%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729063049+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729063049+01'00') /Title (The Amritsar Massacre: The Untold Story of One Fateful Day) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4194 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Amritsar Massacre: The Untold Story of One Fateful Day)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Late in the afternoon on 13 April 1919, the British officer Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, with 90 native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troops under his command, entered the enclosure known as the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar in Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India. A crowd of several thousand civilians were gathered in the public garden to protest against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment of two local nationalist leaders by the colonial authorities. Riots had broken out in several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities in the region and, following the murder of five British civilians in Amritsar, a curfew had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced and all political rallies banned. Without prior warning, Dyer ordered his men to open up a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained fire on the crowd, which lasted for ten minutes, during which some 1650 rounds were spent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to the official figures 379 people were killed and 1200 wounded, although the actual casualties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were probably much greater.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Amritsar Massacre has since become a byword for colonial brutality and repression and in India it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered as the watershed that irrevocably put Indian nationalists on the path to independence, a struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which came to fruition almost two decades later in 1947. Thanks to the visceral depiction in Attenborough?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1982 )] TJ ET BT 61.016 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gandhi)] TJ ET BT 97.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( film, the massacre is also one of the most recognisable images of British India. More recently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Collett?s mammoth biography of Dyer, )] TJ ET BT 255.668 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Butcher of Amritsar)] TJ ET BT 372.668 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\), has further contributed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public perception of this crucial historical moment - a representation which emphasises the personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1224)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Lloyd)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848857230)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kim Wagner)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7804 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culpability of Dyer and the moral bankruptcy of imperialism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.644 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.644 795.075 m 341.636 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now, with Nick Lloyd?s new book, the time has apparently come for a complete whitewash. )] TJ ET BT 481.940 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Amritsar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Massacre: The Untold Story of One Fateful Day)] TJ ET BT 266.324 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is written squarely against Indian nationalist myth and aims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to provide a broader and more even-handed analysis of the events of 1919. Rather than the well-known story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a disproportionate and brutal response to local protests, Lloyd draws a picture of embattled colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers with the best of intentions, doing their job under increasingly difficult circumstances; the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently acted with great restraint and only used force as a final resort, he claims. Lloyd has in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words turned the story of the Amritsar Massacre into a polemic piece of empire apologia the like of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not been seen since the heyday of the )] TJ ET BT 234.968 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morning Post)] TJ ET BT 301.304 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Anachronism is indeed the key to understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd?s particular brand of history. He writes exclusively from the perspective of, and in identification with, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial officials like Dyer and the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, Sir Michael O?Dwyer, for whom he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserves the greatest admiration. Keeping that in mind, the outdated nature of Lloyd?s account is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more understandable but no less distasteful ? one does not have to be an Indian nationalist or bleeding-heart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal to find this book deeply problematic, never mind poor scholarship. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Lloyd?s account it is Gandhi who emerges as the great villain, with naive and sentimental Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians like E. S. Montagu, who were pushing for reforms and increased negotiations with moderate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian politicians, coming a close second. Liberal policies upset the precarious balance of colonial India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd argues, and necessitated the continuation of war-time emergency legislation, the infamous Rowlatt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acts of 1919. The wave of Indian protests that followed these acts, we are told, was not caused by the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they curtailed basic civil rights \(the acts were the precursors to modern-day anti-terrorism legislation\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather because they were poorly understood and furthermore misrepresented by anti-British agitators. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians, in other words, were protesting against something they did not understand and which, moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was for their own good.