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original thesis of his own but, rather, to bridge the gap between academic and popular history, then the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader cannot help but be struck by the book?s comprehensive failure to do what it says on the tin. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very good book but it tells us very little about the effects of empire on British society or, indeed, on what it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to be British.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introduction, Paxman surveys the legacies of empire. On elite spheres, he writes with confidence ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Office is supercilious; British prime ministers cannot help but lecture their foreign counterparts; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy endures. On British society, Paxman sticks, perhaps wisely, to the surface: immigrants built Moss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bros, Marks and Spencers ?and supermarkets like Tesco?. New arrivals from the Caribbean and the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcontinent ?changed the look of cities; writers and artists invigorated the ?native arts?; sportsmen and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women raised standards of performance; cooks 'did the national cuisine a big favour? \(p. 8\). Regimental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle honours and memorials in churches recall imperial wars \(p. 4\). With all this stress on legacy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paxman?s principal point appears paradoxical. Residues of empire are everywhere yet the British themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain indifferent to them. For Paxman, that apathy is at the root of Britain?s uncertain place in the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today. ?If only the British would bring a measure of clarity to what was done in their country?s name?, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes, ?they might find it easier to play a more useful and effective role in the world? \(p. 286\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout what is, on the whole, comfortable, assertive prose, there is a feeling of frustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointment: that the British don?t care about this history. Their diversion by the empty fourth plinth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the imperial statutes in Trafalgar Square is emblematic. Elsewhere Niall Ferguson has complained of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the iPod generation ? ?endlessly gaming, chatting or chilling? ? and there is a similar sentiment here: we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need the youth of today to heed the lessons of the past if we are not going to continue heading to the dogs.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 543.620 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 543.620 74.787 m 557.612 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is currently, of course, a very live discussion as what kind of history should be taught in British )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 295.6277 781.1335 309.6197 793.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.6637 443.5015 174.6557 455.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0157 400.7335 87.0077 412.6135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 543.6197 75.1015 557.6117 86.9815 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 9259 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools. The Conservatives envisage a national story as narrative spine: current syllabi lack cohesion, says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Gove; students don?t learn the linkages that give order to what they know; they lack the skills to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate one event to another.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.312 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.312 766.563 m 178.304 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 178.304 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As always, what is contentious is the question of what is to be the glue.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.280 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.280 766.563 m 537.272 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 537.272 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to be the expansion of England. Is it now to be the decline? Notably, Bernard Porter sees )] TJ ET BT 487.940 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 523.268 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite apart from, and opposed to, the ?patriotic approach? associated with Ferguson and Gove.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.928 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.928 738.051 m 501.920 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 501.920 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(do)] TJ ET BT 46.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( share, however, is the idea that, whatever imperial history is produced, it should equip Britons to act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively in the world. The reason why memory of empire is controversial is because it inevitably gets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicated in the invention ? or disavowal ? of Britain today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having covered the ?what the empire did to us? bit in the introduction, the rest of Paxman?s book comprises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a thoroughly enjoyable imperial tour. It is a familiar route by now, from Liverpool to Lucknow, Salisbury to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shanghai, but it merges well the grand stage with the minor detail, personalities with events. In the spirit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impartiality, Paxman does not shy away from the violence of empire but he does retreat into a more basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(register. On the Black Hole of Calcutta, he writes: ?precise numbers were not the point. Clearly, far too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many people were crammed into a horrible confined space? \(p. 76\). Mau Mau was ?vicious and ruthless with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims ... treated abominably? \(p. 270\). On the other side of the ledger, the Atlantic slave trade is ?one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most disgraceful episodes in British history? \(p. 25\). It is difficult not to find this kind of moralising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headmasterly. More importantly, it diminishes the possibility for seeing violence and degradation as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integral part of the imperial equation. According to this logic, violence is, by definition, extreme ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly not something a thoughtful Indian would endorse. More problematic still, in registering his shock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at British-perpetrated atrocities, Paxman unwittingly betrays the audience to whom he writes. ?From the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance of the twenty-first century,? he writes, ?the baffling, troublesome anxiety about it ? as about some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other aspects of the imperial experience ? is how it was that our own forebears could have behaved such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this?. Baffling? Really? It is really a surprise that British people have been, can be, are of course, as evil as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anybody else? And what about those Britons who do not trace their heritage back to the statesmen, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generals and the slave-traders of the British Empire? The patriotic approach is very much here, not so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the refusal to admit the ?dark side? of the empire but in the tendency to talk of it in such concessionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We do already, of course, have no shortage of intelligent yet accessible popular histories of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire, from Jan Morris?s )] TJ ET BT 166.328 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pax Brittanica)] TJ ET BT 236.660 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( trilogy \(1968?78\) to Piers Brendon?s )] TJ ET BT 420.644 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decline and Fall of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Empire)] TJ ET BT 105.020 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.012 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.012 357.651 m 157.004 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.004 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paxman?s book is beautifully produced and soon to be embellished with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanying television series: one imagines him drafting his chapters after filming, on location. If this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests something of the elegiac ?wandering in the wake of empire? that Hsu-Ming Teo has described, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive list of researchers, producers, directors and film crew that appear in the acknowledgements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests a somewhat commissioned piece of work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.984 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.984 300.627 m 292.976 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 292.976 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The idea that this book will enable a clear-eyed look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the imperial past is somewhat diminished by the fact that this is a book so clearly to be )] TJ ET BT 464.984 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed)] TJ ET BT 502.304 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Significantly, one of the major contentions of those who have critiqued the cultural production ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption ? of empire has been that it has served as the cultural arm of a neo-imperialism at work in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.672 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.672 231.603 m 91.664 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.664 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Historians are reluctant to apply the ?imperial? label to Britain?s recent wars in Iraq and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afghanistan yet parallels remain. In November 2011, an American army squad commander, Staff Sergeant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calvin Gibbs, was convicted in an American military court of murder, conspiracy and assault. Gibbs, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court was told, had in early 2010 led a platoon of American soldiers, a self-titled ?kill team?, that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murdered unarmed civilians, photographed their corpses and collected body parts as trophies. Notably, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American government was, throughout Gibbs? trial, at pains to depict his platoon as a ?rogue unit?, utterly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrepresentative of the U.S. army and its soldiers in Afghanistan. 90 years earlier, when a British military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander at Amritsar ordered troops to fire on an unarmed crowd, controversy focused on whether such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence was exceptional in relation to British imperialism or, rather, its inevitable result.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.308 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.308 117.555 m 482.300 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 482.300 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian planters rallied to the commander?s defence, others saw the value in his condemnation. Repudiating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the massacre kept the honour of the empire intact. To the extent that the events at Amritsar were unjust, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were un-British as well. As in Afghanistan, violence had come to serve as a yard-stick by which morality, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its absence, was defined. When Indians condemned Amritsar, they condemned British imperialism by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.3117 766.8775 178.3037 778.7575 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.2797 766.8775 537.2717 778.7575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.9277 738.3655 501.9197 750.2455 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.0117 357.9655 157.0037 369.8455 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 278.9837 300.9415 292.9757 312.8215 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.6717 231.9175 91.6637 243.7975 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 462.3077 117.8695 482.2997 129.7495 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 54 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 7159 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension. When the British did so, the effect was, by contrast, to disassociate empire from the massacre ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decontaminate the brand. In doing so, they reiterated once again the implicit correlation between Britishness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and moderation. Murdering civilians is not, after all, what )] TJ ET BT 314.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(we)] TJ ET BT 327.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is very much against that ? rehabilitative ? image of the British Empire that Richard Gott?s book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s Empire: Resistance, Repression and Revolt)] TJ ET BT 289.328 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is conceived. For Gott, the point is that the massacres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were )] TJ ET BT 60.332 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 75.668 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( exceptional. Violence was perennial; the rogue was the norm. Over 66 chapters and almost 500 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages, Gott sets out to document the brutality of the British Empire. In so doing, he provides, for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, a sense of the sheer extent of the injury suffered by colonised people as the British Empire expanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a largely coastal phenomenon in the mid 18th century to the global behemoth that it had become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midway through the next.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In analytical terms, Gott does not go further than this central ? essential ? claim. His purpose is not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain but to chronicle imperial violence. How better to make the point that empire was violent, after all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than by documenting its every violent moment? The effect is relentless, perhaps necessarily so. Chapters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short ? varying between three and a dozen or so pages; each recounts an episode in which, invariably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial expansion provoked a militant response. Resistance provoked repression; that stoked further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance and further repression in turn. Indeed, Gott?s title aptly conveys the contents of his book: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance, repression, revolt ? and repeat. What the book does not provide is any analytical account as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when \(and why\) the tipping point arrived at which the British were able to bring the superiority of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material power to bear. Because the book moves so quickly from one locale to another, moreover, the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacks