%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141124191418+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141124191418+00'00') /Title (The Jews and Germans of Hamburg: The Destruction of a Civilization 1790-1945) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3996 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Jews and Germans of Hamburg: The Destruction of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Civilization 1790-1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is more than just a history of the German-Jewish communities before and during the Holocaust. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also part memoir, part impassioned response to the National Socialists? ?destruction of a civilization?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This breadth, though, should come as no surprise. For the book?s author, the late John Grenville, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself a Holocaust survivor. Born and raised in Berlin, he escaped Nazi Germany through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kindertransport)] TJ ET BT 112.028 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( scheme in 1939. Sadly, as he notes in the preface to the volume, this history may well ?be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last? from someone who personally ?lived through the Nazi years? \(p. xiii\). Crucially, however, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is not just a reflection of personal memories, it is also a solid, scholarly account, based on over 30 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of archival research. Indeed, Grenville has brought to bear on the project his long experience as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor of Modern History at the University of Birmingham and as editor of the Leo Baeck Institute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yearbook. The result of Grenville?s endeavours is a very readable and at times stimulating history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi regime?s gradual destruction of German-Jewish life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book that Grenville has written, however, is one that is very different from that which might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagined from the publisher?s title. So long as the reader is not expecting a history of Hamburg?s Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities from the 18th through to the 20th century, then this is really not a major problem. Nonetheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1228)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Grenville)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415665865)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Grady)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7632 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ambiguity of the book?s title offers a rather fruitful way of thinking about what areas the book does and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not examine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judging by the title, the reader is promised a book that offers a history of German Jewry from 1790 through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1945. There is a good reason for beginning the narrative in the late 18th century. This was the time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moses Mendelssohn, Christian Wilhelm Dohm and the growing ideas of emancipation. Grenville?s choice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of end date also makes perfect sense. Germany?s surrender in May 1945 may have brought the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socialists? genocidal war to an end, but by this stage 230,000 of Hamburg?s Jews had emigrated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(165,000 had been brutally murdered. Unlike other recent histories of German Jewry, Grenville sees little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value in continuing his narrative beyond 1945.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.660 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.660 669.027 m 271.652 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 271.652 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For him, there was no genuine revival of Jewish life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany after the Holocaust. ?Links with German-Jewish culture? in post-war Germany, Grenville )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes, ?weakened until today it has all but disappeared? \(p. 263\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To consider such a large span of German history in a mere 270 pages is no easy task. It is perhaps for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason that Grenville decided to concentrate his narrative mainly on the final 12 years of this timeframe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one sketches out developments in both German and German-Jewish history from 1790 through to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918. As the first tentative signs of democratic and liberal thinking began to take root in the early 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, German Jews became more visible in urban areas. In Hamburg, an increasingly confident German-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish community began to establish a range of communal buildings from synagogues to schools. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid to late 19th century, Germans Jews had entered, what Grenville calls a ?golden era? \(p. 19\). Members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamburg?s Jewish communities entered high profile positions as politicians, bankers and industrialists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the line taken by much historical writing, Grenville notes a gradual decline in German Jews? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social position at the turn of the century, which was only accentuated during the years of the First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 57.668 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 57.668 471.699 m 71.660 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two, entitled ?The shadow of the Nazis?, focuses on the short-lived Weimar Republic. The narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thread of this chapter is one that most readers will recognise. Grenville moves rapidly through the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staging points of republican Germany. The effects of the revolution and the Versailles Treaty are well dealt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with, as is the economic turmoil that sandwiched either end of the Weimar Republic. As Grenville neatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, smaller political movements, such as the )] TJ ET BT 300.992 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutschvlkischer Schutz- und Trutzbund)] TJ ET BT 501.308 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradually gaining ground at this time too. The Jews of Hamburg and elsewhere, therefore, not only had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position themselves in the chaos of post-war Germany, but also had to fend off the threat of rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antisemitism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By page 57, then, the first 143 years of the book are complete. This leaves the remaining four chapters free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to cover the years 1933 to 1945, which in essence is the book?s real focus. Chapter three offers a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the Nazi regime?s first year in power. In Hamburg, as elsewhere, the Nazis? rapidly