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the Rowlatt legislation was aimed at suppressing illegal anti-colonial movements, Gandhi?s call for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians to disobey the authorities amounted, in Lloyd?s estimation, to a call for them to become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionaries: ?Gandhi?s )] TJ ET BT 165.992 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(satyagraha)] TJ ET BT 219.992 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pledge committed its signatories to refuse to obey the Rowlatt Bills, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but this was impossible )] TJ ET BT 149.360 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(unless one actually became a terrorist?)] TJ ET BT 339.008 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(italics in original, p. 35\). Civil disobedience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted a breach of law and thus, Lloyd seems to suggest, all Indians who protested against the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were effectively criminals or worse and should expect to be treated accordingly. Lloyd further argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[t]here is no evidence that the Mahatma directly organised or called for violent resistance to the Raj, but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectives were revolutionary in that they openly disobeyed the authorities and tried to overthrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government legislation? \(p. 128\). Following this rationale, the people gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh on 13 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 1919, in blatant disregard of the ban on public meetings, only had themselves, and Gandhi, to blame )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for what eventually happened. The meek ascetic unleashed forces beyond his control and in spite of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated advocacy of non-violence, Lloyd argues, colonial officials were criminally naive not to recognise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the non-cooperation and civil disobedience movement as a ?threatening conspiracy? \(p. 128\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The heroes of Lloyd?s narrative \(since Whig history must have heroes\) are the brave men of the Indian Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Service and above all, Sir Michael O?Dwyer \(affectionately described as ?a battered breakwater standing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firm against the onrushing tide?\), who ?was totally committed to his work and imbued with that sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose the ICS was famous for; spending hours in the saddle every day, traversing the fertile plains, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting villagers, dispensing justice, settling disputes? \(p. 59\). In Lloyd?s opinion, there is no doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Dwyer represented ?the very best of the ICS, able to set an example of duty and selflessness to the people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and continue the tradition of the early British rulers of the Punjab ? the legendary figures of Henry and John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence, John Nicholson, James Abbott and others ? who were able to dominate a warlike province )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through their will, determination and formidable ability? \(p. 61\). Where most historians would critically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the ideological underpinnings of imperialism, Lloyd simply embraces them; he clearly believes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?White Man?s burden? and has nothing but admiration for the ?paternalist despotism? that guided British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule in India. This naive and deeply anachronistic nostalgia would be laughable were it not for the callous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jingoism in Lloyd?s analysis of colonial state violence.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.6437 795.3895 341.6357 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7436 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having identified so completely with the British of 1919, Lloyd is at pains to play down the various types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment the authorities implemented once martial law had been declared after mid-April. In the lane in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amritsar where a British female missionary had been brutally attacked by a crowd, Dyer ordered Indians to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crawl on all fours. But, Lloyd argues, Dyer?s anger over the attack on a British woman was ?understandable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if overzealous?, and the ?crawling order? was itself an ?insignificant? incident; after all, it was only applied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to one lane for five days and only 50 Indians were subjected to the humiliation. Martial law, Lloyd assures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us, was administered ?sensibly and with the best of intentions? and randomly flogging Indians or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscribing them for short-term forced labour saved them the trouble of going to jail, while poor people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually preferred corporal punishment to fines. Lloyd further suggests that the British who controlled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lahore under martial law ?deserve some credit for doing a thankless task in a highly difficult situation? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were after all only trying to ?improve life in Lahore?, as Lloyd puts it, ?and reminding people of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need for ?loyalty? and ?honour?? \(p. 138\). Re-assessing the evidence Lloyd thus finds it ?difficult to avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conclusion that at certain times, martial law orders were actually )] TJ ET BT 364.616 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popular)] TJ ET BT 402.620 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( among the people ...? \(italics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original, p. 148\). Needless to say, Lloyd is not too concerned with the explicit racism reflected in the types )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of punishment meted out by the British, most of which would have been unthinkable even in places like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland during the ?Troubles?