the context necessary to gain any kind of analytical or imaginative purchase on what is particular about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each case. The stage is set, the protagonists are introduced ? but only with the minimum of detail needed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conflict to begin. Afterwards, with the battle done and the still-warm corpses littering the ground, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(increasingly exhausted\) reader can only survey the now-familiar scene and move on ? to the next chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the next unsettled frontier and a cast of characters still unaware of what their inevitable fate will be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to underplay the importance of Gott?s book. Academic historians may be frustrated by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical limitations but it may well be that the book?s real value is, in any case, to a non-specialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience. Paul Gilroy has memorably argued that until Britons come to terms with the shame of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial past, they will continue to perpetuate an exclusionary, sterile patriotism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.972 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.972 374.163 m 442.964 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.964 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The need to emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the violence of empire, in other words, is because it was enacted under the guise of the same virtue and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civility claimed by Britishness today. To decolonise the nation now, we need to look unblinking at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutality of its past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this perspective, it may well be that a chronicle, and not a theory, of imperial violence is exactly what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we need. From Gilroy?s perspective, it is citizens, not scholars alone, who need to reappraise the heritage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. That the point of the book is the violence itself and not the thesis by which it is framed, allows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to take away his or her own lesson, impression or emotional response. There is much to be had in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story unadorned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Take the following instalment, for example. In May 1836, a British war-ship engaged three large )] TJ ET BT 501.932 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prahus)] TJ ET BT 535.268 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sailing boats, in the straits of Malacca. The prahus were sailed by ?sea-gypsies?, people who had inhabited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these waters for centuries and who lived off the taxes that they collected from passing ships. Yet one man?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sea gypsy is another man?s pirate and to the British, for whom unfettered control of the seas was the vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prerequisite for their rapidly expanding empire, the people of the prahus were legitimate game. Since it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to know for sure whether a particular prahu was indeed a pirate ship, however, the usual practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not to board the boats but to force their inhabitants into the water where they could be effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispatched. In a letter to his wife, Lieutenant Colin Mackenzie, a sailor aboard the British warship, recalled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scene:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The whole crew, having in their desperation jumped into the sea, the work of slaughter began, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 422.9717 374.4775 442.9637 386.3575 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 6818 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with muskets, pikes, pistols and cutlasses. I sickened at the sight but it was dire necessity. They )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked for no quarter and received none; but the expression of despair on their faces, as, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhausted with diving and swimming, they turned them up towards us merely to receive the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death shot or thrust, froze my blood. \(pp. 285?6\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In writing to his wife, it may well be that Mackenzie self-censored but there is notably none of the delight in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death here that characterised the American kill team in Afghanistan. Indeed, it was precisely the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial violence was an unfortunate necessity that provided massacres such as these with their moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(component. It was dirty work ? ?unpleasant for all concerned? ? but unquestionably correct when British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests were at stake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the act of killing may have sickened Mackenzie, the bodies of the dead prompted no such remorse. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After another pirate encounter further down the coast Mackenzie had himself rowed out to the vanquished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prahu where he obtained the captain?s head ? ?a splendid young fellow, symmetry itself? ? which he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(packaged up and sent to a friend. Just the previous year, when Hintsa, the paramount chief of the Xhosa, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed, British soldiers were quick to claim their trophies: one took his bracelets, beads and brass, another cut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off his ears, a third dug out his teeth. Ten years earlier, after a massacre of Aboriginal people at Bathurst, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New South Wales, no death-toll was taken but 45 skulls were boiled down and shipped back to England as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(souvenirs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If readers are shocked by details such as this, what is only suggested at here is the ideology that redeemed it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and that is surely the connecting thread linking Mallaca to New South Wales, the Cape to Kandhar. ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kaffir,? wrote Benjamin D?Urban, Governor of Cape Colony at the time of Hintsa?s death, ?is the worst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specimen of the human race with whom I have ever had to deal?. ?The Xhosa?, noted the man who ran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hintsa to ground, were ?a nation of indomitable savages? \(p. 300\). The sea gypsies of the Malacca straits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were a ?rude and semi-civilised people? \(p. 373\). Members of the kill team in Afghanistan, one cannot fail to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note, referred to Afghanis as ?savages?. Constructing the native ?other?, then as now, not only enabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemic control but ? when resistance was forthcoming ? annihilation as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We see this relation most forcefully in the settler colonies where the interests of European immigrants were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so irreconcilably at odds with those of indigenous peoples. As the settler colonies pulled away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British imperial orbit, however, they took their histories with them. The ?history wars? are a feature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian, not British, historiography; it was always a luxury for the British that the violence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispossession went on well away from domestic public life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.324 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.324 321.651 m 340.316 321.