%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723002400+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723002400+01'00') /Title (Public Issue Radio: Talks, News and Current Affairs in the Twentieth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3939 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Public Issue Radio: Talks, News and Current Affairs in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Chignell?s well-researched volume tells the story of the development of current affairs programming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on British radio, which, we learn, is inextricably tied to the ?painfully slow development of news? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programming on the BBC. To explain the significance of the separation and elaboration of these two forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of broadcasting, Chignell begins with the Victorian ?rigid class hierarchies?\(p. 16\) separating mere )] TJ ET BT 512.924 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reporters)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(who dutifully wired the raw facts of unfolding events on the front lines\) from highly educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(correspondents)] TJ ET BT 108.008 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(who sent their reflective and more subjective pieces by post\) \(p. 16\). This sharp distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between news and current affairs was unique to the British system and, Chignell argues, it influenced ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape and nature of public issue radio for the rest of the century? \(p. 20\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, like many distinctions and hierarchies of the Victorian era, the ones that shaped the origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC?s approach to news and commentary were in for a series of shocks and ironic challenges throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century. Under John Reith, the BBC?s first and iconic leader, the Victorian disdain for journalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and for the newspapers? tendency towards scandal, hyperbole, and excess\) meant that what would become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the foremost journalistic organizations of the century began with a rather anemic news operation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1219)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Chignell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230247390)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jason Loviglio)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6957 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another irony, Chignell calls it an ?unintended consequence?, was that the early Reithian imperative to air )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the best that has been thought and said? on the network gave a soapbox to members of Britain?s cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite, many of whom held ? and expressed ? ?dangerously radical views?. Prominent figures like H. G. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wells, George Bernard Shaw and Leonard Woolf, ?who were variously socialist, communist, pacifist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atheist, and who held views almost completely at odds with Reith?s own beliefs?, took to the air in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days of the BBC ?Talks? \(p. 28\). The tug-of-war between conflicting imperatives is inevitable in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution as large, as consequential, and as closely identified with both a government and a people as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC became. For ?the most famous cultural institution in the world? these struggles comprise a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter of the history of the 20th century \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The splitting of Talks and News into distinct departments began in 1935, and led to the creation of ?separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures and identities? whose impact can still be felt. In 1935, this separation came during a shift to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative rule in the government and thus in the possibilities of BBC?s programming. American readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this book will perhaps be surprised to learn that the NPR \(National Public Radio\)?s 40 year history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fending off \(and also caving in to\) charges of ?left-wing bias? from conservative elements in the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the press has a precedent at the BBC starting as early as the 1930s \(p. 17\). ?The BBC was under constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure from the government ? and the right wing press? \(p. 26\). Despite the very real pressure exerted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from these quarters, and despite his own conservatism, Reith?s refusal to back down from airing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial broadcasts during the Great Depression provides for some dramatic scenes and challenges the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype of him and his network as stuffy and cautious. When summoned by Prime Minister Ramsay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacDonald and ordered by him to stop airing broadcasts featuring the voices and experiences of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployed:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reith responded by acknowledging that the government had the power to do this but that if they did he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would, ?at that time in the schedule when the talks should be given, instruct the announcer to declare that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next twenty minutes would be silent because the Government had refused to allow the unemployed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express their views?. The series continued \(p. 23\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Talks department, chivvied by political pressure and by an institutional ?anxiety? regarding the airing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial matters, shied away from covering some of the most urgent matters in foreign affairs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic affairs in the 1930s. Thus the British listening public had little exposure to the brewing calamities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Spain and Germany and, after 1935, to the voices and experiences of those at home suffering the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Depression. This problem was most urgent, of course, in the case of the rise of Nazi Germany. ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension between the growing German threat on the one hand, and the peace-making, official policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeasement on the other, placed the BBC in an almost impossible position? \(p. 27\). Remarkably, as late as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1939, the network was fending off charges of being ?alarmist, sensational, and rumour-mongering?, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regards the threat from Germany. Like so many conventions and traditions, the BBC?s Arnoldian notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and its reluctance to develop a full complement of news-gathering reporters, were confronted by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented urgency of the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chignell tracks News and Talks through the next several decades, measuring the effect of ?personal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional and cultural? forces on their separate, but linked, evolution into the modern versions we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today. Chignell?s attention to the personal forces that shaped the news and commentary of the BBC ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later, of local, independent, and commercial broadcasters ? is deftly woven into the larger institutional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural context. In this way, we come to know the people behind the programming as actors working within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the constraints and opportunities of their place and time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers unfamiliar with the dramatis personae of the BBC will be struck by the remarkable number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, starting