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what of the massacre itself? Lloyd?s reinterpretation of the events at Jallianwala Bagh on 13 April 1919 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is based on the assumption that only Dyer?s initial report on his actions should be considered, while his later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony before the Hunter Committee and subsequently written defence should be dismissed. The linchpin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Lloyd?s narrative is thus the brief report Dyer wrote just hours after the massacre:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?I entered the Jallianwallah Bagh by a very narrow lane which necessitated my leaving my armoured cars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind. On entering, I saw a dense crowd estimated at about 5,000; a man on a raised platform addressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the audience and making gestulations [)] TJ ET BT 220.988 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sic)] TJ ET BT 234.320 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] with his hands. I realised that my force was small and to hesitate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might induce attack. I immediately opened fire and dispersed the crowd. I estimate that between 200 and 300 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the crowd were killed. My party fired 1,650 rounds?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.292 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.292 416.931 m 315.284 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dyer did not expect the meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh to take place in the first place, Lloyd argues, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he suddenly found himself face-to-face with what was assumed to be thousands of dangerous rebels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the General had no choice: ?He had to open fire? \(p. 203\). Once Dyer had given the order to fire he could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not very well stop until he had scattered the crowd, otherwise he and his men might have been overrun. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason why Dyer kept firing for ten minutes was because of the number of people gathered, combined with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the few exits leading from the Bagh, and it was these tragic circumstances, rather than the General?s actions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which according to Lloyd caused the massacre. Yet Lloyd is also keen to prove that the crowd, tragically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massacred, was not the ?peaceful? gathering of Indian nationalist myth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Lloyd, ?the danger posed by the meeting should not be underestimated?, essentially because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inflammatory content of the speeches made at Jallianwala Bagh ?would not have contributed towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoration of law and order within Amritsar and may have provoked further unrest? \(p. 168?9\). Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the meeting was planned as a provocation and in response to Dyer?s public ban on such gatherings and so it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows, Lloyd argues, that everyone present at the Bagh knew that they were breaking the law. Lloyd is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably right in suggesting that there were not that many women and children in the crowd at Jallianwala )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bagh, but the undisputed presence of at least some speaks against the notion that the gathering was volatile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and largely composed of would-be rioters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is usually assumed that a considerable number of people, including villagers from the surrounding area, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were present in the Bagh on the 13th because it was the day of the popular Baisakhi festival and a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cattle-fair had taken place at Amritsar just three days earlier. That was not so, Lloyd insists, since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence of the preceding days had interrupted the fair, and third-class railway travel to Amritsar had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banned by the authorities. Accordingly, he argues, the villagers present in the Jallianwala Bagh cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed to have been ?innocent? \(whatever that means\) and, furthermore, ?Dyer believed that the presence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of villagers was indicative of the desperate situation he was in and he may have been right? \(p. 170\). )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.2917 417.2455 315.2837 429.1255 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8307 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knowingly or not, Lloyd here invokes the old bogey of villagers joining the rebel sepoys of 1857, which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing short of absurd in the context of 1919. Of the alleged conspiracy to spread disorder in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside, and draw in pillaging villagers to Amritsar, he can provide no evidence whatsoever ? probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because such a conspiracy never existed outside the fevered mind of the likes of Dyer. Consistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissive of the depiction of Anglo-Indian hysteria, found in works such as Forster?s )] TJ ET BT 451.304 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Passage to India)] TJ ET BT 542.300 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd himself nevertheless trades in the most worn-out tropes of the ?Mutiny?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taken on its own narrow terms, Lloyd?s line of reasoning is furthermore deeply flawed. Supposedly Dyer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went to the Jallianwala Bagh completely unprepared, and when he realised the composition and size of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered crowd he had to fire, which he did within 30 seconds of entering the enclosure. How Dyer, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of seconds, could have identified the composition of a crowd of thousands Lloyd never explains, nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what tell-tale signs would have told the General that the crowd was not ?totally peaceful? or indeed not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?innocent?. Lloyd suggests that as many as 25,000 people were gathered, which is rather more than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official estimates, but claims that this was ?something that would have undoubtedly influenced Dyer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation of the situation? \(p. 171\). As appears in the above-quoted report, however, Dyer clearly did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe he was faced by a crowd of more than 5,000. The smoking gun of Lloyd?s revisionist argument thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reeks of empirical ineptitude.