%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 33 0 R 38 0 R 46 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818104206+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818104206+01'00') /Title (The Wars of the Roses) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4119 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Wars of the Roses)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Hicks?s new book on the Wars of the Roses seeks to offer a general explanation of the civil wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that dominated English political life in the second half of the 15th century. Declaring that ?many textbooks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Late Medieval England have been written by the best academic historians and survey what happened, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet they still do not explain the Wars? \(p. x\), Hicks sets out to offer an account of why the Wars broke out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why they kept recurring, and why they came to an end. This requires him to re-tell the story, but within an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical framework \(more than one, in fact\). The resulting book presents a series of perspectives that will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already be familiar to readers of Professor Hicks?s numerous books and articles; it may not succeed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing the overall explanation for the Wars that Hicks thinks is lacking in the existing literature, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does present a series of propositions, it gives emphasis to themes which have often been underplayed, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes a distinctive view of the reign of Henry VI, which ? as one of the puffs on the dust-jacket notes ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?challenge[s] current orthodoxy?. While it is simply untrue that the many existing treatments of the Wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have failed to explain them, this book contains a number of thought-provoking insights and some interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bits of information.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hicks?s account of the Wars, to take that first, is skewed towards a revisionist analysis of Henry VI?s reign, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which occupies six of the nine or ten narrative chapters. Its argument is that Henry was a pretty normal king, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlucky in his circumstances ? economic crisis, inadequate financing, an unwinnable war in France ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1218)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Hicks)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300114232)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Watts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7980 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretty decently committed to ruling consultatively and doing justice. He was too forgiving to the Yorkists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but so were most of the lords, and neither he nor his ministers deserved the prolonged onslaught which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began with Cade?s rebellion, but was then picked up by the bullying York and his various allies. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubles to which the Yorkists claimed to be responding were the products of their own actions or of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmanageable external causes; the reforms they introduced, before and after 1461, did not effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address these causes and England remained an unhappy country, at least until the 1470s. Hicks?s treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Yorkist kings is pretty conventional and short \(only about a quarter of the book is devoted to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central period of the Wars\). Edward IV, ?indolent and self-indulgent? \(p. 187\), but also ?vigorous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable? \(p. 187\), enjoyed appropriately mixed success; while he failed to reform the realm and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained vulnerable to assault, he somehow won through in the crisis of 1469?71 and restored control in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second reign; Warwick?s assault on Edward, whose origins lay in the Woodville marriage, was mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selfish and ambitious, but there was plenty of popular support for the Earl and many found Henry VI a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate claimant than his supplanter. Richard III?s usurpation was uncalled for \(though Hicks complicates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reasonable claim by asserting that before Richard acted the Woodvilles had launched a kind of ?coup )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d?tat?, denying the duke the protectorate which Edward IV had probably conferred on him and planning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(govern through the young Edward V ? p. 217\). By this time, the Wars had lost much of their public character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?This Third War became purely dynastic. An important theme was North versus South? ? p. 208\), but many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the aristocracy were horrified by Richard?s actions and rose against him, ultimately successfully. Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VII?s main problem was foreign-backed pretenders, and, while the obnoxious features of his rule provoked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular opposition, this was only rarely and fleetingly joined to the activities of magnates. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king launched a vigorous propaganda campaign, restored the finances of the monarchy and benefited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from improving economic, diplomatic and ideological conditions. The Wars were at an end, though Hicks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to suggest that even up to 1525, ?all governments ? remained weak and susceptible to overthrow? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(233\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It?s hard not to feel that this account suffers a little from conflicting aims. On the one hand, Hicks wants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance a thesis and to take issue with the copious literature on the Wars; on the other, he wants to present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an up-to-date textbook narrative, drawing on the work of other scholars as well as his own extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research. At times, the narrative is interrupted for argumentation or analysis \(?The root problem was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fivefold? ? p. 224\), but in other places matters of lively debate among historians ? such as the background to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard III?s usurpation ? are presented without reference to dissenting views. On the whole, Hicks absorbs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points of view that he has come to agree with ? sometimes without acknowledgement ? and signals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreement in the footnotes, not always with any argument to support his position. This can leave the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly reader feeling roughly treated, while the general reader ? to whom the publishers are apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to appeal ? may find the format distracting. In fact, the earlier parts of the book are much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherently argumentative than the later ones: Hicks?s case for Henry VI as a more or less normal king is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed with verve and fresh research ? most notably on the king?s judicial activity in the 1440s, early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1450s and even later 1450s; but there is less new thinking on the Yorkist period, and both the diction and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis become more uneven as the book moves into the reign of Henry VII and its aftermath.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us turn to Hicks?s attempt to ?make sense of it all? \(p. xi\). At its centre is a claim that the interaction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four factors underlay the Wars. These were: the weakness of the crown \(essentially a financial weakness\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the participation of the common people in politics; the intervention of foreign powers; and the sense on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the nobility that it was legitimate to try to overthrow the king. In fact, there are other problems behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these. One, given emphasis throughout, is the varied set of economic problems that set in around 1440 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lasted perhaps into the 1470s, which Hicks, following John Hatcher, but adding capitals and italics, calls the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 39.344 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Great Slump)] TJ ET BT 100.340 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.668 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.668 143.811 m 122.660 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 122.660 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These problems ? a credit crisis, a drastic fall in overseas trade, and a collapse in agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenues, rents, wages and prices ? are treated as major causes of the first two factors: the crown?s revenues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from customs were directly affected, and ? since impoverishment affected taxpayers of all classes ? it faced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harder task in eliciting grants of direct taxation from Parliament; equally, it is argued that economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems underlay much of the popular ferment of this period, helping to cause the revolt of 1450 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservoir of popular disaffection on which figures like Richard of York and Warwick the Kingmaker eagerly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drew. Another problem, merging into but also influencing the willingness of the nobility to push the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 108.6677 144.1255 122.6597 156.0055 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8470 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of their obedience, was the dynastic division ? not, for Hicks, a real factor before 1460, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereafter an easy and persistent means of challenging the authority of the ruling king. These four \(or six\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors are the main causes of the Wars, and their departure from the scene, at various points during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period 1485?1525 \(or later\), explains the ending of the conflict. Rather confusingly, this interpretative model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is then overlain with another one, borrowed from Laurence Stone, but already familiar to students of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wars of the Roses, featuring ?preconditions?, ?precipitants? and ?triggers?. This latter framework is initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained with some doggedness and provides the theme for chapters five to eight \(though not, curiously, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for chapter four on ?Problems with the system?\), but it fades away after that, ?precipitants? being limited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Yorkist uprising of the autumn of 1459 and ?triggers? to York?s assertion of his claim to the throne, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death at Wakefield and the decision of the remaining Yorkists to crown his son in early March 1461. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be forgiven for thinking that the Wars were well underway by this point, but Hicks?s re-working of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the well-established notion that there were really three ?Wars of the Roses? contains some novel dates: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First War does not begin until four years after the 1455 battle of St Albans \(and ends in 1461\), the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as usual\) is 1469-71 and the Third, most uncommonly, is 1483?1525 \(though 1485?1525 is also the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ?Ending of the Wars?\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Set against existing explanations of the Wars of the Roses, Hicks?s account has some strengths, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many weaknesses. Like many before him, he offers a mixture of more fundamental and more proximate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causes, the latter including matters of mere contingency, but it seems to the present reviewer that he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconcile these as skilfully as some earlier historians. For K. B. McFarlane, writing in the 1960s, the Wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broke out because of the inability of Henry VI to manage an essentially stable system of relations between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king and the aristocracy; they persisted because the series of usurpers that followed were initially unable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to guarantee landowners the security that they needed; whether York, Warwick and Gloucester were right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebel against Henry VI, Edward IV and Henry VII, McFarlane regards as moot, given our evidence, but we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can readily understand why they did so, and also why some followed them and others did not.