%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827143206+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827143206+01'00') /Title (Edward III) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4021 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Edward III)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is it about Edward III that makes his political personality so elusive? Is it the fact that Shakespeare?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play about him has sat unrecognised for so long and lies outside the canon? That would certainly help to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain why Edward?s mighty victory at Crcy is less well known than Henry V?s at Agincourt, despite, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably, being of greater historical importance. Or is it perhaps that the reign is so long and so event-filled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to frustrate the making of broad, over-arching generalisations? Or is it something else again ? perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drama of the king?s long, slow, decline into senility and his infatuation with the notorious Alice Perrers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episodes associated with his closing years which have both damaged his reputation and blinded us to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements? The case of Henry V?s reign shows how important it is for a ruler?s posthumous reputation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(die young and at the height of his powers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever the reason may be, the achievements of Edward?s reign have left a distinctly fuzzy impression on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English historical imagination. It is striking how difficult scholars have found it to write a satisfactory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic life of the king. Mark Ormrod reminds us at the beginning of his book that the task of writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward?s biography for the Yale English Monarchs series has defeated two scholars before him. Over 40 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years ago the contract for the book was awarded to the late John Le Patourel in recognition of his original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and penetrating articles on Edward?s relations with France. Le Patourel, however, died in 1981, without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1229)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 29 March, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Ormrod)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300119107)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(644pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Saul)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7455 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even beginning work, his interests having moved on and his commitment to the project having deserted him. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On his death the late A. R. Myers was invited to take on the commission. Myers made a reasonable start on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the job, sketching a narrative of the king?s life which he anticipated would form the first part of the book. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too, however, shrank from what lay ahead, and died before completing the task. Mark Ormrod himself was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invited to take on the commission in the late 1980s and now, nearly a quarter of a century later, he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought it to a triumphant conclusion. Ormrod?s book is the full and authoritative biography of the king that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we have been waiting for, a magisterial achievement of over 700 pages. It is a book to linger over, to return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to, and to enjoy. Above all, it is a book which presents a clear and convincing view of the king who is its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject. Edward emerges from Ormrod?s pages as bold, assertive, confident and masterful ? as ?Edward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great? in the words of one of Ormrod?s chapter headings. For Ormrod, Edward is one of the outstanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings of English history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ormrod develops his interpretation in a biography of some 20 carefully interwoven chapters, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign and domestic themes alternate, and story-telling and analysis are blended in the form of a ?thickened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative?. Ormrod begins his account by tracing Edward?s childhood and upbringing in the chaotic reign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his father, Edward II, suggesting that some of his later high ambition may have arisen from the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcome the insecurity of an unhappy youth \(p. 25\). Ormrod takes us through the episode of the king?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrest of his mother, Isabella, and her lover, Mortimer, at Nottingham in 1330 and describes his later creation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a bold, purposeful monarchy, which brought a new stability to English life, healing the wounds in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body politic and laying the foundations for future military success. Ormrod goes on to trace the chequered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening stages of the Hundred Years War, showing how Edward?s political and military ambitions drained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his exchequer of money and how he made enemies of his chief minister, Archbishop Stratford, and elements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the political class by insisting on fiscal exactions that were both unrealistic and unreasonable. In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central chapters Ormrod argues that Edward quickly recovered from the mistakes of these early years, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in the later 1340s and 1350s he established an accord with the nobility and parliamentary Commons that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the basis for a new political consensus. Rejecting any suggestion that, as the price to be paid for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, Edward simply negotiated away the powers of the prerogative, Ormrod maintains that Edward?s rule in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1350s was bold, vigorous and exacting. He shows that in his conduct of foreign policy the king could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slippery, devious and manipulative, while nonetheless always keeping a clear end in view. Cherishing an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exalted international role for the English monarchy, Edward sought the re-creation of something like the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angevin empire in the west and north of France and the establishment of junior members of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal house in positions of rule in the British Isles. The author concedes that Edward was slow in adjusting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the problems raised by peacetime rule after the treaty of Bretigny in 1360, and from 1369 was prevented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by infirmity from offering the kind of leadership called for by the reopening of war. However, in Ormrod?