%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150729233114+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150729233114+01'00') /Title (Darwin Online) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3902 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Darwin Online)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the wake of the 1909 centenary celebrations of his birth the )] TJ ET BT 334.616 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET BT 413.288 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( detected a changing mood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that made it ?probable? that Charles Darwin?s ?fame? had ?reached its acme?. Three years after his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bicentennial ? ?history?s biggest birthday party? as Steven Shapin described it ? no one is making similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predictions of an imminent decline of interest in Darwin. Quite the reverse, as the existence of these two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites under review indicates. The expectation is for a sustained and growing interest in Darwin and, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly, the processes by which he worked. To a degree the expectation will be self-fulfilling. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical research version of Say?s Law, the supply of primary source material by sites such as these will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create its own demand, a point to which we will return. But even in the absence of such projects Darwin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would continue to fascinate historians, not least because of the totemic status he has accrued in the largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internet-based controversies around Creationism and Intelligent Design. That the reclusive, respectable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfailingly polite Darwin has assumed such centrality in the no-holds barred bear-pit of the World Wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1221)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul White)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alison Pearn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Secord)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biodiversity Heritage Library)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biodiversity Heritage Library)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Stack)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8060 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Web may be ironic, but it renders both of these online projects ? which are anything but fervid, and help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recapture the historical Darwin ? welcome and timely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin was ?a gentleman of science? \(arguably )] TJ ET BT 266.936 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 284.600 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archetypal Victorian gentleman of science\) rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?scientist? in the modern sense. He never inhabited a ?lab? or donned a white coat. Certainly he engaged in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation and experimentation ? and one of the delights of the online correspondence is the opportunity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read first hand accounts of his work on plants, pigeons and worms ? but Darwin?s prime research hub was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his domestic study. Writing, reading, and corresponding were his principal activities, and each now has its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own website.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is easy to forget that what made Darwin unique, and distinguished him even from Alfred Russel Wallace, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not just that he ?discovered? evolution by natural selection, but that in )] TJ ET BT 395.312 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the Origin of Species)] TJ ET BT 513.968 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1859\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he )] TJ ET BT 48.344 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(constructed)] TJ ET BT 104.336 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?one long argument? in favour of his theory, which deftly defused all but the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined of objections. An essential element in Darwin?s significance, in short, was that he was a skilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author and, to a degree, ?a populariser?, although one who self-consciously shunned polemic. Darwin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance as an author has long been acknowledged digitally in the excellent ?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.940 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin Online)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.940 585.747 m 493.592 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 496.592 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 510.584 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource \(not under review here\), which makes available multiple editions of his work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But behind Darwin?s painstaking prose lay dedicated reading and correspondence. It is an attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recapture the former to which the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.300 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin Library project)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.300 530.979 m 308.600 530.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 311.600 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 325.592 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is dedicated. As part of the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biodiversity Heritage Library, the Darwin Library aims at ?a digital edition and virtual reconstruction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving books owned by Charles Darwin?, including full transcriptions of his annotations and marks. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a large-scale undertaking: ultimately 1,480 texts will be made available, but the first tranche of 330 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes, released in April 2011, represent 44 per cent of the books that bore Darwin?s annotations or marks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 28,951 annotated and marked book pages, along with 1,624 attached note slips, are now available online.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The longer-standing )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.000 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin Correspondence Project)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.000 433.443 m 287.960 433.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.960 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 304.952 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(DCP\) is an even greater undertaking. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established by Frederick Burkhardt, aided by the zoologist Sydney Smith, back in 1974, with the aim of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing not only Darwin?s letters but also those sent to him. The first volume, published by Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press \(CUP\), appeared in 1985, and in recent years full versions of Darwin?s correspondence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with summaries, editorial notes and explanatory annotations, have been appearing on the website. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Project, therefore, is much more than an exercise in scanning and reduplication. It actively locates the letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? to date more than 15,000 letters exchanged with nearly 2,000 correspondents ? and researches their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contents, providing excellent explanatory notes. Full transcriptions of over 7,000 of Darwin?s letters, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period before 1868, are available online, along with summaries and information on the 8,000 or so later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters. These will become available in due course, \(full transcriptions appear online four years after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of the relevant CUP volume\) with the project due for completion in 2025. It hardly needs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said that it is a wonderful resource for anyone interested in Darwin in particular, or Victorian intellectual life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more generally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The value of Darwin?s Library is more limited. Funded by JISC in the UK and NEH in the US, the Library )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes Darwin?s books searchable ?as part of an independent unit? or as part of the Biodiversity Heritage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library as a whole. Some of the books have been scanned from Darwin?s personal copies, others are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrogates but bibliographically identical to those Darwin owned. The guide on how to navigate the site is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward, but the search mechanism is not quite as immediate as it might be and users will find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves performing much clicking before they actually get to see the pages they want. When they do they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will find the scanned page on the left of the screen and a box of transcriptions of Darwin?s annotations on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right. One further warning is that the technology does not work equally well with all browsers. Those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using Internet Explorer will not always find the special characters used to represent some aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annotations displaying correctly, and the site suggests the use of an alternative browser such as Firefox.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides technical snags the value of the Library is also limited by its restricted coverage and the inherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties of studying reading. Darwin?s reading, as the site acknowledges, was more extensive than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin?s library. Although there is an aspiration to integrate the library with the other principal evidence ? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.9397 586.0615 493.5917 597.9415 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://darwin-online.org.uk/) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.2997 531.2935 308.5997 543.1735 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://biodiversitylibrary.org/collection/darwinlibrary) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 133.9997 433.7575 287.9597 445.6375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7572 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Darwin?s )] TJ ET BT 131.336 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abstracts)] TJ ET BT 176.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(DAR 71-75\), )] TJ ET BT 249.992 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reading Notes )] TJ ET BT 323.324 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 343.652 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reading Lists)] TJ ET BT 409.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(DAR 119, 128 etc\), and any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence to be found in publications, correspondence, sales catalogues, library records and elsewhere ? there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are no immediate plans to do so. Of course, even if it could be done, reconstructing precisely )] TJ ET BT 482.600 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(how)] TJ ET BT 502.604 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical actor read is fraught with difficulties. The best clues are to be found in what Darwin wrote about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he had seen. Thus the ?chief interest of the Darwin books lies?, as his son Francis noted when first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(donating the library to the Botany School at Cambridge University in 1908, ?in the pencil notes scribbled on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their pages, or written on scraps of paper and pinned to the last page?. And it is the immediate online access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Darwin?s annotations that will prove the chief attraction of this site.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Access, and more particularly widening access, provides the obvious rationale for both of these sites. Below )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the surface, however, there is also an implicit assertion of the value of following Darwin through his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific practice. Just as Keynes believed that most ?practical men? were ?usually the slaves of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defunct economist?, so most digitization projects are governed by an often unarticulated historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption. In these cases it easy to detect the influence of the French philosopher of science Bruno Latour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his emphasis upon the study of work in practice. This point is worth unpacking as both sites contain an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit rebuke both to what we might regard as ?traditional? accounts of individual scientific genius and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once fashionable notions of science as ?socially constructed? knowledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point of studying Darwin?s library, his annotations and his scribbled notes is to understand how he, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working scientist, ?constructed? his theories, stage-by-stage, rather than, say, how he hit upon evolution by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural selection in an epiphanic moment on the Galapagos Islands. According to Jim Secord, the Director of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the DCP, the importance of Darwin?s letters lies in showing how ?science is done? and this ?doing? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science, as Secord?s own publications and those of the Project?s General Editor, Janet Browne, demonstrate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretches beyond the framing of theories into their distribution and reception. In this regard, Burkhardt and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith?s decision to include the letters Darwin received, as well as those he wrote, was particularly prescient, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with much recent writing in the history of science built around Latour?s rather nebulous notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?networks?. The emphasis here is upon relationships between individuals; what you will not find on these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites is much consideration of the broader ?social? context of economics and class in which science is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not that the DCP limits itself, in the manner of the Darwin Library, to reproducing its material without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment. Besides the invaluable notes providing brief biographies of Darwin?s correspondents, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining specific references within the transcriptions, the site is supplemented with additional sections for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Universities?, ?Schools?, and ?Themes?. The first two contain excellent resources and guidance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching. The ?Universities? section is based around four letter sets ? dealing with scientific networks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices, controversy, and religion ? which were originally developed for teaching final year undergraduates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge. The ?Schools? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material is less well developed, but the ?Interactive Beagle voyage package? \(currently under construction\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks as promising as the advice on how to replicate Darwin?s experiments on, for example, owl pellet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissection and salt water seeds, for key stage three to five pupils. It is the ?Themes? section, however, that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most interesting, for what it \(inadvertently\) reveals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike the ?Universities? and ?Schools? sections, ?Themes?, which is divided into six categories of unequal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length, is not obviously aimed at a specific audience. Nor is the rather arbitrary selection of themes ? ?About )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin?, ?Geology?, ?Life science?, ?Gender?, ?Human nature?, and ?Religion? ? explained. One clue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably lies in the DCP?s funding arrangements. Four of the six themes have named funding sources: for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Life science?, the British Ecological Society; for ?Gender?, the Bonita Trust; for ?Human nature?, The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Templeton Foundation, The National Science Foundation, and the AHRC; and for ?Religion?, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Templeton Foundation again.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(External funding, of course, is a necessity for a project of the DCP?s ambition, and with the budgets of state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funded research councils under threat it is inevitable that an increasing proportion of such funding will come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from private and charitable organizations. In the case of the DCP, moreover, the challenge is not just to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funding but to secure ongoing funding streams to guarantee what is, by its nature, a long term task. In this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard, the DCP appears to have been unusually successful. In May 2011 it was able to announce a 5 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million funding package, which allows the project to plan towards completion. Of the 5 million, half was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided by the Evolution Education Trust, with its 2.5 million matched by contributions from the Andrew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Mellon Foundation, the Isaac Newton Trust, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the politically contested nature of Darwinism, and the size of the sums of money involved, it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prudent for the DCP to be as transparent as possible about funding sources and to take steps to avoid any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that the donors are influencing the site?s content. The project?s website lists 18 funding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations, 16 of which have live links to the organizations? websites. But one of the two with no live )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(link is the Evolution Education Trust, whose 2.5m was so crucial to the Project?s continued existence. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust has no website of its own and finding information on it is not easy. It was only established in June )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010 and registered with the Charity Commission in August of that year. Its defined objects are so broad as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be almost meaningless and it is not clear whether or not it has given money to any other causes, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is listed as a supporter of ?The Charles Darwin Trust?, and appears to be linked to Abcam plc \(or at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals prominent within that company\), a Cambridge-based commercial seller of antibodies. None of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is to suggest that there is anything untoward with the Trust?s donation. But more might be done to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the absence of snipers on the grassy knoll.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That funding influences the size of the content seems to be undeniable when one compares the relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paltry material in the ?About Darwin? and ?Geology? sections \(areas closer to the director?s and general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editor?s own interests\) with the more lavish ?Human nature? and ?Religion? sections, the latter of which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funded exclusively by the Templeton Foundation. Some of the sources of funding are curious: the Bonita )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust, for example, which funds the ?Darwin and gender? theme, and is an independent philanthropic trust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Gibraltar law, seems to have begun life as a subsidiary of PartyGaming plc, which derived 2008 pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tax profits of over $600 million from online gaming. There are no grounds to suspect that its motives are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything other than philanthropic. The same cannot be said of the Templeton Foundation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Foundation has a track record of funding the libertarian right \(Gertrude Himmelfarb, Milton Friedman, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Cato Institute\) and attracting the ire of A. C. Grayling, Daniel Dennett, Richard Dawkins, and many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others. Its commitment to ?open-minded inquiry? comes with a codicil of its self-declared drawing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspiration from ?the late Sir John Templeton?s optimism about the possibility of acquiring ?new spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information??. In practice it has a penchant for those who minimize any sense of conflict between science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and religion. It comes as little surprise, therefore, to find this is precisely the line taken in the DCP?