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How we got to the Big Society) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3992 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Ages of Voluntarism ? How we got to the Big Society)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ages of Voluntarism)] TJ ET BT 153.020 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one of the outcomes of the ?Non-Governmental Organisations in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945?1997? project, and emerged out of a British Academy workshop held in March 2009. The main aim of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book is to challenge narratives which have argued, in various ways, that voluntary action has been in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline since the perceived Victorian ?golden age? \(pp. 1?2\) of philanthropy, putting this declinist narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of similar narratives charting Britain?s supposed decline over the last century. This is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterbalanced by a simple chronological narrative tracing an alternative path, one of revival, but by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of snapshots in which the authors argue for the adaptability, renewal, complexity and variety of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector over the last century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters are a mix of period- and theme-specific case studies, and one which charts a particular theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over a longer period. Those with a specific period are covered in chronological order, beginning with Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grant?s look at how the First World War affected voluntarism in Britain. Grant?s chapter recognises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of modern voluntarism here; in efforts to be more professional and effective, in the use of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundraising methods, and in the adaptability of the sector and the increase in the state?s role in voluntarism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He draws attention to the 2.5 million men who volunteered for the front and the equal number who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1226)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hilton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James McKay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780197264829)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlotte Clements)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7233 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volunteered in another way at home. He traces the beginnings of state attempts to better co-ordinate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary action, and greater state involvement in it, both of which are recurring themes in later periods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the First World War volunteers were mobilised from all parts of society, something that continued in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inter-war years, as Helen McCarthy shows in her chapter on associational voluntarism. She explores how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both political and social life were democratised by involvement in associations, following the extension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the franchise in 1918 and again in 1928. Her starting point is that the inter-war period was still highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided by class and gender. She argues that boundaries such as class, religion and gender all became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeable through the activities of associations at this time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Class is a recurring theme, taken up again by Peter Shapely in his discussion of tenant groups in post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. He examines how such groups reflected the wider discourse of civil society at the time and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often formed and run predominantly by working-class residents. Tenant groups, he explains, used the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of rights to campaign for fair rents and better conditions with some, albeit limited, success. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shapely?s chapter shows the diversity and adaptability of such groups, but, significantly, he examines their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local nature which is a useful reminder of their importance against a wider literature which often examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntarism on the national level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National-level organisations often showed the same diversity and adaptability as the local groups included in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shapely?s chapter. The fluid and thus often difficult to define nature of voluntary organisations is something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the chapter on drug and anti-smoking charities by Alex Mold and Virginia Berridge uncovers. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyse the relationship between new social movements and voluntary action in the 1960s and 1970s. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss how categories which have traditionally been applied to voluntary organisations are useful, but have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps been applied too rigidly to properly understand such organisations. ?Old? and ?new?, or ?insider? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?outsider?, have been seen as dichotomies, rather than as interrelated ideas which need not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistically polarised. In fact, Berridge and Mold argue that the complexities hidden by these dichotomous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms need to be reinstated. This wish to overcome simplified narratives, such as that of the post-war decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of voluntarism, is a recurring aim in voluntary sector historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another familiar decline narrative, taken up by one of the authors, is that of the secularisation of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society during the 20th century. Eliza Filby, in her contribution)] TJ ET BT 337.664 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 343.664 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks at the role of the Church in helping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unemployed during the 1980s)] TJ ET BT 194.672 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 197.672 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Filby explores this theme and a set of important intersections between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church, the voluntary sector and the state. The relationship between the latter two forms one of the central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes running through all chapters in the book. Filby, looking particularly at the relationship of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican Church to the state in the 1980s, identifies three distinct phases of adaptation, collaboration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism, whereby the Church found a voice in speaking against the state on welfare issues. Ultimately Filby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues for the continued relevance of the Church in a more secular society, notably, though not exclusively, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of their role in shaping discourse on welfare.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last period-based chapter is Pete Alcock?s contribution examining New Labour and the Third Way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charting the emergence of the term ?third sector?. This term emerged as terminology shifted to define the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third sector as all non-profit organisations including social enterprises, co-operatives and charities of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shapes and sizes. This, he argues, coincided with a very large rise in the profile of the sector and an upward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift in the scope and scale of voluntary action. Alongside this change in policy and discourse came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural changes from within the Labour Government to support state and third sector partnerships. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partnership being a key feature of state and voluntary sector relations under New Labour, \(though not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively so as Alcock goes on to argue, not least in relation to the more recent Big Society policy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coalition government\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The extent to which New Labour?s third sector policies represented a new approach from the party to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector is explored by Nicholas Deakin and Justin Davis Smith, in a chapter which cuts across many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods examined in isolation elsewhere in the book. In the same way that the book as a whole seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter declinist narratives, this chapter seeks to demonstrate that traditional interpretations of Labour Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility to voluntary action are incorrect. This ?myth?, they argue, was created because at varying times it )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7821 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was politically convenient to both the left and right for the Labour Party to have been seen this way. In their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation, Labour has always embraced voluntarism ?properly defined? \(p. 69\). That is to say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntarism so defined is characterised as a form of self-help and a duty of citizenship rather than as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternalistic, Victorian and class-laden ? a view which has been popular, and is indeed central to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overarching narrative of decline which the book seeks to offer an alternative to.