%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 48 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140730102113+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140730102113+01'00') /Title (Thomas Jefferson, Time, and History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4669 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Thomas Jefferson, Time, and History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Jefferson was a man who reflected Enlightenment attitudes. This simple statement has formed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premise of much Jefferson scholarship in recent decades, and in particular historians have made an effort to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connect Jefferson with the Enlightenment in Britain, especially in its Scottish manifestation. In )] TJ ET BT 492.320 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson, Time, and History)] TJ ET BT 171.008 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Hannah Spahn continues this project but sets her sights further south, focusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on two English progenitors of the Enlightenment, Isaac Newton and John Locke. The Jefferson of Spahn?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is a man conscious of the flow of time and of his own place in it, framed in a Newtonian worldview.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In choosing this theme, Spahn places herself at the confluence of two streams in recent Jefferson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. The first seeks to situate Jefferson within the 18th-century Enlightenment. This effort can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traced back to Gilbert Chinard in the 1930s and 1940s, when he, in several works, attempted to demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson?s place within the spectrum of French Enlightened thought, a project also taken up by Adrienne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koch.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 63.008 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 63.008 131.625 m 77.000 131.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.000 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Enlightenment historiography took a turn in the 1970s, when Garry Wills attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the importance of Scottish moral philosopher Francis Hutcheson?s influence, as opposed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incumbent view of Jefferson as a Lockean supported by, amongst others, Louis Hartz.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.936 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.936 103.113 m 460.928 103.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.928 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hutchesonian influence did not win over the historical community, the influence of the Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment as a genre did spark interest. Studies by Kevin Hayes, Ari Helo, Peter Onuf and Douglas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson have all examined Jefferson?s relationship with the works of Scottish Enlightenment writers such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1223)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Spahn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780813931685)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Virginia Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlottesville, VA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Clinkman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 63.0077 131.9395 76.9997 143.8195 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.9357 103.4275 460.9277 115.3075 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7396 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Ferguson, Henry Home, and David Hume, often to great profit for the field.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.608 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.608 795.075 m 443.600 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second stream is that of Jefferson?s attempt to use time and history as a political tool, in particular to set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own legacy as a way of influencing future politics. This stream is an implied part of many general studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jefferson, and has been pursued with particular interest by Merrill Peterson in the 1960s and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently by Francis Cogliano.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.000 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.000 726.051 m 189.992 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 189.992 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Spahn builds on Peterson?s and Cogliano?s findings by accepting their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions ? that Jefferson was an active and politicized historian in his own right ? and focusing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which Jefferson conceived of the future, which he was attempting to manipulate in the present by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using interpretations of the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spahn identifies Newtonianism as the organizing principle behind Jefferson?s outlook on time and history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newton, she explains, discarded a medieval understanding of time as confined to the chronology of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aristotelian interpretation of Scripture. Instead, Newton substituted a dialectical conception of ?objective? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?subjective? time. Objective time was the deep time of the burgeoning modern sciences, time that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretched out across the lengthy development of the physical universe and could only be understood in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstract, philosophical sense. Subjective time, on the other hand, was the kind of time that could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood by a subjective human observer. Rather than eons, epochs, or eternity, subjective time was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced in increments of seconds, days, and years. As a rule of thumb, according to this division, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjective time is the time that can be comprehended within the span of a single human lifetime, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objective time exists beyond that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This division of time can be hard to keep straight, and one of the shortcomings of the book is Spahn?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting treatment of nomenclature. Objective time is also referred to as ?absolute? or ?rational? time at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places in the book, and subjective time referred to as ?sentimental?, ?relative?, or ?common? time. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labels are used in order to maintain a spirit of authenticity with the original writers that she quotes, it can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often lead to confusion in understanding the argument being made. The book might have been improved if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author had relied on a single a word for each category after making the initial introductions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Spahn describes it, Jefferson began his political life with an understanding of a homogeneous ?flow? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, which he then began to seek to order and bend towards his political views. Jefferson understood time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as flowing ?according to universal natural laws, while simultaneously understanding human time perception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as relative, heterogeneous, and at best leading to an approximate estimate of absolute time? \(pp. 22?3\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem confronting Jefferson, and other Enlightened contemporaries such as Immanuel Kant, was how to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconcile these two forms of time into a single, usable frame of temporal reference. In this respect, Spahn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to demonstrate that Jefferson was not only inspired by Enlightenment figures but was actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participating with them in the intellectual problems of the day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spahn sets out to demonstrate Jefferson?s approach to this problem across six chapters divided into two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections. The first section, ?Time? begins with a brief prologue explaining Newtonian temporal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology. In chapters one and two, Spahn makes quite an interesting, two-track argument on Jefferson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of objective time. First, she argues that Jefferson used the tools of objective time, such as calendars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clocks, to regulate the daily routines at Monticello that would normally have been ruled by subjective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of time, such as the rising and setting of the sun. Use of objective methods afforded Jefferson a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of control over the residents of the plantation, and especially of the slaves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, Jefferson used objective time to justify distinctions in ranks between races and civilizations. Spahn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes a fascinating account of how Jefferson described the French aristocracy as a group of time-wasters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and linked their lack of control over their time to the decadence that eventually destroyed them. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obverse, Jefferson also used time to criticize his slaves, arguing that Afro-Americans lacked the control over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their personal time that was exercised by Anglo-Americans. Jefferson claimed that blacks were unable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control their desires and unable to project rewards and punishments into the future, living perpetually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentist existences. For Jefferson, this meant that blacks were incapable of planning and hence of self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement, and demonstrated their innate inferiority. As Spahn puts it, Jefferson thought that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?routines of both [aristocrats and slaves] were characterized by the impossibility of self-determined )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 429.6077 795.3895 443.5997 807.2695 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.9997 726.3655 189.9917 738.2455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7073 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress? \(p. 55\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter three, Spahn transitions from objective to subjective time and shows how it, too, played an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important role in how Jefferson perceived the world. Spahn identifies the death of Jefferson?s wife, Martha, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his subsequent emotional breakdown, as a turning point when he temporarily abandoned objectivity as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his main way of organizing time. She quotes convincingly from Jefferson?s correspondence with friends and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family to show how, in the brief period between his wife?s death and his ambassadorship in France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson gave himself over to subjective or ?sentimental? time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section, ?History? is also organized into three chapters and concerned with how Jefferson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes towards time influenced his view of historical progression and the place of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, and by extension himself, within history. Spahn shows how, over the 50 years between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution and his death, Jefferson went through three phases in his historical understanding: a pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary Bolingbrokean view of history as being moral ?philosophy by example?, an intermediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phase in which Jefferson was uncertain in his historical worldview, and a post-revolutionary embrace of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new history based on unpredictability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Spahn shows, this was an important change in Jefferson?s worldview. Bolingbrokean philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history relied on a static assumption that human nature remained constant and that the world never truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed. Thus, Jefferson could invoke examples from antiquity and the remote past of Saxon England as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guides for the American republic with complete sincerity, placing all events in a ?historical continuum?. \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(117\) In the 1780s, at the same time as his crisis of time resulting from the death of his wife, Jefferson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views on history also began to change. Even as he began to think more in terms of subjective time, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on day to day reality, he began to turn away from universalist philosophical history and began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take a greater interest in what he had, until then, dismissed as antiquarian history, moving away from what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spahn terms the ?tautology of a universal human nature? \(p. 151\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1800, Jefferson moved away from prior categories of philosophical or antiquarian history and began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructing a new one. Now that the American Revolution was over, and what he perceived as a threatened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Federalist counter-revolution was thwarted, Jefferson ?subdued his skepticism about historiography as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre and sought to construct ? his own philosophical history of American progress? \(p. 189\). Spahn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterizes the ?Revolution of 1800?, with Jefferson?s triumph over the Federalists, as his re-winding up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the clock of American history \(pp. 189?190\). The language in which Jefferson expressed these historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas was Lockean, and Spahn provides colorful examples from Jefferson?s correspondence to illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, particularly Jefferson?s use of his own death as a literary device for creating an aura of objective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(timelessness. \(p. 201\) He had also come to see history less as a form of Bolingbrokean literature and more