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.628 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.628 455.187 m 498.620 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 498.620 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation that effectively locates the role of individuals in a structural setting; it is accomplished in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterly thirty pages; and, despite some limitations, it is still the best short explanation of the Wars. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Pollard, whose very deft and even-handed textbook account has been re-issued twice, the Wars stem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from underlying weaknesses in the political system: essentially a gap between the expectations and agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of subjects, on the one hand, and the capacity of the government to deliver what they wanted, on the other.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 545.588 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 545.588 383.907 m 559.580 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this gap could and did widen for a series of reasons more local to the later 15th century \(defeat in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, fiscal and economic problems, a dynastic cleavage, a notably incompetent ruler in the 1450s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably shrewd ones after 1485\), it was the underlying cause of the Wars, as it was also ? )] TJ ET BT 465.260 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mutatis mutandis)] TJ ET BT 547.604 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the troubles of 1370?1410 and perhaps 1547?53; Henry VI, Warwick, Richard III, Henry VII all have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts to play, but there is a deeper logic to events. In a third major modern explanation of the Wars ? one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged as such by Hicks on p. x, though dismissed as just saying what happened on p. 20 ? Christine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carpenter has argued that, while there was nothing wrong with the political system, its particular way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlisting both public and private power, especially that of the aristocracy, explains why the personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequacy of Henry VI had such dramatic and lasting consequences.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.928 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.928 255.603 m 381.920 255.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 381.920 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In Carpenter?s account, the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a fundamental role to play in balancing and merging the different elements in the constitution; if he did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not make authoritative decisions and provide the right kind of leadership in the spheres of justice and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence, disorder and division were inevitable; if he was not the sole convincing claimant to royal authority, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Edward IV \(until 1471\), Edward V and Richard III were not, then he could not easily provide that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership, though there was no need, in Carpenter?s view, for the unwise actions of Warwick, Gloucester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Henry VII, which played their own parts in prolonging the conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So here are three prominent and clear overall explanations of the Wars of the Roses, and beside them lies a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich body of writing providing partial explanations of the Wars, whether thematic ? such as Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britnell?s treatment of the economy, Cliff Davies?s account of the European context, my own work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political ideas and principles, or \(along with David Grummitt and others\) on popular politics ? or specific to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular stages of the conflict, notably its origins under Henry VI and its re-emergence under Richard III.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.560 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.560 86.787 m 560.552 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hicks very decently acknowledges his debt to this extensive body of work in his preface and that debt is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear in the four \(or six\) underlying causes of the Wars that he identifies. How well, then, does his new )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.6277 455.5015 498.6197 467.3815 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 545.5877 384.2215 559.5797 396.1015 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.9277 255.9175 381.9197 267.7975 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.5597 87.1015 560.5517 98.9815 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7873 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation fare against earlier ones?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are potential gains, it seems to me, in the prominence given to economic conditions, to the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas intervention and to the role of popular politics in interpreting the Wars. Older accounts have often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been too exclusively concerned with the dealings of England?s kings, lords and gentry, ignoring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction of these key groups with other elements in the polity, such as the commons, or with wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences, such as continental powers and networks and the movements of the economy. While Pollard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges these influences and Carpenter makes a case for why the politics of landowning should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered pre-eminent, Hicks brings them forward and that seems absolutely the right thing to do. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralph Griffiths and Richard Britnell before him, Hicks makes a compelling case for the sheer difficulty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facing the government of Henry VI, in particular, as both agrarian and commercial incomes were hit hard in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 1430s and 1440s; he also emphasises the role of economic problems in shaping the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontent of 1449?50 and 1469?70, discontent which played a fundamental role in enabling \(perhaps even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driving\) the critical actions of York and Warwick, with their manifold consequences. While Hicks?