%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819063955+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819063955+01'00') /Title (?Jews and other foreigners?: Manchester and the Rescue of the Victims of European Fascism, 1933-1940) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2558 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(?Jews and other foreigners?: Manchester and the Rescue of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Victims of European Fascism, 1933-1940)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s role in the refugee crisis created by the rise of fascism has been examined from many angles, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not always critically. Early works did little more than extol British humanitarianism and celebrate refugee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes. More recently, government policy and Anglo-Jewish responses have received more nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessments, and a lively debate over the extent of British largesse towards Jewish refugees has ensued.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1217)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Williams)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719085499)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(95.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(496pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Craig-Norton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7668 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this field, Bill William?s new volume, )] TJ ET BT 233.684 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Jews and other foreigners?: Manchester and the Rescue of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victims of European Fascism, 1933?1940,)] TJ ET BT 238.676 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents a unique and original approach to the subject. In one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect, it is more expansive than its predecessors in its scrutiny of the 1930s refugee crisis. Williams does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not limit his attention to Anglo-Jewish responses, but casts his net widely, catching among others, Quaker, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic, Communist Party and even Rotarian efforts on behalf of refugees. Similarly, he broadens his focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to include non-Jewish victims of fascism, devoting chapters to the plight of Basque children and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees. Paradoxically, the book is also more narrowly focused than previous works in the field, for this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a national study, but a chronicle of one city?s response to the refugees from fascism. Herein lies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originality of Williams? approach, for no previous study has recorded and synthesized the responses of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single locality to the refugee crisis of the 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Only five years after the end of the Second World War, the first studies of Great Britain?s response to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugee crisis of the 1930s and 1940s appeared. Books such as )] TJ ET BT 336.620 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s New Citizens: The Story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refugees from Germany and Austria )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.996 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.996 600.003 m 226.988 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 226.988 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Norman Bentwich?s )] TJ ET BT 351.632 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(They Found Refuge)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.616 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.616 600.003 m 462.608 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.608 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( congratulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain on its humanitarian efforts in saving refugees and celebrated refugee assimilation and success. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not until the 1980s, with the opening of new sources and archives, that scholars began turning a critical eye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on governmental and citizen responses. Prominent authors attempted to deconstruct the narrative of Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarianism, and to demonstrate the inadequacy of the government?s immigration policies. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-narrative also portrays the response of the Anglo-Jewish elite as both timid and self-interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failing to press for a more generous immigration policy from the Home Office. More recent examinations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the experiences of refugees have called into question Britain?s self-image as an asylum from intolerance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution. Not surprisingly, this revisionist turn has invited counterclaims defending both the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Anglo-Jewry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his short introduction, Bill Williams acknowledges this widening debate, and demonstrates his command )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its terms. In a brief but compelling discussion he notes how the rescue of refugees in Great Britain has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been comfortably viewed as flowing from the liberal tradition and the refugee experience has been framed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a narrative of gratitude. He avers, however, that his present volume can only ?suggest the degree to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British policy towards refugees filtered down to people and institutions in a particular city and the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which local conditions reinforced \(or, less frequently, contradicted\) its messages? \(p. 7\). While one might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have wished Williams to have countered such prevailing narratives more explicitly, his modest goal is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably achieved in the chapters that follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of necessity, any volume dealing with refugees from European fascism will be primarily about its Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims, and as the quotation in the title suggest, this is the case here. Only three of its 23 chapters chronicle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to non-Jewish victims of fascism, though the chapter on the Basque children, at 44 pages, is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longest one in the entire book. This chapter stands alone in both structure and content, and serves as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of Williams at his best. It also provides a glimpse of what he might have achieved had he chosen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take the same approach consistently throughout the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A brief introduction to the subject contextualizes the crisis, and here Williams deftly weaves the Manchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction to the plight of the Basque children into the larger national conversation and its notions of Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian tradition. This chapter is subdivided into sections, the first few of which are mostly expository. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those that follow analyse the responses of the Manchester region to the Basque crisis and cite these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions within a national framework. The final subsection, ?Jews and Basques? skilfully juxtaposes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to two of the victim groups whose experiences are detailed in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conclusion Williams draws is that the Basque children enjoyed a broad civic response, both moral and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial, ?that had no equivalent in the case of Jewish refugees? \(p.129\). This is explained in part, Williams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts, because \(unlike most of the Jewish refugees at that point\) these victims were ?innocent? working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class children, who arrived unencumbered by stereotypes and prejudices of the kind that accompanied adult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish refugees. He also demonstrates that even at this late date, widespread revulsion for Nazi Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had yet to take hold in Britain. Included in this section are astonishing details of Manchester middle-class )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.9957 600.3175 226.9877 612.1975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.6157 600.3175 462.6077 612.1975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6101 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism in Nazi Germany in 1937 as well as the spectre of Hitler Youth groups invited to tour England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given public opportunities in Manchester to defend the regime?s dismissal of Jewish staff from German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Counter-intuitively, one of the groups least engaged with the rescue of Basque children the author claims, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were Manchester?s Communists. The preference of the Communist Party of Great Britain, in Williams? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment, was for ?propaganda over action? and they were ?no more than articulate and sympathetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observers? throughout the period of refugee arrivals in the 1930s \(p. 131?2\). This was true even in respect to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees from the German Communist Party, the KPD, whose arrival via Czechoslovakia was largely aided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Quakers. The establishment of a branch of the KPD in Manchester is the subject of one of the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating chapters in this volume. Their largely covert activities provide one of the few examples of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugee group organizing successfully to effect the escape of their fellow victims.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Illuminating the experiences of and responses to these far less well known refugee groups makes up only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small fraction of the entire study, however. Most of the chapters are, understandably, devoted to Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of fascism. Even here, however, Williams covers new ground. In addition to outlining the rescue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of better known groups such as the Quakers, he also surveys the actions of Manchester?s other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian communities including Catholics and Lutherans, the city?s business and academic communities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and civic groups such as the Rotarians. His decision to focus on a single metropolitan region enables the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author to bring to public attention the philanthropic and humanitarian efforts of a range of organizations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals whose efforts have never before been chronicled in this way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within each of these chapters, varying in length from a few to 30 or more pages, Williams introduces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to the leading figures, gives a brief contextualizing history and describes the scope of rescue efforts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We learn, for example, that Manchester University offered a total of 33 temporary academic posts to Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugee scholars between 1933 and 1942, and that the Lancashire Industrial Development Council was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental in attracting several refugee industrialists and their German expertise to the area. This is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly the first study in the field to document the relief efforts of a local branch of the Rotary Club )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International which established and maintained a refugee hostel for Jewish boys in Manchester. This hostel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only functioned for a few months, however, and was forced to close in 1940 when its occupants, Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleeing Nazi oppression, were interned by the British government as enemy aliens.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Putting the rescue efforts of a single locality under the microscope allows for a much more detailed study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Jewish actions than has previously been attempted. Earlier studies have interrogated the divisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among British Jewry and their effect on the rescue of endangered European Jews. Most of these, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have tended to concentrate on the Anglo-Jewish elite, who had access to the corridors of power, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflate Anglo-Jewry?s actions on behalf of refugees. None have so thoroughly investigated the many and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varied efforts undertaken by a well-established, often orthodox Jewish middle class, which in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester was a substantial and activist constituency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context Williams introduces several remarkable Jewish philanthropists whose financial and spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generosity helped Manchester support one of the largest Jewish refugee communities in the country. Outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Manchester, few will have heard of men like Eli Fox, Adolph Cassel, Arthur Kershaw or the Livingstone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family of Southport, all of whom purchased or donated homes and property for the establishment of refugee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostels. He even devotes a chapter to the activities of a unique Mancunian, Lionel Cowan, a Jew by birth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who became an activist Quaker and who worked tirelessly for refugees, raising money, finding homes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantees, teaching English and organizing a hostel)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7134 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to this, Williams devotes chapters to the rescue efforts of individual Jewish communities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations such as the Stockport Hebrew Congregation, the Women?s Lodge of B?Nai Brith, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester Yeshiva, all of which supported and maintained refugees in hostels and schools. Coordinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of these efforts was the Manchester Jewish Refugees Committee, whose work was overseen by Nathan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laski, president of Manchester?s Jewish Representative Council for most of the 1930s and who worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely with the main Jewish refugee organizations in London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams turns a critical eye to Laski?s influence over the recue and relief activities of Manchester?s Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. He places Laski squarely among the ?deferential, even apologetic, and certainly cautious? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13\) Anglo-Jewish elite whose attitudes towards the rescue of Jews from Nazi Europe was informed by fears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of disturbing the hard-won equilibrium that had been established between Jewish and non-Jewish Britain by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arousing anti-Semitic feeling in the population. These concerns led the Representative Council to jealously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guard its authority over rescue and relief activities, and it gave no official sanction or support for initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts in the early 1930s by individuals like Isidore Apfelbaum, and groups such as the Women?s Lodge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B?nai Brith. Laski?s concern for the communal reputation blunted his ability to publicly express his personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anguish over the plight of German Jewry, seriously limiting the rescue efforts that might have been achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1938. Williams concludes that Laski was so hamstrung by his sense of loyalty to larger British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectives that it was not until after the shock of the Anschluss and )] TJ ET BT 358.316 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kristallnacht )] TJ ET BT 424.664 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he was able to give a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full throated plea for a more liberal immigration policy for Jewish refugees.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the same way that Williams has been able to document the range of responses to Jewish refugees, he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this volume been able to make more detailed distinctions among the many refugees seeking admittance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the UK. Manchester?s efforts on behalf of Jewish refugee academics, scientists and scholars, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children brought by the )] TJ ET BT 149.336 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kindertransports)] TJ ET BT 232.