with Hilda Matheson, in critically important roles both in front of and behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(microphones of the BBC?s public affairs programming. Matheson, chosen by Reith to be the first Director of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Talks in the 1920s, epitomized the tension between cultural elitism and political radicalism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterized the early years of the network?s news and commentary. ?A political radical, a lesbian and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist?, Matheson was also spectacularly well connected to Britain?s literary elite, including Virginia )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7212 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woolf, E. M. Forster, and Wells, and brought them before the BBC?s microphones. It was Matheson who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought the ?intimate mode of address? to the BBC airwaves, supplanting the previous formal, declamatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the book moves chronologically through the 20th century, other key figures appear. Sir Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maconachie, who ran the Talks Department after the split of talks and news in 1936, was another key figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the evolution of the network?s coverage of important public affairs. His horror of controversy and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of bias, along with his disdain for journalism, \(all of which put him in the mainstream of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network at the time\), led him to the novel solution of broadcasting interviews with newsmakers. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interview provided a way of handling potentially controversial subjects, while shaping the future direction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the BBC?s coverage of news and public affairs for decades to come \(p. 19\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. B. Priestley, the popular novelist, playwright, and Second World War broadcaster also makes an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance in these pages, though it is the import of his radio talks ?as radio? that draws Chignell?s attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 43\). Priestly is to be remembered above all for ?the sound of his voice?, the intimacy of his tone, and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?soft Yorkshire accent, unusual of course in a BBC still dominated by southern middle-class accents? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45\). To an American historian of radio, the description of Priestley?s contributions to wartime British radio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on )] TJ ET BT 49.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Postscripts)] TJ ET BT 102.356 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1940 and 1941 evokes nothing so much as the short-lived wartime broadcasts of Eleanor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roosevelt. In particular, Priestley?s political priorities evoke the 1940?1, )] TJ ET BT 387.308 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pan-American Coffee Hour)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcasts of Mrs. Roosevelt, with their emphasis on the importance of ?the people? in national life, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking forward to a more just post-war society, and the linking of the struggle against the Germans to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger struggle ?to bring into existence an order of society in which nobody will have far too many rooms in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a house and nobody have far too few? \(p. 47\). There are some striking stylistic similarities as well, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use of personal pronouns, \(?I wonder how many of you feel as I do?\) and the easy movement back and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forth from descriptions of war \(?a sky belching death?\) to the quotidian pleasures of the home front \(?the red )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(japonica or the cherry and almond blossom?\). Eleanor Roosevelt?s wartime radio career was cut short too, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victim of political foes in Congress, parallel to Priestley, who saw his regular gig on )] TJ ET BT 440.984 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Postscripts)] TJ ET BT 494.324 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cut short in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1941 by Churchill, or so he believed\(46?7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The account of Priestly?s unique contribution to the sound of the BBC serves as an excellent introduction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remarkable transformation of the network during the war. Despite a rocky start, the BBC?s reputation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news coverage was, by the end of the war, ?covered in glory.? The close identification between the network )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Great Britain intensified during the conflict, as wartime censorship narrowed the gap between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national interest and the BBC?s understanding of the public interest. During the worst of the crisis, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunes of the network seemed inextricable from those of the nation itself. Its coverage of D-Day, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, presented a challenge as daunting, in radio terms, as the invasion was in military terms. By the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year of the conflict, the BBC was the medium by which Britons came to understand the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massive growth in the news staff and structural changes to the network were instrumental in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation. From just two reporters before the war to the 19 who covered the D-Day landing, to the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recording technology, including portable disc recorders, the BBC invested heavily in the infrastructure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news. Under A. P. Ryan, a News Division was created that merged the older Talks and News and reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new urgency of informing the public rather than the older Reithian imperatives of ?mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programming?, and ?uplift? \(p. 49\). Chignell identifies other changes, including the rise of ?radio magazine? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formats, which would come to dominate the daytime schedule for many years. Also, the ?personalization? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the news, starting with Priestly?s commentaries, expanded to news presenters, in the name of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the pre-war BBC, it was an article of faith that news announcers should all sound the same and remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anonymous. But anxiety over the risk of enemy impersonators taking over the airwaves led to news )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(announces identifying themselves ? This identification allowed for greater intimacy between listener and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(announcer although it was of course true that they all sounded the same \(p. 53\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chronological structure of the book affords Chignell an opportunity to characterize the big changes in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6297 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radio formats, BBC departmental organization, and historical events that compel changes in coverage. But it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also tends toward oversimplification, especially in the later chapters, which are organized around a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade and single theme: decline in the post-war era, reinvention in the 60s, uncertainty in the 90s, and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forth. While these themes are often borne out in the excellent close readings of specific programs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenters, they also have a tendency to narrow the complexity of influences ? personal, institutional, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural ? bearing on the changes being wrought in radio news and current affairs. In fact, the chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves often speak to this complexity, even at the cost of staying true to the theme and time period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapter title.