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Religion? theme.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the unsigned ?What did Darwin believe?? section there is an emphasis on how many clergymen were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin?s friends and how many found ways of reconciling Christianity and evolution, which whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undeniable, rather tends to obscure the fundamental philosophical challenge Darwinism posed to all forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion. The assertion that Darwin?s letters, including those to complete strangers, are ?more revealing? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his personal beliefs than his )] TJ ET BT 170.336 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Autobiography)] TJ ET BT 242.336 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, written for his family and immediate social circle, is at best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubtful, and at worst a tendentious attempt to discount the )] TJ ET BT 321.668 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Autobiography)] TJ ET BT 393.668 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s very clear account of Darwin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage-by-stage shedding of religious belief. And that is before we come to the anonymous author?s rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable interpretation of some of those letters. For example, the reading of a letter Darwin sent to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author John Fordyce in 1879 in which he declared ?I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of a God? seems to be willfully ingenuous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any concerns one might have either over the DCP?s funding or its historiographical assumptions, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are far outweighed by its unquestionable value to future scholars, who will, most probably, have very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different objectives. It is a truism that the internet is changing the way in which historians work, by enabling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us to access, search, and reproduce a multitude of primary resources within a matter of minutes from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort of one?s own desk. Nowhere has the transformation been more obvious than in the field of Darwin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies. It is a salutary thought that although only 20 years old, Adrian Desmond and James Moore?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groundbreaking biography of )] TJ ET BT 177.656 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Darwin)] TJ ET BT 214.328 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\) pre-dates the first ever webpage, posted by Tim Berners-Lee on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6 August 1991. Any new biography would undoubtedly lean heavily both on the DCP and, to a lesser extent, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2843 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin?s Library.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result would be a portrait in which the importance of the ?social? is diminished in favour of a focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the individual and his practices: writing, reading, and networking. Whether or not this would ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make for a better biography is open to question. One of the paradoxes of making such a wealth of material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible is that it encourages the Namierite in us all, at the expense of more expansive analyses. Whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the benefits of facilitating access to so much material, releasing a tsunami of undigestible, and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraneous, detail can stymie creative thinking and lead scholars to lose sight of the bigger picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bigger picture \(in British universities at least\) in which these two projects take their place is the pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards interdisciplinarity. More specifically, the pressure for humanities research to be reoriented toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of ? or compatible with ? the natural sciences. And just as the supply of primary source material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creates its own demand, so too will the provision of ?science in culture? research money create its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply of historical scholars keen to exploit online resources on historical science. Darwin?s Library and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin?s Correspondence Project can look to the future without any fear that interest in Darwin has reached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its acme.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 570.415 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 552.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 552.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1221)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 551.241 m 328.316 551.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 526.264 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.864 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/8536)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/8537)] TJ ET BT 34.016 483.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://darwin-online.org.uk/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://biodiversitylibrary.org/collection/darwinlibrary)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.264 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 551.5555 328.3157 563.4355 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1221) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000523 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000004559 00000 n 0000004668 00000 n 0000004778 00000 n 0000004887 00000 n 0000008448 00000 n 0000008576 00000 n 0000008660 00000 n 0000008758 00000 n 0000016871 00000 n 0000016999 00000 n 0000017079 00000 n 0000017207 00000 n 0000017314 00000 n 0000017442 00000 n 0000017525 00000 n 0000017590 00000 n 0000025215 00000 n 0000025280 00000 n 0000032819 00000 n 0000032903 00000 n 0000035799 00000 n 0000035927 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36023 %%EOF