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.316 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On the frontier, it was not merely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquiescence of ?native? peoples that was wanted but their comprehensive elimination.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.924 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.924 307.395 m 472.916 307.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 472.916 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As the settler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence expanded, so resistance to it seemed to evidence the native?s racial shortcoming. After the Iroquois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacked a British fort in Pennsylvania in 1778, the British embarked on a scorched-earth campaign in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retribution. 40 Iroquois villages were destroyed; thousands starved \(p. 69\). In 1852, after 60 years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermittent Xhosa?settler conflict, British commanders on the Cape were demanding nothing less than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extermination of ?these most barbarous and treacherous savages? \(p. 406\). Settler militias burned huts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levelled crops; half starving, the Xhosa lost the capacity to resist. As one colonial volunteer later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They made no stand and offered no resistance, neither did they beg for mercy or show any fear, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but kept on at a steady pace while our people rode up to them and shot them down \(p. 407\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the Xhosa were judged not merely savage but treacherous as well is no minor point. British colonists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were at their most violent when acting in reprisal. The humiliation of rebellion demanded a response that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was nothing less than overwhelming. In the West Indies, isolated planter communities harboured collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of slave rebellion, fantasising lurid scenarios of their own destruction \(p. 153\). The killing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white women and children by aboriginal peoples was the ultimate violation: revenge was pursued with a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 58 0 obj [56 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.3237 321.9655 340.3157 333.8455 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj [56 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.9237 307.7095 472.9157 319.5895 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 67 0 R 70 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R ] /Contents 65 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Length 10250 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passion that transcended even settlers? passion for land \(p. 432\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the British appear powerful here and their victims as, well, victims, it is hardly surprising that, alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his intention to depict British injustice, Gott is equally keen to portray those who fought it in unashamedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroic terms. Make no mistake, this book is partisan. But it is pioneering as well and it points up a whole raft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of possibilities for new research. On a fairly basic level, the significance of the book is in its corrective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value: as a compendium of imperial violence, it provides an ample resource for anyone wanting to take up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the argument with Ferguson et al. Its greater significance, however, may well be its contribution towards a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more gradual rethinking of what any undertaking to write imperial history might involve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Jeremy Paxman is right to suggest that people in Britain today are ignorant of Britain?s imperial past, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable that in autumn 2011, when his book was published, a rash of television series appeared, all focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on British soldiers recently serving in Afghanistan.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.996 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.996 628.515 m 298.988 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 298.988 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One does not need to subscribe to any ?neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialist? framing to recognise the highly partial account that these films provided. Nor is it necessary to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlook the differences between imperial and post-imperial Britain to recognise the recurrence of classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial tropes. Afghanistan is ?medieval?; Taliban fighters are cowards; British troops bring unalloyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance. Mid-way between a royal wedding and a diamond jubilee was an unfavourable time to publish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Richard Drayton has termed ?post-patriotic? histories of the British Empire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.964 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.964 557.235 m 444.956 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.956 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But the need was all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the greater when opportunities for emphasising the violence enacted in the name of freedom were so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severely constrained. With an army wives choir taking the Christmas number one for a song composed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribute to their absent husbands and the repatriation of Britain?s war dead evolved into an elaborate piece of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotic theatre, honouring Britain?s forces in Afghanistan had become a national recreation. Far less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular attention, perhaps predictably, was paid to the five elderly Kikuyu attempting to prosecute the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British government for torture suffered during the Mau Mau emergency in 1950s Kenya. Yet the imminent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(release of a vast archive of previously ?migrated? files pertaining to Britain?s withdrawal from empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promises a dramatic rethinking of the exceptionality or otherwise of brutality enacted in the course of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial expansion ? and decline.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.984 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.984 428.931 m 214.976 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 214.976 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Gott?s )] TJ ET BT 252.308 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 335.312 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is hardly without its problems but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant nonetheless for auguring a new course, away from well-worn narratives. )] TJ ET BT 438.248 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 473.576 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by contrast, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only too familiar. For readers wishing an entertainment in imperialism they can do no better than Paxman. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One may well wonder, however, if at this present juncture an entertainment in imperialism is really what we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aside from the books reviewed here, see also Bill Schwarz, )] TJ ET BT 353.288 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The White Man?s World)] TJ ET BT 470.948 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2011\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Grob-Fitzgibbon, )] TJ ET BT 200.348 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Endgame: Britain?s Dirty Wars and the End of Empire )] TJ ET BT 512.996 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011\); Kwasi Kwarteng, )] TJ ET BT 185.324 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ghosts of Empire: Britain?s Legacies in the Modern World)] TJ ET BT 470.648 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2011\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 84.344 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s Experience of Empire in the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 358.664 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Andrew Thompson \(Oxford, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 249.363 m 118.004 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. R. Seeley, )] TJ ET BT 126.680 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Expansion of England)] TJ ET BT 254.348 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1883\); Niall Ferguson, )] TJ ET BT 416.672 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire: How Britain Made )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Modern World)] TJ ET BT 152.672 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.996 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.996 220.851 m 287.984 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Mackenzie, )] TJ ET BT 148.328 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda and Empire: The Manipulation of Public Opinion, 1880?1960)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.988 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.988 192.339 m 214.976 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson, ?Empire falls?, )] TJ ET BT 217.328 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vanity Fair)] TJ ET BT 272.996 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, October 2006.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.648 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.648 178.083 m 401.636 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laurie Penny, ?Michael Gove and the imperialists?, )] TJ ET BT 316.304 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Statesman)] TJ ET BT 389.972 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1 June 2010; Charlotte Higgins, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Historians say Michael Gove risks turning history lessons into propaganda classes?, )] TJ ET BT 474.632 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 542.300 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17 August 2011 < )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.452 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/aug/17/academics-reject-gove-history-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.452 135.315 m 537.068 135.315 l S BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lessons)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 121.059 m 98.684 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.684 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 115.676 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 13 February 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.732 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.732 121.059 m 320.720 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 108.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shula Marks, ?History, the nation and empire: sniping from the periphery?, )] TJ ET BT 428.636 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Workshop Journal)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29, 1 \(1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.008 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.008 92.547 m 185.996 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Porter, ?Empire: what ruling the world did to the British by Jeremy Paxman ? review?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 131.684 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 October 2011 < )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.104 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/05/empire-ruling-world-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.104 64.035 m 552.080 64.035 l S BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paxman-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 49.779 m 138.656 49.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.656 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 155.648 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 12 February 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.704 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.704 49.779 m 360.692 49.779 l S endstream endobj 66 0 obj [64 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 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/F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present )] TJ ET BT 323.324 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1996\); P. J. Marshall, )] TJ ET BT 476.984 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illustrated History of the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 257.024 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1996\); Piers Brendon, )] TJ ET BT 432.008 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Decline and Fall of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the British Empire)] TJ ET BT 152.684 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\). For approachable, single-volume academic histories, see L. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butler, )] TJ ET BT 100.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Empire: Adjusting to a Post-Imperial World)] TJ ET BT 370.352 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2001\); Dane Kennedy, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Empire, 1880?1945)] TJ ET BT 217.352 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harlow, 2002\); Philippa Levine, )] TJ ET BT 383.000 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Empire: Sunrise to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunset)] TJ ET BT 95.348 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harlow, 2007\) ? and the perennial: Bernard Porter, )] TJ ET BT 349.616 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lion?s Share: A Short History of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism)] TJ ET BT 157.688 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(4th ed., Harlow, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.332 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.332 666.771 m 330.320 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hsu-Ming Teo, ?Wandering in the wake of empire: British travel and tourism in the post-imperial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world?, in )] TJ ET BT 115.676 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Culture and the End of Empire)] TJ ET BT 299.684 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. by Stuart Ward \(Manchester, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.304 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.304 638.259 m 550.292 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salman Rushdie, ?Outside the whale?, )] TJ ET BT 251.660 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Granta)] TJ ET BT 286.328 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11 \(Spring 1984\); Jon Wilson, ?Niall Ferguson?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial passion?, )] TJ ET BT 154.340 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Workshop Journal)] TJ ET BT 282.332 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 56, 1 \(2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.324 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.324 609.747 m 410.312 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. 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