%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 19 0 R 33 0 R 45 0 R 64 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140731162357+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140731162357+01'00') /Title (Civilization: The Six Ways the West Beat the Rest) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 17 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4150 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Civilization: The Six Ways the West Beat the Rest)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The way we evaluate Western civilization is deeply influenced by our political views.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson is known in leftist circles as a ?right winger,? even a ?super-conservative'. He has always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resisted this characterization: ?I'm just a doctrinaire liberal at heart. Quite why I keep getting called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightwing is only mysterious to me?. True; he is not a conservative. He is a liberal right winger, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neoconservative. Wikipedia's entry on )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.472 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neoconservatism)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.472 202.905 m 301.124 202.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 304.124 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 318.116 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( correctly includes him as one of its proponents. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Western world has moved so far left that a committed believer in the spread of individual rights, free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets, enlightenment values around the world, including feminism and gay rights is now seen as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative. Certainly, what the left finds ?highly problematical? is Ferguson?s objections to the welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state combined with his approval of American military interventions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The intellectual history of neoconservatism cannot be reduced to Iraq, but calling for aggressive ?regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change? is clearly a radical idea in line with France's Jacobin/imperial efforts to create a ?universal? rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human by exporting the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity. John Gray was not way off the mark in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that neoconservatism represents the continuation of the Marxist-Leninist internationalist project.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 62.601 m 48.008 62.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1225)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846142734)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(432pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ricardo Duchesne)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.4717 203.2195 301.1237 215.0995 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoconservatism) >> endobj 16 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 62.9155 48.0077 74.7955 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is common for neoconservatives to contrast the excessive egalitarian policies of the French Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the moderate goals of the Glorious Revolution and the American Founders; the philosophes? obsession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with abstract principles conceived in isolation from historic circumstances with Burke's preference for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ancient liberties? and inherited prejudices.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.300 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.300 740.307 m 256.292 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 256.292 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ferguson plays up well this trope. But neo-conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics are barely consistent with the principles of classical liberalism embodied in the Bill of Rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1689 and the American Constitution, which call for small government, and nowhere for the Westernization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the world through deficit-inducing nation-building ventures. They are certainly inconsistent with the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?paleo-conservatives? of today, who tend to be nativists, non-interventionists, and sympathetic to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalties and particular identities of different cultures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson reduces the uniqueness of the West to the question: ?how it came to dominate the Rest?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to him, the West rose above the Rest through the development of six ?killer apps?: i\) a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmented political setting that worked to encourage competition and innovation both between and within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states; ii\) a predilection for open inquiry and a scientific attitude towards nature; iii\) property rights and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of property-owners in elected assemblies; iv\) modern medicine, v\) an industrial revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on both a supply of sustained innovations and a demand for mass consumer goods; and vi\) a work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethic that included more productive labor with higher savings and capital accumulation. Ferguson does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim originality here, but credit is due for his command of the subject and his ability to engage a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience of lay readers and students alike with ease, intelligence, good judgment, and a keen command of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regrettably, Ferguson?s idea of the West is devoid of any pre-modern past. Less historically literate readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will wrongly think that the West came into existence sometime in the 1600s with the arrival of these apps. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He writes early on that the West is merely ?a set of norms, behaviors, and institutions with borders that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blurred in the extreme? \(p. 15\). This idea is consistent with his neoconservative universalism. Westerners are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no more than individuals who have managed to download successfully the killer apps ? regardless of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location, religion, ethnicity, and historical background. The world, after all, has been converging with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West, or so he argues, with only a few bothersome radical Muslims standing in the way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We are made to think that until Europe started to advance economically in the 1500s this continent could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been anything else but an undeveloped ?backwater?. What about the unsurpassed intellectual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic achievements of Westerners going back to ancient times: the Greek invention of dialectics, the )] TJ ET BT 526.592 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(polis)] TJ ET BT 549.932 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy, historical writing, prose writing, and tragic poetry; the Hellenistic ?revolution? in the natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sciences, Aristarchus and his heliocentric hypothesis, Eratosthenes and his estimation of the earth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diameter, Archimedes and his foundations of hydrostatics, Euclid and his )] TJ ET BT 388.640 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elements)] TJ ET BT 432.632 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(called by Bertrand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russell ?one of the greatest books ever and one of the most perfect monuments of the Greek intellect? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.252 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.252 290.883 m 541.244 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 541.244 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new philosophies of Cynicism, Epicureanism, Stoicism; the Roman republican style of government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their invention of a legal persona, Livy?s massive history of Rome, Tacitus?s )] TJ ET BT 407.972 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annals)] TJ ET BT 441.308 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the essays of Seneca, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comedies of Plautus, and the poems of Virgil, Ovid, and Lucretius; St Paul and his new dispensation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion for all humans, St Augustine and his confessional penetration into the individual?s inner space, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capellanus and a vernacular literature dealing with love, romance, and seduction, El Cid and a vernacular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry dealing with the epic, Dante and the placement of vernacular literature on a par with biblical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical literature, Chaucer and the freeing of poetic diction, the use of participial constructions, and a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary with polysyllabic words, Ockham?s nominalism and the view that universal essences are nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than concepts in the mind, Cistercians, Victorines, Franciscans, Dominicans and the proliferation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterodox religious movements, and the democratization and laicization of mystical experience?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These, and so many other achievements, are exceptionally )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.616 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.616 122.067 m 356.600 122.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 359.600 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 373.592 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and can never be downloaded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other cultures. Ferguson mentions a few great men like Mozart, Montaigne, Spinoza, and Schubert, but only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to marvel at the additional works they might have created had they enjoyed the longevity of the average )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global consumer today. He is unmindful of Nietzsche's )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.476 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Last Man)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.476 79.299 m 346.136 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.136 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 363.128 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or Jacques Barzun's )] TJ ET BT 466.928 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Dawn to )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decadence)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 65.217 m 87.320 65.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.320 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 105.656 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, 1500 to the Present, 500 Years of Western Cultural Life)] TJ ET BT 379.664 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2000\). He values the ?peculiarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American? contribution to the rule of law, the sanctity of the individual, and the security of property )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 242.2997 740.6215 256.2917 752.5015 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.2517 291.1975 541.2437 303.0775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.6157 122.3815 356.5997 134.2615 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nas.org/articles/nowhere_but_the_west) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 300.4757 79.6135 346.1357 91.4935 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nietzschespirit.com/files/The_Most_Despicable_Man_is_Coming...the_Last_Man.html) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 65.3575 87.3197 77.2375 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/civilization/cc0084.html) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8241 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights, ?ensured by representative, constitutional government? \(p. 97\). This seems to be the ?killer app? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the others possible. But one is left wondering how China and the East Asian ?tigers? achieved their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher levels of competitiveness without downloading the West's political pluralism. His argument on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid ascendancy of Asia over the Western world is made efficiently. The rise of China is no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reducible to cheap labour goods, but involves a set of carefully crafted policies backed by some solid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional templates: ?China has increased expenditure on research and development by a factor of six in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past decade, has more than doubled the number of its scientists and is now second only to the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States in its annual output of scientific papers? \(p. 318\). In the realm of education the shift is ?most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling? with students from Asian countries outperforming students from all the Western countries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standardized tests of mathematical aptitude.