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimation, he succeeded in establishing a paradigm of vigorous chivalric kingship which was to provide the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benchmark of kingly rule for the rest of the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As he narrates this story of kingly bravura and brilliance, Ormrod sweeps the reader up and carries him or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her along by the sheer force of his prose. The tone is relentlessly upbeat throughout. Only occasionally does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he allow the pace to slacken ? as, for example, when discussing the technicalities of feudal tenure in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aquitaine or the minutiae of English royal finance. Ormrod?s writing style, while firmly academic in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character, is generally fluent and elegant. Lapses into clich are few, although Americanisms creep in, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?upcoming? for ?forthcoming? and ?met with? for ?met?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What, overall, are we to make of Ormrod?s scholarly achievement in this book? The task of writing a life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward III, as we have seen, is, to say the least, a challenging one. Ormrod sets out the difficulties that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced along the way in an eloquent passage near the beginning. The events, environments and personalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the king?s life, he writes, have come down to us as a series of snatched moments and impressionistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vignettes. Only tiny fragments remain of the buildings, fabrics and furnishings that provided the spatial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts and ceremonial trappings of Edward?s court. The material that survives takes the form, for the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part, of the written word ? the chronicles and treatises of the monks and clerks, and the voluminous records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembled by the royal government. These texts and documents, however, generally represent the king at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some remove, the English court lacking a house-historian like the Religieux de St-Denis who could write )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7360 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about monarchy from close observation. Moreover, most of the records generated and accumulated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown were formulaic, their artificiality accentuated by the fact that the majority were written in academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin. All these problems, as Ormrod admits, make for major challenges of interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How successfully has Ormrod responded to the difficulties which he describes? It should be said right at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outset that what Ormrod has given us is an absolutely splendid book, wide-ranging, rich in insight, and built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on extensive archival research. Ormrod has worked wonders with the mass of chronicles and unprinted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival material through which he has trawled. He draws on this ample resource not only to provide telling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidental detail but also to bring characters to life, and to shed light on human foibles and sensibilities. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this makes for a rich and vivid narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where Ormrod?s achievement may perhaps be called into question is in his handling of the tricky matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency. As Ormrod concedes, the great majority of government records in this period are, in his phrase, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?formulaic? ? that is to say, they are impersonal: the records of decisions made in the king?s name, but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily made by him personally. The role actually played by the king in the process of political decision-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making is unclear. As Ormrod remarks at another point, rulers in the Middle Ages were not expected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involve themselves deeply in the routine business of state: that was the work of their officers, ministers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerks \(p. 377\). Moreover, as he adds, Edward was anyway not the kind of king to want to immerse himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this sort of detail. There is consequently a danger that we may end up assigning to Edward the credit for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements and decisions which were not actually his but those of the agents who served him. Ormrod )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glosses over this difficulty by saying, as he does later, that medieval commentators would hardly have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised a distinction between a king and a kingly regime ? for them, the success or failure of the regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was always determined by the success or failure of the king himself \(p. 598\). In the case of a king as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithfully served by his ministers and nobles as Edward III was, it is obviously important to try to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely where agency in decision-making lay. The assumption that Ormrod makes in this book is that it lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principally with the king himself: the achievements of his reign are essentially his. Can this assumption be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The matter can be approached by considering one of the most familiar episodes in the reign, the foundation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Order of the Garter in 1348. Ormrod takes us ably through the chain of events that led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of the Order in its final form ? the king?s creation of a Round Table of 300 knights in 1344, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sudden abandonment of that idea a few months later, the creation instead of a small elite knightly Order, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curious selection as the Order?s symbol of an item of female clothing and, finally, the adoption of St George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as patron saint of the Order and the establishment of St George?s Chapel, Windsor Castle, as the Order?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual home. At no point in his discussion of the process of foundation does Ormrod ever explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address the matter of agency. The sequence of events unfolds naturally, and the assumption is made that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king was the prime mover. Ormrod maintains that the Order and Chapel together constitute ?the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring of Edward III?s foundations? \(p. 308\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The story can be told in a slightly different way, however, by assigning to the king?s cousin, Henry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster, responsibility for many of the key ideas. Specifically, the initiative for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replacing the earlier, more loosely organised Order with a small elite fellowship may well have been his. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason for so believing is that in the early 1340s Duke Henry had fought in Castile where he would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned about the elite knightly company recently founded by King Alfonso, the Order of the Band.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.604 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.604 191.091 m 525.596 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 525.596 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Order supplied a model for the Garter in that it was a relatively small company, all of whose members were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound in close relation to the king, acting as a buttress to royal power. Significantly, the Order also made use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an item of personal attire as its device, in this case a sash worn over the shoulder. It may well have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the information which Duke Henry brought back from Castile which was instrumental in shaping Edward?