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd reluctantly admits that there was no evidence of a grand conspiracy against the British in 1919, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the Hunter Committee concluded that the Punjab had been in a state of ?open rebellion?, he is only too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happy pointing out that the British were legally justified in using lethal force to suppress the disturbances. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, if shooting fish in a barrel, which is what the events at Jallianwala Bagh amounted to, complies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the notion of ?minimum force?, and thus in Lloyd?s view is defensible, is it not possible that military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians might have to reconsider their moral compass? And besides, if the Amritsar Massacre was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, if not exemplar, of the ?minimum force? doctrine, as Lloyd suggests, what would ?maximum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force? have looked like? Lloyd does not make his approach any more palatable by concluding his book with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a description of communal conflict and state violence in independent India ? presumably as evidence that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after all is said and done, the ?natives? were better off under British rule. It is no mean feat that Lloyd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manages to make Niall Ferguson seem like a tree-hugging leftie by comparison.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In spite of Lloyd?s claims of extensive research, which some reviewers appear to accept, it is obvious that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Asian history is not his area of expertise. The bibliography is woefully inadequate for a book which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks to radically reassess a major historical event, and looks more like the inventory of small-town public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(library than the result of years? worth of research. Thus K. L. Tuteja?s article ?Jallianwala Bagh? \(1997\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is standard fare on undergraduate courses, or indeed Taylor Sherman?s recent study, )] TJ ET BT 474.236 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Punishment in India, 1919?1956)] TJ ET BT 212.348 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2009\), are both conspicuous omissions though by no means the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ones.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 59.012 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 59.012 288.627 m 73.004 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 73.004 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Lloyd does not appear to be aware of the extensive research on trauma and brutalization after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War, most of which explicitly discusses the Amritsar Massacre - Susan Kingsley Kent?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aftershocks)] TJ ET BT 90.008 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2009\) comes to mind as an obvious example.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.652 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.652 260.115 m 327.644 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.644 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Given Lloyd?s interpretation of Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism it is perhaps not surprising that any reference to the wider global context of the crisis of empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1919 should be largely absent, though works such as Erez Manela?s )] TJ ET BT 376.292 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wilsonian Moment)] TJ ET BT 488.288 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2007\) might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriately have been mentioned \(at the very least\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 292.616 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 292.616 217.347 m 306.608 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd?s anachronistic take on early 20th?century Indian history could in fact only be the result of a narrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and highly selective reading ? one that leaves out the most significant historiographical developments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past 30?40 years. His argument rests entirely on the premise that British police reports and official records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be taken at face value as accurate representations of fact. The pitfalls of such an approach should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious and Lloyd never gains sufficient distance from his source-material to be anything but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spokesperson for the British involved in putting down the unrest in Punjab. Lloyd?s historical analysis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus also characterised by a terminology that was in fashion pre-1947. Evidently not familiar with Ranajit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guha?s ?The prose of counter-insurgency?, Lloyd writes of ?the forces of agitation and sedition? as if these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were objectively meaningful descriptors, rather than politically loaded concepts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.276 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.276 77.043 m 433.268 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 433.268 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indian rioters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invariably described as faceless ?mobs?, often ?abusive? and ?menacing?, sometimes ?howling? or ?baying?.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 59.0117 288.9415 73.0037 300.8215 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.6517 260.4295 327.6437 272.3095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 292.6157 217.6615 306.6077 229.5415 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.2757 77.3575 433.2677 89.2375 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 6728 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Amritsar Massacre: The Untold Story of One Fateful Day)] TJ ET BT 332.996 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( seems to be part of a general revisionist trend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the war studies community in Britain, and Dyer is only the latest of his contemporaries, Field Marshal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haig being the most notable example, to be rescued from the ?calumnies? of liberal \(or, even worse, theory-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based\) historiography. There is nothing inherently wrong about historical revisionism of course ? most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians can attest to the value in reassessing longstanding myths and popular misconceptions. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem is that self-proclaimed revisionism tends to be motivated by highly politicised agendas \(of varying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denominations\) and to operate within a narrowly Manichean world-view, where angry polemics take the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place of constructive debate. This book was not written with a view to understanding the events of the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much as to exculpate the British Empire in the present. Readers who believe that Dyer has been unfairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated by history would, however, do better by reading Ian Colvin?s defence of the General from 1929 \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps revisit the )] TJ ET BT 125.000 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morning Post)] TJ ET BT 191.336 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1920\); those of a less nostalgic persuasion have yet to wait for a credible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more nuanced reassessment of the Amritsar Massacre.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd has dedicated his book to the memory of George MacDonald Fraser \(1925?2008\), which is somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puzzling ? but perhaps this reviewer simply missed )] TJ ET BT 282.656 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Flashman and the White Man?s Burden)] TJ ET BT 474.308 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 521.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Collett, )] TJ ET BT 132.356 521.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer)] TJ ET BT 368.996 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.320 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.320 520.227 m 504.308 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary Papers: Disturbances in the Punjab. Statement by Brig.-General R .E. H. Dyer, C. B., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1920, Appendix C: Report on Operations)] TJ ET BT 262.004 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14 April 1919, p. 28.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.336 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.336 491.715 m 422.324 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. L. Tuteja ?Jallianwala Bagh: a critical juncture in the Indian national movement?, )] TJ ET BT 473.948 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Scientist)] TJ ET BT 547.616 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25, 1/2 \(Jan.-Feb. 1997\), 25?61; and Taylor Sherman, )] TJ ET BT 324.980 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Violence and Punishment in India, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1919?56)] TJ ET BT 106.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.340 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.340 448.947 m 241.328 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Kingsley Kent, )] TJ ET BT 171.344 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aftershocks: The Politics of Trauma in Britain, 1918?1931)] TJ ET BT 454.688 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2009\). )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As it happens, Kent?s argument is not very persuasive but ought nevertheless to have been considered )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if Lloyd?s academic credentials are to be taken seriously.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.948 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.948 406.179 m 395.936 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erez Manela, )] TJ ET BT 130.988 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anticolonial Nationalism)] TJ ET BT 185.036 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.684 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.684 377.667 m 317.672 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ranajit Guha, ?The prose of counter-insurgency?, )] TJ ET BT 306.620 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Subaltern Studies II)] TJ ET BT 401.948 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Delhi, 1983\), 1?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.932 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.932 363.411 m 555.920 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Extra)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/amritsar-massacre-untold-story-one-fateful-day)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 308.643 m 467.924 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 470.924 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 305.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 287.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 287.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1224)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 286.137 m 328.316 286.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 261.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/9342)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/amritsar-massacre-untold-story-one-fateful-day)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.3197 520.5415 504.3077 532.4215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.3357 492.0295 422.3237 503.9095 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.3397 449.2615 241.3277 461.1415 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.9477 406.4935 395.9357 418.3735 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.6837 377.9815 317.6717 389.8615 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.9317 363.7255 555.9197 375.6055 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 308.9575 467.9237 320.8375 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/amritsar-massacre-untold-story-one-fateful-day) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 286.4515 328.3157 298.3315 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1224) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000004896 00000 n 0000005005 00000 n 0000005115 00000 n 0000005224 00000 n 0000008785 00000 n 0000008913 00000 n 0000008997 00000 n 0000009081 00000 n 0000016938 00000 n 0000016968 00000 n 0000017096 00000 n 0000017132 00000 n 0000017216 00000 n 0000024705 00000 n 0000024735 00000 n 0000024863 00000 n 0000024899 00000 n 0000025004 00000 n 0000033364 00000 n 0000033394 00000 n 0000033520 00000 n 0000033556 00000 n 0000033586 00000 n 0000033714 00000 n 0000033750 00000 n 0000033780 00000 n 0000033908 00000 n 0000033944 00000 n 0000033974 00000 n 0000034100 00000 n 0000034136 00000 n 0000034269 00000 n 0000041050 00000 n 0000041178 00000 n 0000041233 00000 n 0000041361 00000 n 0000041416 00000 n 0000041544 00000 n 0000041599 00000 n 0000041727 00000 n 0000041782 00000 n 0000041910 00000 n 0000041965 00000 n 0000042093 00000 n 0000042148 00000 n 0000042275 00000 n 0000042413 00000 n 0000042541 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42637 %%EOF