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Ferguson ends the book emphasizing the value of Western individual freedom, and calling upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westerners to re-introduce a liberal education that teaches history in a substantial way, ?that can bolster our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief in the almost boundless power of the free individual human being? \(p. 324\). Ferguson calls the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catching up in wealth and power by the ?resterners? the ?Great Reconvergence?. But if the Chinese are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming Western \(he observes, additionally, that 40 million Chinese have converted to Christianity\), why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be bothered if they are ascending? Why find fault in China's authoritarian style if this same style ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson implies \(306\) ? accounts for China's ascendancy over a liberal West that lacks the ?authoritative? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character, the boldness and resolve, to require students to study their own history? And if he really thinks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the liberal app is the most important one, why not concentrate on the promotion of human rights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic reforms in China? Why would it matter then if the Oriental side of a uniformly cultural economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rose slightly above the Occidental side?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My sense is that Ferguson knows, in his heart, that the East is hugely different from the West. It is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult, almost contradictory, to highlight the universalistic aspects of Western modernity, focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Great Reconvergence?, and then portray China?s rise as an epochal shift with serious implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western culture. He writes that ?the biggest threat to Western civilization is posed not by other civilizations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but by our own pusillanimity? \(pp. 323?4\). But what can he mean by this other than his frequent calls for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisive interventions in the Near East? The Iraq war has been a costly failure: almost 5,000 American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers killed, over 33,000 seriously wounded, hundreds of thousands of Iraqi dead, $1 trillion in military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenses, and a political situation that is still uncertain ? to put it )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.008 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mildly)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.008 371.907 m 379.352 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.352 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 396.344 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is clearly worried by the lack of assimilation of Muslims in Europe, and the key role being played at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities and elsewhere by Islamic centres. He tabulates that if the current Muslim population of the UK )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to grow at the current rate, its share of the total population would pass 50 per cent in 2050 \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(290\). So, it looks like the West needs to show resolve on Muslim immigration and assimilation ... by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching kids Western liberal arts? I doubt a population built on mass migration from non-Western lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be enthusiastic about Elizabethan England, Homer, Chaucer, Aquinas, or even Shakespeare. He says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?mass immigration is not necessarily the solvent of a civilization, if the migrants embrace, and are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged to embrace the values of the civilization to which they are moving? \(p. 290\). It is worth noting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that only westerners are inviting resterners to come to their homelands; there is no ?reconvergence? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatsoever in this respect; this is one killer app Asia does not care for. If current trends continue, the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will become a less homogenous civilization, whereas China, Japan, and India will remain uniquely native.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lack of spirit and boldness on the part of Westerners may well lie in their inability to reproduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves above replacement levels. G. K. Chesterton once said that a people that forgets its ancestors will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care little for its descendants. Pat Buchanan, in )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.980 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Death of the West)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.980 148.497 m 368.636 148.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 371.636 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 386.972 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2002\), makes a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaneous observation: in attacking its heritage as racist, imperialistic, and patriarchal, the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.604 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.604 134.067 m 545.264 134.067 l S BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 119.811 m 71.348 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 74.348 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 88.340 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( establishment engendered a hedonistic and childless generation that welcomes mass immigration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cheap labor as the only ?realistic? solution to its affluent retirement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson handles immigration in the manner that is expected in polite liberal society ? lest one faces illiberal )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reprisals)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 65.043 m 74.672 65.