consolidated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their position through a combination of elections, legal measures and sheer violence. Indeed, Grenville )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly places great emphasis on the sheer brutality of National Socialism. He outlines the establishment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early concentration camps in and around Hamburg, and discusses the takeover of the city government by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?gangsters and crooks? \(p. 69\). At the same time, though, the chapter also makes clear that below the upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echelons of power, many local civil servants, policemen and judges remained in their posts. For German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews, it was this mix of the brutal and the familiar that made the early years of the Nazi regime so confusing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth chapter takes up the narrative from 1934 through until 1938. Here the focus changes from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi regime?s actions to the actual responses of German Jews in Hamburg and beyond. In an extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough account, Grenville argues that the Jewish communities were not forced into submission, but rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained defiant and ?robustly asserted their rights? \(p. 112\). Several episodes demonstrate German Jews? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?courage in adversity?. Perhaps most remarkably, the Jewish community fought an ongoing campaign to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect its Grindel burial ground. Community representatives had meetings with civil servants, the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mayor and even the Gestapo. As Grenville suggests, there was certainly no question of a ?meek surrender? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 121\) here. However by the mid 1930s, it was not just the existing Jewish communities that were forced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find a response to the regime. Baptised Jews and the so-called )] TJ ET BT 334.628 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mischlinge)] TJ ET BT 387.956 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also found themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly isolated from wider German society. Grenville does an excellent job of drawing together all )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.6597 669.3415 271.6517 681.2215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 57.6677 472.0135 71.6597 483.8935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7590 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these various strands of Jewish life. The chapter shows how all Jews, whether Zionist, Orthodox or indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baptised Jews, had to make rapid adjustments to their daily lives in an attempt simply to survive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The narrative continues apace in chapter five. Concentrating on the years 1938 and 1939, Grenville paints a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of a community in desperate decline. From the spring of 1938, new legislative measures started to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come through thick and fast. And the ongoing ?Aryanisation? of Jewish businesses also gathered speed. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once again Grenville?s focus on the diversity of Jewish life that proves most illuminating. He reminds us, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the use of several personal accounts, how the first deportations from Germany affected not German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews, but foreign Jews. In October 1938, the regime hounded Polish Jews, many of whom had lived in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany for decades, over the border. There they were left, virtually destitute, to fend for themselves. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nazi pogrom the following month, all Jews in Germany were targeted. The chapter ends with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar, though still dispiriting, account of German Jews desperately seeking to emigrate, while at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time facing ever harsher attacks within Germany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six, entitled ?The Holocaust?, considers the brutal destruction of German-Jewish life during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War. What is particularly important about Grenville?s approach to this history is that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the Holocaust from a local German level. With each page of the chapter, the reader is confronted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an ever declining Jewish community. First, Jewish mental patients were killed under the euthanasia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme, then in 1941 deportations to the Lodz ghetto began. These were followed by further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportations to Minsk and Riga. For those that remained, the situation became increasingly desperate. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only did the small number of surviving Jews have to live with the fear of deportation, but they also risked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death or mutilation from one of the Allies? many air raids over Germany. By the war?s end, all that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained of Hamburg?s once thriving Jewish community were 674 Jews.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this chapter summary, it should be clear that this is not a study of 155 years of German-Jewish history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the title implies, but is instead a book about the Nazis? destruction of the Jewish communities. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s title is also slightly ambiguous in other respects too. The impression it gives is that the book provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a history of Hamburg and its environs. As such the book is intended to add to a long line of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical studies that have used the city as a backdrop.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.308 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.308 402.675 m 311.300 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 311.300 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The presence of the )] TJ ET BT 411.596 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forschungsstelle fr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zeitgeschichte)] TJ ET BT 103.340 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 144.332 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institut fr die Geschichte der deutschen Juden)] TJ ET BT 370.964 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Hamburg has undoubtedly done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to promote this research. However, the demographics, geographical location and social structures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city also make it an important case study for exploring Germany?s recent past. As a port city, Hamburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a major trading centre and with passing sailors, businessmen and travellers also fairly cosmopolitan. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until the First World War, it was also home to one of Germany?s largest Jewish communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grenville?s book, while following the path laid by this earlier body of work on 20th century Hamburg, never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confines itself entirely to the borders of the city state. Indeed, the beating heart of the Hanseatic city is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely absent. The Alster, the town hall, the Elbe or even the sumptuous villas of Rotherbaum only make a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleeting appearance. Rather than sketching out the minutiae of Hamburg, the book draws heavily on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples from other areas of Germany, particularly from Berlin. The net result is a study that provides more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a national, than a regional history. This is certainly no bad thing as the book adeptly avoids the trap of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that a narrow local case study represents all of Germany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s title also deserves comment for the way in which it describes Jewish / non-Jewish relations. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grenville, his history is very consciously about ?Jews and Germans?. The reason for this formulation, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges, is that this was how many Germans viewed the Jews. They were regarded ?as not part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German )] TJ ET BT 75.668 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volk)] TJ ET BT 97.664 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or fully integrated in a multicultural nation? \(p. ix\). Grenville?s decision to use this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulation in his title follows in the footsteps of Peter Gay and Till van Rahden, but turns their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of German-Jewish life on its head. For Gay and van Rahden, Jews were always a part of wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German society, which is why the pair privileged a different term in their titles: ?Jews and other Germans?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 93.555 m 48.008 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By viewing Jews as a distinct, almost separate, section of German society, Grenville connects to an older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body of literature which highlighted divisions rather than relations. There remains great value in such an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.3077 402.9895 311.2997 414.8695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 93.8695 48.0077 105.7495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7320 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach as antisemitism and cultural separateness were at times certainly fundamental parts of the German-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish experience. However, despite the protestations of his title, Grenville himself never appears overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convinced by this scenario. Indeed, even in the preface, he questions his own title and posits a far closer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Jews and non-Jews. In rather resolute language, Grenville states that ?German-Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society was not wholly separate from German society?. For this reason, he argues, ?the ?Jews? could not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excised from what the Nazis defined as ?German? without the destruction of )] TJ ET BT 404.600 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(German )] TJ ET BT 446.924 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilization? \(p. xii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s overall narrative also seems to adhere more closely to the idea of ?Jews and other Germans?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the title?s ?Jews and Germans?. In each chapter of the book, Grenville paints a rather vivid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of Jews playing a full and active role with wider German society. In short, the book suggests in no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertain terms that most Jews viewed themselves to be at heart Germans. And indeed this was how most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other Germans perceived them too. Take for example the German-Jewish pharmacist and industrialist, Oscar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Troplowitz, who features prominently in Grenville?s book. Troplowitz worked closely with non-Jews on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(board of the Beiersdorf pharmaceutical firm throughout the late 19th and early 20th century. Such was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Troplowitz?s attachment to his home city of Hamburg that he played a role in local politics, gave money to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish and Christian charities and in his will left a number of valuable paintings to the city?s )] TJ ET BT 483.644 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kunsthalle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gallery. Even in Nazi Germany, many Jews continued to identify themselves first and foremost as Germans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grenville gives the example of the Jewish cultural association \()] TJ ET BT 338.300 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kulturbund)] TJ ET BT 393.644 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in Hamburg which laid on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerts and plays for a predominantly Jewish audience. Despite these restrictions, though, its programme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?remained resolutely German? \(p. 118\). There was always more Schubert and Beethoven than Jewish folk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book that Grenville has written is not so much a study of Jews and Germans in Hamburg from the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through to the 20th century. Instead, what he has produced is a thoroughly readable study of Jews and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans in Nazi Germany. If the book is read on this basis, then what emerges is a through and engaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Indeed, when confined solely to Nazi Germany, the book adds to our understanding of this period in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three broad ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, in contrast to much historical writing Grenville has produced a book that explores the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust through the eyes of its victims. Utilising memoirs and personal documents, Grenville )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates successfully how the Jews responded to, and defended themselves against, the rising tide of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi persecution. Thus, at the heart of the book?s final chapters, are not debates about Nazi policy, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of Jewish institutions, such as the )] TJ ET BT 258.680 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kulturbund)] TJ ET BT 314.024 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the )] TJ ET BT 347.684 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichsvertretung)] TJ ET BT 429.668 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Second, the book very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully sketches out the experiences of a range of groups that constituted German Jewry. Indeed, Grenville )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manages to depict the fears of East European Jews living in Germany as well as the more conventionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told history of liberal or Zionist Jews.