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the international context is less developed and closer to the norm, he has some useful things to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say about the interaction of English, French and Burgundian interests in the politics of the 1480s and 1490s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provides a good account of the subsequent turning of Valois and Habsburg energies away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs of England and towards a new front line in Italy. There is no question that the Wars need opening out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this kind of way ? and indeed, there are good grounds for wanting to see other groups and contexts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought into consideration: the role of England?s towns, for instance, still woefully under-explored; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of Ireland, which were so important in the 1480s and 1490s and arguably at other times as well; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of the various cultural changes of the era ? printing, neo-classicism, changes in education and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is an unfortunate by-product of the broadening of the agenda, which Hicks rightly adopts and promotes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that one immediately wants to know more about the ?newer? factors in the story, and how they fit in with, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and weigh up against, the more familiar politics of kings and landowners. Here the book is disappointing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in two ways. First of all, there is not much detailed or systematic analysis of how an appreciation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic situation ? in all its diverse forms ? or the participation of the commons \(a highly diverse group\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the diplomatic context \(multi-faceted and complex\) should be brought to bear on the political story. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps this is another facet of the dual aims discussed above, but it is a regrettable one for academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers. The late medieval economy is and was both incompletely understood and highly intricate: assessing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its political impact is no easy task. Falling agricultural prices hit producers, but they benefited consumers: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what did this mean for taxpayers? Wages stagnated too, of course, but was this more or less than prices? Any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic change is likely to produce winners as well as losers; its effects will therefore need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculated with some care, particularly in a polity where the total tax-take is estimated to have been never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than 3.5 per cent of national output.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.988 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.988 286.371 m 246.980 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 246.980 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It seems almost undeniable that there was a significant slump in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade in the 1440s, but how much are the customs data affected by the government?s readiness to grant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(licences to export outside the Staple, or by a general breakdown of fiscal administration? MPs were probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwilling to make grants in the 1430s and 1440s, but was this because of economic conditions or because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a lack of confidence in an over-indebted and directionless regime? As far as we know, Henry VI?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government did not ask for more than it got: there is no evidence of the king attempting to raise large sums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Parliament to support a major expedition, and no sign of the kind of fiscal pressure that Edward III, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry V, or even Edward IV and Henry VII laid on representatives. Why should taxpayers dig deep if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government was unwilling to force them to do so? And why should they support the defence of France or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seas if the king himself showed no interest in doing so? Why could Edward IV get grants of two tenths and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15ths in 1468 \(or four in 1472?5\) when Henry VI could not in any comparable period of his reign? After all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?)] TJ ET BT 57.008 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Great Slump)] TJ ET BT 118.004 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? was apparently still continuing. None of these questions is easy to answer, but if we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going to insist that the economy was a major influence on the politics of the period, we need to work out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly how, and how much. The same kind of approach needs to be taken with the international context or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the participation of the commons in politics. The former seems to me a much more central factor in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of the 1460s than existing accounts allow, reaching more deeply into the fabric of English political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life than is suggested by the familiar view of a disagreement between Warwick and Edward over foreign )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.9877 286.6855 246.9797 298.5655 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8049 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy. Meanwhile, as far as popular activism is concerned, Hicks represents it as a new phenomenon in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1450, oddly overlooking the impact of 1381 on the politics of Richard II?s reign or the interweaving of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular and aristocratic dissent under Henry IV. But again, while it is surely right to signal the intensity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these kinds of interactions in the 1450s and 1460s, there is a lot of thinking for us all to do on how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked and what they meant. Hicks tends to present York and Warwick as rabble-rousers, but if there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistent undercurrent of popular dissatisfaction, would not great men like these have felt some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility to pay attention to it? As I and others have argued elsewhere, later medieval England was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly representative polity, and the behaviour of its politicians was highly conditioned by the demands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who could claim, and act, to represent the commune.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.968 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.968 681.027 m 329.960 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 329.960 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( We can certainly point to examples of York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Warwick attempting to appropriate popular grievances and/or to stir them up, but we have to recognise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the views of the commons were an insistent pressure on the thoughts and actions of these men, as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were for others, positioned differently in the spheres of politics and government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads on to a more general criticism of Hicks?s handling of his explanatory factors. They tend to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated singly and/or adventitiously, rather than combined with one another and kept in play over time. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are encouraged to believe that the governments of Henry VI and Edward IV were weakened by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and fiscal circumstances, but the readiness of Richard of York or Warwick the Kingmaker to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge these governments is treated as a further \(and implicitly autonomous\) weakness, rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response. In Hicks?s account York is substantially the cause of the many troubles of which he complains; he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is animated by ambition and his protests against Henry VI?s ministers are calculated and spurious. Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warwick has no real justification for his risings in 1469 and 1470: he is just another over-mighty subject. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, while Hicks is at pains to restore Henry VI?s reputation, he does not deny that he and his ministers lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and were seriously indebted, or even \(in places ? eg. p. 136\) that he was a distinctly lacklustre ruler. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does this state of affairs not supply a reason for York?s behaviour? And surely the same could be said of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warwick, particularly on the evidence that Hicks supplies ? he sees Edward as disappointing expectations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levying too much tax, conducting an over-ambitious and foolhardy foreign policy, failing to address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mounting economic problems and presiding over a realm full of potential Lancastrians, some of whom were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning to take subversive action by the end of the 1460s. Under these circumstances, isn?t it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable that Warwick took the action he did? Like other historians of the period, Hicks identifies a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension between the duty of obedience to the king and the claims of the common weal; to this he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptively adds a willingness on the part of Henry VI and Edward IV to pardon the misdemeanours of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their greatest subjects. But are these not explanations for the behaviour of York, Warwick and Richard of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gloucester, which is otherwise condemned as stemming from over-mightiness? And if they were more brutal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than their opponents, as Hicks insists, was this not because they took a more dangerous path by preferring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action to passive obedience? It is a striking feature of Hicks?s analysis that he is generally willing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exonerate Henry VI by putting his weaknesses down to external causes, while all his opponents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors are held personally responsible for what they did. In this way, a book which ostensibly sets out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural causes for the civil wars tends instead to emphasise the personal failings of a generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians \(rather than the failings of one unusual but uniquely positioned man ? Henry of Windsor ? as has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more commonly been the case\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reconciling the personal with the structural is, of course, one of the great challenges facing all historians; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deciding what the ?structures? are ? what is cause and what symptom ? and establishing how these structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fit together is not easy either. These tasks are all the harder given the norms of 15th-century history, when so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much public power was mediated through individuals, and when the source-base is so challenging ? as J. R. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lander evocatively put it, ?shreds and tatters and wisps of information? on political affairs, combined with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unalluring ? miles of parchment? illustrating the activity of the royal administration.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.312 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.312 143.811 m 457.304 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 457.304 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hicks?s factors are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unexceptionable in themselves, but most of them are also products of the phenomenon they are supposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be causing. One of the lessons of later medieval history is that those features of the later medieval English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity that contributed to its strength in periods of political harmony ? its ambitious legal system, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(openness to communal representation, its reliance on consensual taxation, its ultimate dependence on a free-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wheeling king and his free-form relationships with a few dozen important people ? deepened its difficulties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when that harmony was lost. It is worth remembering that the Wars of the Roses were not the first prolonged )] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.9677 681.3415 329.9597 693.2215 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.3117 144.1255 457.3037 156.0055 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 8490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sequence of later medieval troubles, but the second, comparable to the series of disorders that unfurled in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1370s and lasted in one way or another until the 1410s. Once serious divisions had broken out at the top of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, as they certainly had by the early 1450s, if not earlier, it was very difficult to reassemble a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing and representative authority. The Wars of the Roses were both part of that process and a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to it; they changed and ended, not because the original causes had gone away, but because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces of potential resolution ? the tenurial dominance of the crown, the disruption of descents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic ties, the changing ideologies of power and so on ? eventually found a kind of equilibrium in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed political order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Hatcher, ?The great slump of the mid-15th century?, in )] TJ ET BT 342.296 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Progress and Problems in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Britnell and J. Hatcher \(Cambridge, 1996\), 237?72.