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ages of Voluntarism)] TJ ET BT 153.020 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does offer an alternative to this traditional narrative of declining voluntary action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hastened by new state welfare. This alternative is one which has gained prominence among academics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students recently, with a number of recent publications, including the project team?s other main edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, )] TJ ET BT 87.344 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(NGOs in Contemporary Britain: Non-state Actors in Society and Politics since 1945)] TJ ET BT 493.004 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.004 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.004 669.027 m 509.996 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.996 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collected chapters cover varied periods, themes and types of organisation to show that voluntary action has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to be an important element of social and political life as well as a provider of welfare services, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised, as the editors put it, by ?constant renewal and adaptation? \(p. 8\). The contributors have picked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments of importance for voluntary action, often showing it at its best, showcasing its adaptability and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity. This makes the absence of a chapter on the 1940s and 1950s, in the wake of new state-provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare all the more disappointing. The snapshots presented in )] TJ ET BT 337.304 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ages of Voluntarism)] TJ ET BT 456.308 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are necessarily brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and do not offer a comprehensive history of voluntarism over the last hundred years, nor do they claim to. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet taken together, they do provide a good introduction to many of the key themes and debates which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of voluntarism encounter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By not organising the book around a central theme, the editors have risked producing a book of chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, although linked by a broad topic, do not quite feel like they belong together, each chapter best being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read in isolation. However, by drawing out some other themes in the introduction, the editors give the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only some idea of recurring themes in the historiography, but also some signposts which can be used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw the chapters closer together. Two broad areas, the relationship of voluntary action with the state and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with society, are more or less explicit throughout, and described as ?inseparable? \(p. 12\) by the editors in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction. The frequent references to the state throughout the book seem to bear out this argument to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some extent. Berridge and Mold?s chapter, by debating the nature of insider and outsider organisations is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps best at examining some of the complexities of the relationship with the state on the national level, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Shapely does this in some ways with local government. However, much more research is needed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially on relationships between the state and voluntary action at this local level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relationship with wider society is often less clear, as there is little focus on people with whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations were not directly interacting. The relationship with society is most often considered by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of voluntary action and class. Class has been central in understandings of voluntarism which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give prominence to the middle-class volunteer of the Victorian ?Golden Age? and which have therefore lent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight to a narrative of decline which excludes all parts of society regardless of class, religion or gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the history of voluntary action. Helen McCarthy?s look at how these boundaries were becoming less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigid in inter-war voluntary associations shows the beginnings of a shift rather than a decline in voluntary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action. This focus on the middle class volunteer is something that Peter Shapely also seeks to redress, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is referred to by voluntarism ?properly defined? \(p. 69\) when looking at the myth of Labour hostility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Properly defining voluntary action is something the editors also take a little time over. They draw a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between a theoretical and practical definition of voluntary action. Theoretically they take a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide definition including virtually all private action. On the practical level they narrow this down to exclude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-covered areas such as trade unions and political parties. This distinction and grey in-between area are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical of studies of the sector which often describe its blurred edges. This reflects the constantly-changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of voluntary action, something the editors want to make readers aware of, as well as pointing to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities of voluntarism since the First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ages of Voluntarism)] TJ ET BT 153.020 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is part of an important and growing literature, reminding historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing existence and relevance of voluntary action in a space somewhere in between histories of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, society and culture. As social history, it analyses one of the enduring interactions between citizens and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. For any reader unfamiliar with the history of voluntary action, it provides, in vivid case studies, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.0037 669.3415 509.9957 681.2215 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 4632 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some ways which the sector should be factored into considerations of both state and society, useful for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone studying British society over the last hundred years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the history of voluntary action, the chapters chart some significant moments and developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the last century. By switching between types of organisation and types of voluntary action, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the breadth of activity which voluntary action history includes. It should again be pointed out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this is not a comprehensive history of the sector, nor does it claim to be, but with what that could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially include that should be no surprise. What it does do is argue very strongly and positively for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of voluntary action history in all its varieties. It also argues for the sector in its own right too. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very end, the reader is reminded that the voluntary sector is threatened by spending cuts which may make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the third sector under New Labour a ?high watermark? in the relationship between the state and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary sector \(p. 179\), and which may ultimately make the ?Big Society? of the Coalition Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrealisable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For policy makers, examining the various ways that the sector and state have interacted and formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnerships might inform how government seeks to influence the voluntary sector in the future. )] TJ ET BT 498.284 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voluntarism)] TJ ET BT 93.356 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not offer ready-made policy, but a set of examples and precedents from which a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different directions could be indicated. It also demonstrates how the sector mobilises and adapts to anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which central and even local government might care to throw at it, including spending cuts. The lesson for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy makers is clear, that despite numerous attempts by the state to influence and perhaps control the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector, voluntary action will always reconfigure itself to work independently as well as in partnership with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state, with the flexibility and diversity to do both and much more. It will endure and change, just as these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles show it has done for the last hundred years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(NGOs in Contemporary Britain: Non-state Actors in Society and Politics since 1945)] TJ ET BT 469.676 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Nick )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crowson, Matthew Hilton and James McKay \(Basingstoke, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.984 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.984 406.179 m 437.972 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors of the collection are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further. They are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actively engaged in researching some of the further areas pointed to by Charlotte Clements and will publish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the results in The Politics of Expertise: How NGOs Shaped Modern Britain \(Oxford: forthcoming, 2012/13\).)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 336.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 318.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 318.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1226)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 316.905 m 328.316 316.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 291.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/9338)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.9837 406.4935 437.9717 418.3735 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 317.2195 328.3157 329.0995 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1226) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000004684 00000 n 0000004793 00000 n 0000004903 00000 n 0000005012 00000 n 0000008573 00000 n 0000008701 00000 n 0000008785 00000 n 0000008850 00000 n 0000016136 00000 n 0000016220 00000 n 0000024094 00000 n 0000024124 00000 n 0000024252 00000 n 0000024288 00000 n 0000024379 00000 n 0000029064 00000 n 0000029192 00000 n 0000029247 00000 n 0000029375 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29471 %%EOF