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are well covered in this volume. Britain?s response to these groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been well documented in other studies, but less well known, and also documented here, are the ultra-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox refugee children, rescued by Dr Solomon Schonfeld, the young Zionists, brought to England to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farm communally in preparation for immigration to Palestine, the Yeshiva students, the Jewish aged, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch ?War refugees? ? youngsters brought to England in 1940.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several chapters on the )] TJ ET BT 148.652 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kindertransports)] TJ ET BT 231.332 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( highlight one notable limitation in his coverage. Only the refugee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostel experience is explored here, leaving out the placement of scores of children in private foster homes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The hostel experience was not a universal one, as might seem the case in this reading, and it is certain that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the over 800 children placed in the Manchester region, many were living in private homes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers who expect Williams to knit all these disparate elements together into one flowing narrative may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointed. These are, for all intents and purposes, stand-alone chapters. To be sure, a few ubiquitous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mancunians such as Nathan Laski reappear frequently, but no strong, central argument ties the 23 chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together. This, however, is not necessarily a criticism of the book. Williams perceived it as his remit to piece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together the puzzle of Manchester?s broad and varied response to the refugee crisis of the 1930s and it is this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thread that connects the parts together. When viewed as a collection of essays, Williams? study functions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beautifully as a reference work, and the wealth and scope of material here more than makes up for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficits in cohesion and flow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His long association with Manchester and its history has enabled Bill Williams to marshal an impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(array of public archival and private sources, including interviews, oral histories and unpublished memoirs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Structurally, the only disappointment is the index. A volume of such astonishingly detailed information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves a much more comprehensive and thorough index, especially given the fact that it is bound to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used as a reference work by many scholars. Additionally, since Williams makes a concerted effort to locate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reception centres, synagogues, Jewish neighbourhoods, hostels and businesses geographically in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region, those readers unfamiliar with Manchester and its environs would have been well served with a map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or two.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The more serious concern is Williams? hesitancy to engage more directly with the national question of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 4717 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s response to the refugees of the 1930s. His brief but incisive introduction addressing the lens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gratitude through which the refugees? experience has been persistently viewed, his sharp critique of Laski?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeasement and control, and his short conclusion which makes some imaginative and provocative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations about various groups? motivations for rescue, all hint at the directions Williams could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ventured into had he been so inclined. Broad conclusions are never definitively drawn from this study, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the Manchester region, with its 8,000 refugees, might justifiably have been used as a case study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through which to examine the wider national response.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams? strength is his facility in wrestling an incredible amount of detail into manageable chunks, but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely leaves the reader to make up his or her own mind. The impression one is left with at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is that the overall response of Manchester was an uneven mixture of generosity and timidity. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one hand, individual Mancunians and religious, civic and academic groups in Manchester demonstrated a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable humanitarian willingness to financially, morally and physically support refugees. On the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, the relative paucity of academic posts offered by the University, the almost complete absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response by Christian groups other than the Quakers, the ugly undercurrent of anti-Semitism in the Rotary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Club, and the diffidence of the Jewish leadership in the years before 1938, all complicate the picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With his encyclopaedic knowledge of Manchester, its history and its personalities, Williams might have used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his wealth of material to engage more explicitly with the larger national response to the victims of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascism. However, the distinctiveness of this work is indisputable and it sets the standard for a new kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(micro-historical approach to the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Association of Jewish Refugees, )] TJ ET BT 244.652 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s New Citizens: The Story of Refugees from Germany )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Austria, )] TJ ET BT 126.356 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1951\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.680 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.680 434.691 m 258.668 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Bentwich, )] TJ ET BT 130.676 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rescue and Achievement of Refugee Scholars)] TJ ET BT 369.956 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(; The Story of Displaced Scholars and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scientists 1933?1952 )] TJ ET BT 169.352 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(The Hague, 1953\))] TJ ET BT 263.324 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 283.652 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(They Found Refuge: An Account of British Jewry?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Work for Victims of Nazi Oppression)] TJ ET BT 241.688 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 1956\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.012 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.012 391.923 m 380.000 391.923 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 376.591 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 358.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 358.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1217)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 357.417 m 328.316 357.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 332.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/8321)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.6797 435.0055 258.6677 446.8855 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.0117 392.2375 379.9997 404.1175 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 357.7315 328.3157 369.6115 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1217) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000610 00000 n 0000000692 00000 n 0000003302 00000 n 0000003411 00000 n 0000003521 00000 n 0000003630 00000 n 0000007191 00000 n 0000007319 00000 n 0000007403 00000 n 0000007494 00000 n 0000015215 00000 n 0000015245 00000 n 0000015373 00000 n 0000015409 00000 n 0000015439 00000 n 0000015567 00000 n 0000015603 00000 n 0000015668 00000 n 0000021822 00000 n 0000021887 00000 n 0000029074 00000 n 0000029172 00000 n 0000033942 00000 n 0000034070 00000 n 0000034125 00000 n 0000034253 00000 n 0000034308 00000 n 0000034436 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34532 %%EOF