as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a science. Spahn concludes that Jefferson?s temporal thought went through two major changes over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of his life: ?Firstly, he developed a more active and critical concept of historical reading? that became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to account for contingency in human history. Second, ?he now distinguished more clearly between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different realms for history and poetry? \(p. 209\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spahn?s account is fascinating, and her command of Jefferson?s life of letters is comprehensive. She has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very ably overcome a major difficulty when constructing an intellectual history of Jefferson. In contrast to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer with more voluminous systematical works, in which preserved papers act as explanatory appendices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Jefferson the papers are all that we have. With the exception of a few early state papers, the )] TJ ET BT 500.216 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the State of Virginia)] TJ ET BT 131.024 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and his autobiography, Jefferson left no autonomous works of great length or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refinement. Compared to one of the canonical thinkers of the Enlightenment such as Newton or Locke, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even to a contemporary such as John Adams, Jefferson wrote almost nothing of great length or that indicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematical thinking. Thus rather than being ancillary material, Jefferson?s papers form the major primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source evidence. Whereas Adams could fairly be described as a man who expressed himself systematically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in lengthy treatises, Jefferson was a man who expressed himself through attitudes in his correspondence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spahn?s task has been to reconstruct those attitudes, and she has done so convincingly and interestingly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A curious aspect of Spahn?s narrative is her insistence on Jefferson?s Newtonianism even while aligning )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 9624 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him much more closely with John Locke and Laurence Sterne, the neo-Lockean author of )] TJ ET BT 467.588 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tristram Shandy)] TJ ET BT 547.928 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By her own admission, Locke?s )] TJ ET BT 190.664 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essay on Human Understanding)] TJ ET BT 346.988 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?had a more direct influence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson?s writings? than Newton did \(p. 23\). Furthermore, the book is replete with references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson?s literary commonplace book, in which he quoted Sterne?s passages on time perception at length. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These passages in )] TJ ET BT 122.996 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tristram Shandy)] TJ ET BT 203.336 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were themselves based on Locke?s )] TJ ET BT 377.288 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essay)] TJ ET BT 405.284 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in particular Locke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contention that time perception was a product of internal mental reflection \(p. 24\). While Locke and Newton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were complementary thinkers, Locke?s )] TJ ET BT 225.632 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essay)] TJ ET BT 253.628 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was developed concurrently with Newton?s )] TJ ET BT 469.580 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Principia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mathematica)] TJ ET BT 97.340 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and it is somewhat of a misnomer to label Locke a Newtonian, as if his ideas were based upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of his colleague. It is possible that Spahn avoided the Lockean label in an effort to buck what has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the commonly accepted default interpretation of Jefferson. If so, it was unfortunate, for this appears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be a case in which Jefferson was in fact the Lockean he is so often supposed to be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is particularly relevant because Newtonian and Lockean time, as defined by Spahn, do not emphasize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same things. While Newtonian time accounts for the original division between objective and subjective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time that forms Spahn?s thesis, Lockean time is a product of the mind and fits into the subjective category. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Spahn provides many examples of Jefferson using something akin to objective time, she does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide it with the same basis in Jefferson?s writings as she does with his use of subjective time. Thus she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risks a circular argument: that Jefferson made use of objective time because he was a Newtonian, and can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved to be a Newtonian via his use of objective time. It is likely that Jefferson was indeed a Newtonian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the case is not made as well as that for Locke and Sterne.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spahn also raises an interesting question for future historians. She portrays herself as largely uninterested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the questions of Whig history raised by Trevor Colbourn and others.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.312 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.312 485.955 m 376.304 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 376.304 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The absence of the Saxons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of ancient constitutionalism from a meaningful role in her narrative is striking, and while it can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justified given her desire to concentrate on more over-arching issues, there is an important texture here in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson?s relationship with the past that is almost entirely missing. An analysis of Jefferson?s view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American history as existing on a continuum with English history, without an examination of what that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant in terms of politics and policy, seems incomplete. Likewise, she raises the issue of a classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican ?Machiavellian moment? conception of time in her introduction.