%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721153630+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721153630+01'00') /Title (Tashkent. Forging a Soviet City. 1930?1966) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4314 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Tashkent. Forging a Soviet City. 1930?1966)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main theme of this book is Soviet urban planning and architecture in Central Asia between 1930 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1966. It seeks to explain how Russian Bolsheviks wanted to transform the city of Tashkent into a model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet city, with impressive public buildings worthy of the new political order, and adequate housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects for the city?s proletariat. The author uses Tashkent as an example to analyze Soviet architecture in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general, but the main focus remains on this Central Asian city, today the capital of Uzbekistan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Starting from 1930, the independent scholar Paul Stronski lays out in chronological order how Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architects went about transforming Tashkent into a Soviet city. Tashkent was originally an old city of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Silk Road, which was captured by Russian forces in 1865. The new colonial masters immediately started )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of a modern, Russian \(European\) city by the side of the old, native one.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.956 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.956 145.881 m 452.948 145.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 452.948 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By the time of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik assumption of power, Tashkent was in reality two cities, one beside the other; one for the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslims and one inhabited by Russians and other Europeans. So, for the Bolsheviks it was not only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of creating a new urban environment inspired by their communist beliefs; it was just as important to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merge these two into one. By the outbreak of the Second World War, some monumental structures had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erected, but at the expense of the citizens? more immediate needs, such as infrastructure and housing. During )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war, Tashkent received a massive influx of refugees from European Soviet Union, among them high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1222)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Stronski)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780822961130)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pittsburgh Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pittsburgh, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steinar Skjeggedal)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 438.9557 146.1955 452.9477 158.0755 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6181 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilled laborers and scientists. Some heavy industry, including an aviation plant, was also evacuated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tashkent. This would change Tashkent radically. With victory secured, Tashkent, as with other Soviet cities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced an overwhelming challenge in creating adequate housing for the city?s expanded population. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not be solved until the 1970s, as in April 1966 a massive 7.4 earthquake left in ruins much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction work carried out in the 1960s to solve these problems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Tashkent, Soviet architects saw an opportunity to create new urban spaces where industry and technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could benefit the people, the party and the state. Soviet politicians and artists saw architecture, both through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific buildings but also in overall urban-planning, as a means to express and symbolize the new political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and moral values. The city was an architectural scene which should reflect new science and rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking, be sanitary, and whose buildings should be functional. Furthermore, Soviet architects viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture as one of the principal agents in creating the ideal Soviet man and woman, who would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate in productive labor, preferably as a toiler or academic, appreciate high culture and share the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visions of communism. But as the book explains, the Soviet urban renewal campaigns were also about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing about the breakdown of traditional social structures and increasing the state?s ability to monitor its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens. Tashkent architecture was, like much else from the early Soviet era, a laboratory, where the victims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of far-fetched ideas and heavy-handed implementation were the very citizens the Bolsheviks sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his book, Paul Stronski stresses the utopian ideals of the Bolsheviks; an elevated living standard for all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic and gender equality, industrial growth, and educational and socio-economic opportunities for every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizen. But with such lofty promises realization was hard. As the author points out, the regime's blind and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncritical faith in Marxism, its desire for total control of its citizens and its economic development, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined with an inefficient bureaucracy, hindered the realization of these promises. In addition, Stronski )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tells us, repeated ideological shifts and ever-changing political priorities hindered long-term planning and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were major obstacles to urban renewal. It is thus interesting to read that during periods of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalization, for example just after the Second World War and after the death of Stalin in 1953, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realistic proposals for the city?s desperate need for additional and more locally-suited housing projects were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented. To illustrate, many of the bigger housing projects constructed before mid 1960s were unsuited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the warm climate of Central Asia, and the apartments built did not take into consideration the Uzbeks family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure, which tended towards bigger and extended families. Instead, Soviet architects used only one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common standard for housing projects in the entire Union. And it is also telling that most of the plans were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn by Moscow-based architects which rarely or never visited Tashkent. ?Cities were not supposed to suit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the customs of the inhabitants; inhabitants were supposed to transform their customs to suit the new Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city?, Stronski illustratively points out \(p. 223\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to the problems produced by an inflexible ideology, the new Tashkent architecture suffered from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor workmanship and a lack of good coordination and management. For example, new buildings could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without gas or running water years after their construction. And even though the Soviet ideal was multiple-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(storey apartment buildings run and constructed by the state, by 1958 Tashkent still had the highest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(percentage of people living in private lots in the Union, and 85 per cent lived in one-storey buildings. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly shows that the local population were active participators in Tashkent?s expansion, and that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralized ambitions of the authorities largely failed or were inadequate in providing housing for the city. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the architects ignored the constant menace from earthquakes in the region. This became very evident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1996 earthquake in which destroyed 78,000 homes.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7334 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stronski?s book is structured around archival documents drawn from a wide array of party and state organs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which the further development of the city was discussed. As mentioned, ideas of how this development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be brought about, what should be prioritized, and not least what political ambitions should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialized, were, especially until 1940, in constant flux. According to Stronski, frequent new directions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Moscow were the reason for this. To illustrate, one can follow the career of one of the principal agents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Soviet transformation of Tashkent; Kharkov-born architect Stepan Nikolaevich Polupanov, who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ejected from his post several times, yet as a consequence of his well-developed political skills was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehabilitated several times and would eventually influence Tashkent?s design profoundly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A modernist, Polupanov moved to Tashkent in the 1920s to bring Central Asian architecture in line with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of the rest of the Union. His first designs were housing projects, where he brought daily routines, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as washing, cooking and child care, into communal structures, in order to liberate women. But in addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing, Polupanov is best known for having designed the new Government building in the heart of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital, a modernist building, with simple aesthetics and a stress on functionality. However, by the time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its completion in 1933, Moscow had ordered the stylistic replacement of the constructivism of the 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a Soviet form of neoclassicism, which was to become the Union?s standardized architectural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression. Therefore, Polupanov was forced to add columns to make the appearance more ?monumental?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polupanov was lucky to survive the late 1930s purges, but his earlier ideas were criticized, and he himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was accused that, as a leading architect in the city, he had failed to develop ?socialist Uzbek national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture? \(p. 165\). Polupanov adapted his aesthetics to changing times and the new Soviet standards. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s, he was still a leading figure, who mentored the up-and-coming local architects)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stronski?s archival research also shows the planned and standardized approach Soviet architects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians had towards city development, and it further highlights the seemingly boundless confidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet policymakers had in their ability to bend and transform every aspect of society towards the realization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their communist utopia. For example, like other Soviet cities, Tashkent required ?planned? demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth, with precise set targets: 52 per cent to be employed in industry and transportation; 9 per cent to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed in political and economic institutions; 19 per cent to be employed in science or culture; 9 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in construction; and 11 per cent in others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The city was also planned as a balance of nations and of religious and ethnic background. Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policymakers wanted Uzbek cultural workers involved in the reconstruction, but the paternalism of Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism and Soviet centralized control undermined real local influence. ?It was largely Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics ? who helped determine what constituted Uzbek national character? \(p. 56\). Stronski?s research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unearths the conflicting desires for Tashkent architecture to reflect both local history and culture, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist and universal symbolism. Thus, in decorating the government building, Polupanov designed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed carvings of rosettes and cotton motives, symbolizing the importance of agriculture to Uzbekistan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and especially the cotton industry. ?With the cotton design, Polupanov came up with a clear ?recipe? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Uzbek national architecture? and ?created standardized format? which enabled ?Soviet architects to design )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building for Tashkent without ever setting their foot in Central Asia? \(p. 55\). This design would have lasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utility, and is even used in present Uzbekistan. This example is indeed illustrative of the paradoxes of Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalities policies; Soviet policymakers sought to create a Uzbek nationalism, but it was to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism which was designed and sanctioned in Moscow. But this nationalism was merely a step towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the long term goal of creating an identity devoid of class and ethnicity distinctions, often labeled ?homo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovieticus?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the constant issues which the Soviet authorities struggled to solve was the merger of the old, local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city with the younger Russian, now communist one. The symbolism of this situation was thus that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of Muslim Tashkenters were somehow reluctant to fully embrace the ideals of the ?homo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovieticus?. ?Tashkent?s planners wanted to unify the city, but residents preferred separate lives?, Stronski )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tells us \(p. 70\). It is, however, important to add, just as Stronski does, that Central Asians to a large extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually embraced the Soviet system and very much saw themselves as a part of this multi-ethnic empire ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even though they felt like they were treated as poor relations by the Slavs. In the era of )] TJ ET BT 453.596 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glasnost)] TJ ET BT 496.268 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6762 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltic and Caucasian republics sought independence, Central Asia remained firmly committed to the Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Moscow, Tashkent was also symbolically important externally. A key components of Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology was the liberation of the oppressed colonized people of Russia and abroad. As such, the Bolsheviks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to give equal rights and material goods to all the nations of the Soviet Union, not just the Russians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the Bolsheviks, Tashkent became the primary arena to demonstrate colonial liberation from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppression of the Tsarist-state, and to show delegates from Asia, Africa and Latin America a modern, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial and communist city of Asia. Tashkent was the venue for a wide variety of international cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(festivals and happenings and the city was a ?beacon of hope for Asian peoples living under western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism? \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Stronski discusses, Soviet cities were not only venues for housing and social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control, they were very much the site of economic activity, especially industry and science. The early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolsheviks were skeptical of the Russian peasant and looked to the industrial worker for their main support. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For them, industrialization and urbanization was the same thing. As this book explains, before the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War Tashkent saw little actual industrial activity, although much was planned for. It was not until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuation of 1941, and the changes wrought by the further duration of the war, that Tashkent became an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial city. The consequence of the chaotic evacuation was that the reestablishment of industrial plants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and barracks lacked overall coordination. This would in turn result in large shantytowns, industrial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human waste problems, and pollution in the midst of the city. The Ankhor Canal, the City?s main waterway, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the barrier between old and new Tashkent, was heavily contaminated. Clean water was in short supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stronskis book can be read as a description of Soviet urban planning and architecture in general and of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bolsheviks saw architecture as an agent to realize political goals. But the book might be more interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for those already familiar with Soviet history. Though the city of Tashkent may sound exotic for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common reader it was nevertheless the Soviet Union?s fourth largest city after Moscow, Leningrad and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kiev, with a population of nearly three million by the 1980s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet urban-planning was imperfect in many respects. The author nevertheless tends to somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underplay the huge and impressive transformation of the city of Tashkent in this period of time. Some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters of the book, especially the one concerning the Second World War, are somewhat repetitive and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance, for instance, of the descriptions of incoming refugees to the book?s stated objects is somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear. The author may also have exaggerated the significance of, and put too much of the book?s content )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into analyzing, the conflicts between Europeans and the local Muslim population. There were certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts and discrimination, but the main obstacle to efficient and functional urban planning was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in the ineffective and politicized Soviet system. The book?s primary emphasis is not on architectural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory and methodology, but an additional focus on such would certainly both have made the book even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more interesting and have contextualized its content further. Stronski states that the early Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture of Tashkent reflected the early Soviet trend towards modernism, and that by the mid 1930s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructivist ideas had been purged and replaced by ?classism?. However, the book offers only limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight to architectural trends and styles after this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, this well-narrated book leaves a vivid impression of the construction of a Soviet Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolis. The book?s strength is in the descriptions of local power struggles and individual architects? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions and visions for the city. In general, Soviet architecture outside the main Russian cities is rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, so Stronski has certainly filled a vacuum with this book. And lastly, Stronski must be given credit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his work in the archives, covering much previously unread material for a western audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.819 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 72.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeff Sahadeo, )] TJ ET BT 131.660 72.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian Colonial Society in Tashkent, 1865?1923)] TJ ET BT 371.000 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Bloomington, IN, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.000 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.000 70.803 m 553.988 70.803 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 55.471 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.9997 71.1175 553.9877 82.9975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 492 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1222)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 328.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/8542)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 328.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1222) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005007 00000 n 0000005116 00000 n 0000005226 00000 n 0000005335 00000 n 0000008896 00000 n 0000009024 00000 n 0000009108 00000 n 0000009137 00000 n 0000009265 00000 n 0000009301 00000 n 0000009366 00000 n 0000015600 00000 n 0000015665 00000 n 0000023052 00000 n 0000023136 00000 n 0000029951 00000 n 0000030077 00000 n 0000030132 00000 n 0000030216 00000 n 0000030760 00000 n 0000030888 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30984 %%EOF