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, perhaps one of the most significant aspects of the book is that it highlights the ambiguities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions of National Socialist policy. While the regime persecuted the Jews with ever harsher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures, at the same time space still existed for some individuals to negotiate with local authorities or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain some aspect of normality. In one incident, Arthur Spier, a Jewish school teacher met regularly with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claus Gttsche, of the Gestapo, so as to instruct him in the Talmud. Grenville?s study is full of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anecdotes. On one page, Grenville describes how in 1935 the Hamburg state authorities funded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of an air raid shelter in a Jewish girls? school to ensure the pupils? safety. Further on, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounts the story of a Jewish lawyer who took an SS man to court in November 1934 and successfully sued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him for defamation. All of this adds to Marion Kaplan?s description of the Nazi regime?s ?mixed signals?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which left many German Jews unsure of where to turn.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.956 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.956 148.323 m 311.948 148.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, then, if readers are prepared to overlook the book?s title, they will find a well-researched history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nazi regime?s destruction of Germany?s Jewish communities. Crucially, this is a study that combines a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very accessible general overview of the period with detailed examples from the individuals who once formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of Germany?s rich Jewish life.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.9557 148.6375 311.9477 160.5175 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 4525 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Brenner, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the Holocaust: Rebuilding Jewish Lives in Postwar Germany)] TJ ET BT 471.644 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\); Jay Geller, )] TJ ET BT 153.332 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jews in Post-Holocaust Germany, 1945?1953)] TJ ET BT 374.312 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.632 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.632 729.555 m 525.620 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christhard Hoffmann, ?Between integration and rejection: the Jewish community in Germany )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914?1918?, in )] TJ ET BT 141.008 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State, Society and Mobilization in Europe during the First World War)] TJ ET BT 477.344 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. John Horne )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1997\), pp. 89?104; Michael Brenner, )] TJ ET BT 307.976 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Renaissance of Jewish Culture in Weimar )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germany)] TJ ET BT 108.668 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.972 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.972 672.531 m 284.960 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson, )] TJ ET BT 141.680 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paper and Iron: Hamburg Business and German Politics in the Era of Inflation, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1897?1927)] TJ ET BT 118.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1995\); Frank Bajohr, ?)] TJ ET BT 293.660 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aryanisation? in Hamburg: The Economic Exclusion )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Jews and the Confiscation of their Property in Nazi Germany)] TJ ET BT 371.348 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2001\); Anthony McElligott, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contested City: Municipal Politics and the Rise of Nazism in Altona, 1917?1937)] TJ ET BT 451.364 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ann Arbor, MI, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 601.251 m 149.000 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gay, )] TJ ET BT 117.668 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freud, Jews and Other Germans: Masters and Victims in Modernist Culture)] TJ ET BT 485.312 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1978\); Till van Rahden, )] TJ ET BT 181.676 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Juden und andere Breslauer: Die Beziehungen zwischen Juden, Protestanten )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(und Katholiken in einer deutschen Grostadt von 1860 bis 1925)] TJ ET BT 371.672 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gttingen, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.664 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.664 558.483 m 517.652 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marion Kaplan, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany)] TJ ET BT 431.648 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.296 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.296 544.227 m 550.292 544.227 l S BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 529.971 m 78.008 529.971 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 514.639 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 496.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 496.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1228)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 495.465 m 328.316 495.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 470.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/11208)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.6317 729.8695 525.6197 741.7495 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.9717 672.8455 284.9597 684.7255 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 601.5655 148.9997 613.4455 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.6637 558.7975 517.6517 570.6775 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.2957 544.5415 550.2917 556.4215 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 530.2855 78.0077 542.1655 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 495.7795 328.3157 507.6595 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1228) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000004716 00000 n 0000004825 00000 n 0000004935 00000 n 0000005044 00000 n 0000008605 00000 n 0000008733 00000 n 0000008817 00000 n 0000008908 00000 n 0000016593 00000 n 0000016623 00000 n 0000016751 00000 n 0000016787 00000 n 0000016817 00000 n 0000016943 00000 n 0000016979 00000 n 0000017070 00000 n 0000024713 00000 n 0000024743 00000 n 0000024871 00000 n 0000024907 00000 n 0000024937 00000 n 0000025062 00000 n 0000025098 00000 n 0000025182 00000 n 0000032555 00000 n 0000032585 00000 n 0000032713 00000 n 0000032749 00000 n 0000032875 00000 n 0000037453 00000 n 0000037581 00000 n 0000037636 00000 n 0000037764 00000 n 0000037819 00000 n 0000037946 00000 n 0000038001 00000 n 0000038129 00000 n 0000038184 00000 n 0000038312 00000 n 0000038367 00000 n 0000038493 00000 n 0000038548 00000 n 0000038676 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38772 %%EOF