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This ?schematic account?, as Chignell calls it, does usefully provide signal moments or historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?examinations? for the utility of various formats and approaches to the news and current affairs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The radio talk had its greatest examination, and its moment of glory, in the wartime radio talks of J. B. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Priestly. Much later in the century, Radio Four?s )] TJ ET BT 271.328 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Analysis)] TJ ET BT 311.996 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was tested by the rise of neoliberalism, and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At Home and Abroad)] TJ ET BT 136.340 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there was the greatest debacle of British foreign policy of the twentieth Century, Suez )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 72\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The crisis over the Suez Canal helped to bring about the end of the ?notorious Fourteen Day Rule, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prohibited the coverage of issues due to be debated in parliament in the following fortnight? \(p. 60\). It took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real historical crises, and the imperative to cover them, to jettison the decades-old traditions and hesitancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that hampered the BBC?s development into a first-rate news broadcasting organization. The return of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division between News and Talks post-war, and the exceeding caution and aversion to controversy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tahu Hole era, is characterized as a period of ?decline?, which gives way, by the 1960s, to an era of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reinvention?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1970s, dubbed here ?The critical decade?, bring us another key figure, and another of the powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women who shaped the BBC during key moments of transformation in the network and in Britain at large. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Goldring, the Thatcheresque ? and perhaps Thatcherite ? presenter, then lead presenter, of the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs program )] TJ ET BT 111.320 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Analysis, )] TJ ET BT 157.988 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epitomizes the seriousness of this era in current affairs programming. Goldring, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who Chignell calls ?arguably the finest public affairs presenter of her generation,? helped to bring ?rigour? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the BBC airwaves in the late 1970s and early 1980s, along with a didactic tone and a hostility toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions, that seemed to evoke the Iron Lady herself. As with her predecessor at )] TJ ET BT 413.264 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Analysis)] TJ ET BT 453.932 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Ian McIntyre, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldring was granted latitude for her editorializing in part because of the high regard in which her intellect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was held, a ironic echo of the latitude granted to Matheson?s left-leaning commentators of an earlier era, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself an echo of the Victorian hierarchy, which granted the privilege of ?subjectivity? to the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondent but not to the workaday journalist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last decades of the 20th century gave rise to a whole welter of precedent-shattering experimentation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentation, as commercial stations, and Independent Local Radio, in particular, would introduce new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sounds to the news and current affairs airwaves in Britain, even as it put pressure on the BBC to innovate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reorganize in order to remain relevant. While these more recent changes will be more familiar to Britons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the earlier history, Chignell still manages to provide some provocative challenges to received wisdom: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Almost every significant change in the practice of radio news gathering in the final quarter of the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century was pioneered at LBC?. Such changes include ?radio phone-ins, vox pops, rolling news, the radio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telephone reportage, airborne traffic reports and parliamentary broadcasting?. Here, the influence on British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcasting from overseas, the US in particular, might have been given more than the few mentions it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receives.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2688 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Issue Radio: Talks, News and Current Affairs in the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 409.364 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tells an important story about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of the world?s most famous cultural institution. And it tells it in a highly readable way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linking the institution?s transformations to the turbulence of the century in which it developed and which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was obliged to understand and explain to Britons and, to some extent, the rest of the world. It is a worthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the growing shelf of recent work on the cultural import of the BBC, including David Hendy?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life on Air: A History of Radio Four)] TJ ET BT 210.356 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Michele Hilmes? )] TJ ET BT 322.004 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Network Nations: A Transnational History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British and American Broadcasting.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.016 697.539 m 222.008 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hendy, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life on Air: A History of Radio Four)] TJ ET BT 310.676 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2007\); Michele Hilmes, )] TJ ET BT 475.652 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Network )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nations: A Transnational History of British and American Broadcasting)] TJ ET BT 412.040 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.364 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.364 617.763 m 547.352 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am very pleased with this accurate and fair review and I do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 576.175 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 558.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 558.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1219)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 557.001 m 328.316 557.001 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 532.024 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 517.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/8325)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.0157 697.8535 222.0077 709.7335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.3637 618.0775 547.3517 629.9575 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 557.3155 328.3157 569.1955 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1219) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000004659 00000 n 0000004768 00000 n 0000004878 00000 n 0000004987 00000 n 0000008548 00000 n 0000008676 00000 n 0000008760 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000015835 00000 n 0000015900 00000 n 0000023165 00000 n 0000023230 00000 n 0000029580 00000 n 0000029678 00000 n 0000032419 00000 n 0000032449 00000 n 0000032577 00000 n 0000032613 00000 n 0000032741 00000 n 0000032796 00000 n 0000032924 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33020 %%EOF