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.672 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 91.664 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He eulogizes over the fact that with mass migration ?a single American civilization is finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging? \(p. 139\) ? a mixed-race species. Why ?finally emerging?? Because both left and right liberals )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.0077 372.2215 379.3517 384.1015 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.theamericanconservative.com/blog/who-won-the-iraq-war/) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.9797 148.6375 368.6357 160.5175 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amazon.com/Death-West-Populations-Immigrant-Civilization/dp/0312285485) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.6037 134.3815 545.2637 146.2615 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8-dWC-vFAwk) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 120.1255 71.3477 132.0055 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8-dWC-vFAwk) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 65.3575 74.6717 77.2375 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.cis.org.au/publications/occasional-papers/article/3932-you-cant-say-that-freedom-of-speech-and-the-invisible-muzzle) >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 9160 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe that the mass influx from Africa, Latin America and Asia represents the fulfilment of Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egalitarianism. The emergence of a ?homogenized humanity? \(p. 198\) fabricated through the ?democratic? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blending of races, religions and cultures is the end of history. Ferguson thus notes that the number of mixed-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race couples in the United Sates ?quadrupled between 1990 and 2000?, and that ?whites will probably be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority of the US population? \(pp. 138?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These ideas have little in common with the same Burke that Ferguson otherwise defends against the singular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and abstract citizen of the French Revolution. Calling for the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.976 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merging)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.976 697.539 m 368.972 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 371.972 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 391.964 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of races, the dissolution of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age-old European ethnic character of the West, and the imposition of universal citizenry across the Islamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, is a revolutionary idea drastically at odds with Burke?s emphasis on the particular customs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(folkways of different cultures, and the ?ancient liberties? of )] TJ ET BT 323.276 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen)] TJ ET BT 379.940 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Burke was a ?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.584 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.584 654.771 m 505.916 654.771 l S BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative?)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 640.515 m 99.992 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 102.992 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 122.984 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and a liberal by the standards of his day. He would have rejected the rationalist contempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the past contained in the anticipation that the United States will soon become a white-minority country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core of Burke's conservatism is fear of rootlessness, and revolutionary agendas that disregard ancestry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hierarchy, loyalty and duty, inherited habits and prejudices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neoconservatives and libertarians alike are continually making the claim that the U.S. is a ?propositional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation? founded not on ancestry, past customs, and ethnicity, but on universal ideas. One of the passages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often cited in support of this claim is this famous one from the Declaration of Rights: ?We hold these truths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?. Another set of well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known words, cited by Ferguson, is contained in Abraham Lincoln?s Gettysburg Address, stating that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States was a nation ?conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal?. But as )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 471.699 m 134.000 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 137.000 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 156.992 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have argued, the Constitution, which is the law of the land, and the Federalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Papers, which articulate key ideas upon which the American government was founded, are really a ?diverse? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixture of Greco-Roman ideas, Christian beliefs, Lockean natural-right ideas, conservative French ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Montesquieu and other sources. The concept of people-hood ? ?We the people? ? as it was understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the time, is also essential; it referred to the habits, ancestries, ethnicity of the founders, rather than all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples of the planet. As John Jay, writing in the )] TJ ET BT 271.328 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Federalist)] TJ ET BT 320.660 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, observed, ?Providence has been pleased to give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this one connected country to one united people, a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their manners and customs?