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The further suggestion can be ventured that it was Duke Henry who proposed that St George be made patron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Order. The essential clue here is provided by the saint?s appearance on a brass with which Duke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry was associated, that of Sir Hugh Hastings at Elsing in Norfolk. In 1346 Edward had entrusted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings with the command of a force in Flanders whose task was to distract and divert the French while he )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.6037 191.4055 525.5957 203.2855 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7647 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself landed in Normandy. In the following year Hastings died after contracting dysentery at the siege of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calais and Duke Henry was one of the two executors who assumed the task of commissioning his memorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brass in Elsing church.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.336 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.336 766.563 m 157.328 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.328 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The brass, one of the finest of the age, is rich in chivalric reference, and what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking is that the figure of St George, riding triumphant over a stricken dragon, is shown in the canopy. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inclusion of the saint ? remarkable for this relatively early date ? is indicative of the duke?s interest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cult, then quite possibly he could have been responsible for its encouragement at court. It is worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembering in this connection that in 1344 the duke had visited Avignon, where he would almost certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have seen Simone Martini?s frescoes of St George and the dragon in the porch of the cathedral there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To make these observations is not to question Edward?s responsibility for the establishment of the Order of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Garter in its final form ? the king was after all sovereign of the Order ? but rather to suggest that he may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been responding to ideas and suggestions fed to him by others, and that the role of these other actors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to be recognised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar questioning approach can be taken to the evolution of the new military tactics which were to bear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruit in the great victories over the French at Crcy and Poitiers. Again, Ormrod identifies all the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements involved ? in this case, the use by the English of mixed retinues of men-at-arms and archers, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployment of a defensive formation in the field, the use of heavy longbow fire to mow down the advancing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy cavalry and the unleashing of the dismounted men-at-arms in the mele. Nowhere, however, does he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer any detailed discussion of how or by whom these tactics were developed; they just happen. The story is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented as one of process ? in his words, one of ?the historical processes ... which reached their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culmination in this period? \(p. 596\). Insofar as any agent is identified, that person or instrument is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented institutionally as ?the crown?, a formula which neatly sidesteps the need to consider any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of agency at all. It may well be possible, however, to identify one of the key thinkers involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing these new ideas, and that is the king?s companion-in-arms, William de Bohun, earl of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northampton. Northampton was present at virtually all of the key engagements of the period ? those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland in the 1330s, in Brittany in the 1340s and finally at the battle of Crcy itself in 1346. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly significant that Northampton was the commander in charge at Morlaix, a battle in which all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new elements were brought together. As a number of chroniclers indicate, the English fought defensively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dismounted, and they dug pits to act as man traps in front of them. Edward is known to have held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northampton in very high regard. Ormrod admits that Edward himself was a man of limited imagination and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally conventional outlook. It is unlikely, therefore, that he would have thought up all the bright, new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas himself; other captains would have contributed from their experience. It is no criticism of Ormrod?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement to say that a lengthier discussion of agency would have made for a more inclusive account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which could have recognised the role of some of the other actors involved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem to which this discussion draws attention is one faced by virtually all who attempt to write the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life of an English king active before the 15th century. Indeed, it can be said to be a problem faced by all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars so bold as to attempt the biography of any political figure at all before that time. The difficulty, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ormrod presents it, is that the sources, by their nature impersonal and formulaic, leave agency and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorship unclear. For some kings in the following century, Henry VI for example in his majority, we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources such as letters issued under the signet, the king?s secret seal, which after a fashion, allow royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in policy to be unpicked. No such sources survive for Edward III?s reign. Ormrod?s approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his book is to take a maximalist view of Edward?s involvement in government: he assumes that the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was responsible for virtually all the main decisions that mattered. It is not altogether clear that this is a view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which can be sustained on the evidence which he himself provides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One other issue raised by the book is of a more specific nature, and that is Ormrod?s overall interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward?s achievements as king. Throughout his account Ormrod takes an exceedingly favourable view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward and his activities; his approach is almost panegyric in tone. Ormrod presents Edward as a wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive force in English politics, a shrewd and beneficent king, vigorous and purposeful, expansive in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision \(?expansive? is one of Ormrod?s favourite words\), and committed to the contemporary code of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chivalry. While he recognises that Edward suffered undoubted intellectual limitations, Ormrod nonetheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises his powers of leadership and his capacity to gather around him a body of men who both shared )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.3357 766.8775 157.3277 778.7575 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7012 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his vision and were willing to help him achieve it on the terms that he laid down. In Salisbury and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northampton among the nobles, and Edington and Offord among the civil servant class, he found kindred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirits whose trust he inspired and whose counsel he respected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a bold interpretation which takes us far from the old, today largely discredited, view that Edward III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showed weakness in the face of magnate self-interest and was guilty of surrendering the crown?s long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests to secure fiscal and logistical support for the French war. It is nonetheless an interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent with the old orthodoxy in one significant respect: it still sees Edward as essentially collegiate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companionable, a seeker after consensus, and someone who worked with the grain of political society rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than against it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At times, however, it is possible on the evidence which Ormrod himself presents to read Edward?s character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a rather different and less favourable light. In the abrasive treatment which he meted out to Archbishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stratford in the crisis of 1340?1 he revealed himself as bullying, intolerant, aggressive and inflexible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unappreciative of the efforts of a faithful servant. In the 1340s and 1350s, when he insisted on the levying of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public taxation at a time of widespread popular suffering he revealed himself to his subjects as callous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncaring, contemptuous of their well-being. In the years after 1360 when, following the making of the treaty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Bretigny, he insisted on the levying of taxes while he nonetheless enjoyed a fat income on the side from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ransoms, he showed himself devious, deceitful and manipulative. At times in his reign he showed no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hesitation in trampling over those who had incurred his displeasure or for one reason or another had opposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his will. In 1355 he sentenced Bishop Lisle of Ely to the immediate confiscation of his temporalities for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime of falling out with the king?s kinswoman, Blanche, Lady Wake. The king?s confidence in his rectitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his unwillingness to admit error remind one of none so much as his grandfather, Edward I, in his last, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhappy years after 1297. To suggest this comparison is hardly to flatter the later Edward. Edward gives the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression at times of not so much directing his government consensually, in the way that Ormrod )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes, as straining it to breaking point and placing quite impossible demands on his subjects. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempting to wonder if Edward might not have been storing up problems for his successor in much the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way that Edward I had done half a century before.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ormrod has written a powerful, well informed biography of Edward III which presents a highly favourable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of his achievements as king. It is a book which is consistent in giving the king the benefit of almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every possible doubt and offering a sympathetic interpretation of his actions where perhaps a less charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one might be possible. Ormrod defends his arguments with vigour, style and panache. Some readers may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps harken after the spirit of Cromwell?s instruction to Peter Lely: to be painted ?warts and all?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether or not that is the case, however, this is a book which all readers will find vivid, informative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewarding. Ormrod?s sheer mastery of his sources informs every page of his text. Here we have the long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awaited authoritative biography of the king for our generation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D?A.J.D. Boulton, )] TJ ET BT 156.680 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Knights of the Crown. The Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Later )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Europe, 1325-1520)] TJ ET BT 204.992 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 1987\), p. 109.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.972 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.972 208.851 m 398.960 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings, Sir Hugh?, )] TJ ET BT 167.012 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 201.008 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Dictionary of National Biography)] TJ ET BT 367.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. H.C.G. Matthew and B. Harrison )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(60 vols., Oxford, 2004\), 25, pp. 764-5 \(by A. Ayton\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.320 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.320 180.339 m 378.308 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept this review without any further comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Open Letters Monthly)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.openlettersmonthly.com/i-am-thy-man/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 99.315 m 280.676 99.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 283.676 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 95.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 78.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 78.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1229)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 76.809 m 328.316 76.809 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 51.832 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 344.9717 209.1655 398.9597 221.0455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.3197 180.6535 378.3077 192.5335 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 99.6295 280.6757 111.5095 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.openlettersmonthly.com/i-am-thy-man/) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 77.1235 328.3157 89.0035 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1229) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 250 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/11210)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.openlettersmonthly.com/i-am-thy-man/)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000527 00000 n 0000000609 00000 n 0000004682 00000 n 0000004791 00000 n 0000004901 00000 n 0000005010 00000 n 0000008571 00000 n 0000008699 00000 n 0000008783 00000 n 0000008848 00000 n 0000016356 00000 n 0000016440 00000 n 0000023853 00000 n 0000023883 00000 n 0000024011 00000 n 0000024047 00000 n 0000024131 00000 n 0000031831 00000 n 0000031861 00000 n 0000031989 00000 n 0000032025 00000 n 0000032130 00000 n 0000039195 00000 n 0000039323 00000 n 0000039378 00000 n 0000039506 00000 n 0000039561 00000 n 0000039687 00000 n 0000039786 00000 n 0000039912 00000 n 0000040008 00000 n 0000040073 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40375 %%EOF