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.644 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.644 615.507 m 402.632 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. B. McFarlane, ?The Wars of the Roses?, in idem, )] TJ ET BT 318.968 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England in the 15th Century)] TJ ET BT 455.636 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1981\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(231?61.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 586.995 m 156.332 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. J. Pollard, )] TJ ET BT 130.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wars of the Roses)] TJ ET BT 237.344 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(2nd ed., Basingstoke, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.332 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.332 572.739 m 438.320 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Carpenter, )] TJ ET BT 131.336 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, c.1437?1509)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 544.227 m 212.324 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the first three, see )] TJ ET BT 171.992 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wars of the Roses)] TJ ET BT 279.320 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. J. Pollard, Problems in Focus ser. \(Basingstoke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\). For the popular role in the Wars, see, )] TJ ET BT 279.308 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 323.648 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, J. Watts, ?Polemic and politics in the 1450s?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 76.352 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of 15th-Century England: John Vale?s Book)] TJ ET BT 350.672 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. L. Kekewich et al \(Stroud, 1995\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 3?42; I. M. W. Harvey, ?I. M. W. Harvey, ?Was there popular politics in 15th-century England?? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in The )] TJ ET BT 98.012 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(McFarlane Legacy)] TJ ET BT 189.656 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Britnell and A. J. Pollard \(Stroud, 1995\), pp. 155?74; D. Grummitt, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Deconstructing Cade?s rebellion: discourse and politics in the mid-15th century?, in )] TJ ET BT 475.964 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The 15th )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century VI)] TJ ET BT 117.008 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. L. Clark \(Woodbridge, 2006\), 107?22. For works which seek to explain why the wars )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broke out under Henry VI, see especially B. P. Wolffe, )] TJ ET BT 330.620 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry VI)] TJ ET BT 374.936 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1981\) and J. Watts, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry VI and the Politics of Kingship)] TJ ET BT 245.348 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1996\)and for why they began again under Richard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(III, R. Horrox, )] TJ ET BT 136.664 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Richard III: a Study in Service)] TJ ET BT 283.628 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.948 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.948 401.667 m 434.936 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Figures by kind permission of Mark Ormrod, included in his forthcoming paper on ?Henry V and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English taxpayer?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.332 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.332 373.155 m 207.320 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 360.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a central argument of )] TJ ET BT 204.656 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry VI and the Politics of Kingship)] TJ ET BT 385.988 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and, in a different way, of ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure of the public on later medieval politics?, in )] TJ ET BT 315.980 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The 15th Century IV)] TJ ET BT 414.308 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. L. Clark and C. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carpenter \(Woodbridge, 2004\). A work which goes even further in this direction is D. Rollison, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 216.008 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.328 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.328 316.131 m 367.316 316.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 303.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. R. Lander, )] TJ ET BT 128.672 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflict and Stability in 15th-Century England)] TJ ET BT 354.356 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1969\), pp. 18, 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.680 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.680 301.875 m 543.668 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For those interested in further discussion of this topic, here's an interesting blog post by David Rundle which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was prompted by this review - )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 182.660 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://bonaelitterae.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/never-mind-the-book-read-the-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 182.660 261.363 m 559.928 261.363 l S BT 34.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 247.107 m 70.004 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 73.004 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 86.996 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 231.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 213.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 213.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1218)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 212.601 m 328.316 212.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/8323)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://bonaelitterae.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/never-mind-the-book-read-the-review/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.6437 615.8215 402.6317 627.7015 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 587.3095 156.3317 599.1895 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type 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