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wishing that the nations of the West retain their cultural character in historic continuity with their ancestors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproducing their own populations, with some influx from outside, but not mass migration, is not racist )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.668 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.668 317.139 m 545.660 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 545.660 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is conservative. A conservative idea of Western civilization would include the Enlightenment as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Christian tradition, the Greco-Roman principles of natural aristocracy, and the age-old ethnic character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of European peoples. Conservatives don't accept the premises of the ?end of history? and the unchallenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascendancy of a liberal global system that discredits and neutralizes local loyalties, historical communities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and family life. The liberal enlightenment did promote a radical and universalizing side of the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heritage. But this enlightenment was nurtured by a particular historical setting, religion and community, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without these traditions the heritage of the West amounts to nothing more than a set of killer applications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Gray, ?Utopianism redux?, )] TJ ET BT 222.656 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Interest)] TJ ET BT 329.972 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Summer 2006\). For a recent French study )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that carefully examines the intellectual roots, or the ?three ages of neoconservatism?, see Justin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vaisse, )] TJ ET BT 102.008 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Neoconservatism. The Biography of a Movement)] TJ ET BT 336.644 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.296 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.296 123.315 m 513.284 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Gertrude Himmelfarb?s)] TJ ET BT 201.644 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Roads to Modernity)] TJ ET BT 317.972 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 326.972 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British, French, and American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenments)] TJ ET BT 138.680 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.316 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.316 94.803 m 310.304 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bertrand Russell, )] TJ ET BT 150.344 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Western Philosophy)] TJ ET BT 308.336 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1974\), p. 221.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.660 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.660 80.547 m 479.648 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As it is, left multiculturalists can never be satisfied; although Ferguson dedicated pages condemning )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the negative aspects of Europe's \(particularly Germany's racial\) imperialism, Pankaj Mishra associated )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.9757 697.8535 368.9717 709.7335 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.google.ca/search?q=fact+of+race+mixed+in+one&hl=en&prmd=imvns&source=lnms&tbm=isch&ei=nVw5T-eaE-ff0QH6xLTkBg&sa=X&oi=mode_link&ct=mode&cd=2&ved=0CA4Q_AUoAQ&biw=1040&bih=892#q=fact+of+race+mixed+in+one&hl=en&sa=X&tbm=isch&tbas=0&ei=ql05T8frGcqI0Q) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.5837 655.0855 505.9157 666.9655 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.law.missouri.edu/lawreview/docs/72-2/Bogus.pdf) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 640.8295 99.9917 652.7095 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.law.missouri.edu/lawreview/docs/72-2/Bogus.pdf) >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 472.0135 133.9997 483.8935 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://archive.frontpagemag.com/readArticle.aspx?ARTID=24240) >> endobj 55 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.6677 317.4535 545.6597 329.3335 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 459.2957 123.6295 513.2837 135.5095 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.3157 95.1175 310.3037 106.9975 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.6597 80.8615 479.6477 92.7415 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R ] /Contents 65 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Length 6160 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson?s approach to the West with Theodore Lothrop Stoddard?s book, )] TJ ET BT 427.628 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rising Tide of Color )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(against White World Supremacy)] TJ ET BT 219.668 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1920\), which is another way of calling Ferguson a racist.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.616 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.616 780.819 m 553.604 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NPR Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.npr.org/2011/11/02/141942357/how-the-west-beat-the-rest-six-killer-apps)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 726.051 m 447.968 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 450.968 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/mar/25/civilization-west-rest-niall-ferguson-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 472.292 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 475.292 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14])] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotsman)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.scotsman.com/news/book-reviews-civilization-the-west-and-the-rest-how-the-west-was-lost-a-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 669.027 m 547.244 669.027 l S BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history-of-the-world-since-9-11-1-1494696)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 242.636 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.636 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15])] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spectator)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/6725098/a-negative-outlook.thtml)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 626.259 m 364.004 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 367.004 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16])] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street Journal)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204621904577015973281190052.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 597.747 m 458.372 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.372 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([17])] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/civilization-the-west-and-the-rest-by-niall-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 569.235 m 551.600 569.235 l S BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ferguson-2238079.