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.628 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.628 400.419 m 411.620 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.620 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While she states that ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?classical republican? interpretation of time alone cannot explain his temporal sensibility?, she does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discount it as an element of his thought, but neither does she attempt to integrate it \(p. 17\). Future historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working on this line of enquiry may seek to remedy both omissions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That there will be such historians seems almost a certainty. ?Time? has the potential to be the next big thing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in interpreting Jefferson, following on other topics such as race, gender, and moral philosophy. Spahn?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious work, while sometimes falling short in its use of labels or in matching detail to its comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope, is a important beginning on that route of enquiry and provides a strong framework for other scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to follow her.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Gilbert Chinard, )] TJ ET BT 166.004 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Jefferson: The Apostle of Americanism \()] TJ ET BT 400.652 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boston, 1933\), and ?Jefferson )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the philosophers?,)] TJ ET BT 187.004 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Ethics)] TJ ET BT 220.004 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 226.004 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53, 4 \(1943\). See also Adrienne Koch, )] TJ ET BT 413.300 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Philosophy of Thomas )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson)] TJ ET BT 108.008 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New York, NY, 1943\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.644 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.644 180.339 m 282.632 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Gary Wills, )] TJ ET BT 143.336 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence )] TJ ET BT 436.508 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1978\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Louis Hartz, )] TJ ET BT 147.332 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Liberal Tradition in America \()] TJ ET BT 315.008 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY, 1955\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.648 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.648 151.827 m 479.636 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Kevin J. Hayes, )] TJ ET BT 163.328 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Road to Monticello: The Life and Mind of Thomas Jefferson \()] TJ ET BT 480.320 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford, 2008\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ari Helo and Peter Onuf, ?Jefferson, morality, and the problem of slavery?,)] TJ ET BT 426.932 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The William and Mary )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 111.344 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 117.344 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60, 3 \(2003\); Peter S. Onuf, )] TJ ET BT 253.664 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Mind of Thomas Jefferson )] TJ ET BT 403.328 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Charlottesville, VA, 2007\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Douglas L. Wilson, ?Jefferson Vs. Hume?,)] TJ ET BT 290.636 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The William and Mary Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 452.960 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 458.960 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(46, 1 \(1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.952 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.952 94.803 m 560.948 94.803 l S BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 80.547 m 78.008 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Merrill Peterson, )] TJ ET BT 163.004 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jeffersonian Image in the American Mind )] TJ ET BT 387.308 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1960\); and Francis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cogliano, )] TJ ET BT 114.020 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and Legacy \()] TJ ET BT 324.332 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlottesville, VA, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.324 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.324 52.035 m 509.312 52.035 l S endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.3117 486.2695 376.3037 498.1495 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.6277 400.7335 411.6197 412.6135 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.6437 180.6535 282.6317 192.5335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.6477 152.1415 479.6357 164.0215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.9517 95.1175 560.9477 106.9975 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 80.8615 78.0077 92.7415 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.3237 52.3495 509.3117 64.2295 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 1727 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. T. Colbourn, ?Thomas Jefferson's use of the past?,)] TJ ET BT 321.464 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The William and Mary Quarterly: Magazine of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Early American History )] TJ ET BT 182.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1958\), 56?70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.656 780.819 m 306.644 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. G. A. Pocock, )] TJ ET BT 145.340 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Machiavellian Moment : Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republican Tradition \()] TJ ET BT 174.020 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ, 1975, 2003 reprint\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.336 752.307 m 395.324 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author will respond to this review in due course.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 710.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 692.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 692.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1223)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 691.545 m 328.316 691.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 666.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/8545)] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.6557 781.1335 306.6437 793.0135 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.3357 752.6215 395.3237 764.5015 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 691.8595 328.3157 703.7395 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1223) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000545 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005362 00000 n 0000005471 00000 n 0000005581 00000 n 0000005690 00000 n 0000009251 00000 n 0000009379 00000 n 0000009463 00000 n 0000009492 00000 n 0000009618 00000 n 0000009654 00000 n 0000009683 00000 n 0000009811 00000 n 0000009847 00000 n 0000009938 00000 n 0000017387 00000 n 0000017417 00000 n 0000017545 00000 n 0000017581 00000 n 0000017611 00000 n 0000017739 00000 n 0000017775 00000 n 0000017840 00000 n 0000024966 00000 n 0000025092 00000 n 0000034769 00000 n 0000034799 00000 n 0000034927 00000 n 0000034963 00000 n 0000034993 00000 n 0000035121 00000 n 0000035157 00000 n 0000035285 00000 n 0000035340 00000 n 0000035468 00000 n 0000035523 00000 n 0000035650 00000 n 0000035705 00000 n 0000035829 00000 n 0000035884 00000 n 0000036010 00000 n 0000036065 00000 n 0000036163 00000 n 0000037943 00000 n 0000038071 00000 n 0000038126 00000 n 0000038254 00000 n 0000038309 00000 n 0000038437 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38533 %%EOF