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 554.979 m 147.008 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 150.008 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([18])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 551.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 533.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 533.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1225)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 532.473 m 328.316 532.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 507.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 493.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/9334)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoconservatism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.nas.org/articles/nowhere_but_the_west)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.nietzschespirit.com/files/The_Most_Despicable_Man_is_Coming...the_Last_Man.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.496 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/civilization/cc0084.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.theamericanconservative.com/blog/who-won-the-iraq-war/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://www.amazon.com/Death-West-Populations-Immigrant-Civilization/dp/0312285485)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8-dWC-vFAwk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 378.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9] http://www.cis.org.au/publications/occasional-papers/article/3932-you-cant-say-that-freedom-of-speech-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and-the-invisible-muzzle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.099 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.google.ca/search?q=fact+of+race+mixed+in+one&hl=en&prmd=imvns&source=lnms&tbm=isch&ei=nVw5T-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eaE-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.472 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ff0QH6xLTkBg&sa=X&oi=mode_link&ct=mode&cd=2&ved=0CA4Q_AUoAQ&biw=1040&bih=892#q=fact+of+race+mixed+in+one&hl=en&sa=X&tbm=isch&tbas=0&ei=ql05T8frGcqI0Q)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11] http://www.law.missouri.edu/lawreview/docs/72-2/Bogus.pdf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12] http://archive.frontpagemag.com/readArticle.aspx?ARTID=24240)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13] http://www.npr.org/2011/11/02/141942357/how-the-west-beat-the-rest-six-killer-apps)] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/mar/25/civilization-west-rest-niall-ferguson-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15] http://www.scotsman.com/news/book-reviews-civilization-the-west-and-the-rest-how-the-west-was-)] TJ ET BT 539.576 234.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.216 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a-history-of-the-world-since-9-11-1-1494696)] TJ ET BT 34.016 205.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16] http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/6725098/a-negative-outlook.thtml)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([17] http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204621904577015973281190052.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.131 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([18] http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/civilization-the-west-and-the-rest-by-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 162.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(niall-ferguson-2238079.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.6157 781.1335 553.6037 793.0135 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 55 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 726.3655 447.9677 738.2455 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.npr.org/2011/11/02/141942357/how-the-west-beat-the-rest-six-killer-apps) >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 472.2917 709.7335 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/mar/25/civilization-west-rest-niall-ferguson-review) >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 669.3415 547.2437 681.2215 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.scotsman.com/news/book-reviews-civilization-the-west-and-the-rest-how-the-west-was-lost-a-history-of-the-world-since-9-11-1-1494696) >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 655.0855 242.6357 666.9655 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.scotsman.com/news/book-reviews-civilization-the-west-and-the-rest-how-the-west-was-lost-a-history-of-the-world-since-9-11-1-1494696) >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 626.5735 364.0037 638.4535 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/6725098/a-negative-outlook.thtml) >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 598.0615 458.3717 609.9415 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204621904577015973281190052.html) >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 569.5495 551.5997 581.4295 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/civilization-the-west-and-the-rest-by-niall-ferguson-2238079.html) >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 555.2935 147.0077 567.1735 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/civilization-the-west-and-the-rest-by-niall-ferguson-2238079.html) >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 532.7875 328.3157 544.6675 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1225) >> endobj xref 0 86 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000004857 00000 n 0000004966 00000 n 0000005076 00000 n 0000005185 00000 n 0000008746 00000 n 0000008874 00000 n 0000008958 00000 n 0000009086 00000 n 0000009182 00000 n 0000009211 00000 n 0000009335 00000 n 0000009371 00000 n 0000009483 00000 n 0000018248 00000 n 0000018278 00000 n 0000018406 00000 n 0000018442 00000 n 0000018472 00000 n 0000018600 00000 n 0000018636 00000 n 0000018764 00000 n 0000018864 00000 n 0000018990 00000 n 0000019132 00000 n 0000019256 00000 n 0000019374 00000 n 0000019486 00000 n 0000027780 00000 n 0000027908 00000 n 0000028025 00000 n 0000028153 00000 n 0000028286 00000 n 0000028414 00000 n 0000028508 00000 n 0000028634 00000 n 0000028728 00000 n 0000028852 00000 n 0000029030 00000 n 0000029163 00000 n 0000038376 00000 n 0000038504 00000 n 0000038812 00000 n 0000038940 00000 n 0000039049 00000 n 0000039175 00000 n 0000039284 00000 n 0000039412 00000 n 0000039524 00000 n 0000039554 00000 n 0000039682 00000 n 0000039718 00000 n 0000039846 00000 n 0000039901 00000 n 0000040028 00000 n 0000040083 00000 n 0000040209 00000 n 0000040264 00000 n 0000040411 00000 n 0000046624 00000 n 0000046752 00000 n 0000046807 00000 n 0000046934 00000 n 0000047068 00000 n 0000047195 00000 n 0000047335 00000 n 0000047462 00000 n 0000047656 00000 n 0000047783 00000 n 0000047977 00000 n 0000048104 00000 n 0000048221 00000 n 0000048348 00000 n 0000048478 00000 n 0000048605 00000 n 0000048784 00000 n 0000048911 00000 n 0000049090 00000 n 0000049218 00000 n trailer << /Size 86 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 49314 %%EOF