%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 29 0 R 56 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729214315+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729214315+01'00') /Title (Histories of Violence) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2792 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Histories of Violence)] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his new book Steven Pinker, psychologist at Harvard University, sets out to fundamentally alter our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1232)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 12 April, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Pinker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846140938)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(832pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Muchembled)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745647470)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(388pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Ziemann)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8042 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the trajectory of violence from pre-historic times to the present. He takes issue with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely held perception that the most recent past, the 20th century, was an age of large-scale bloodshed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocidal slaughter. Quite to the contrary, Pinker argues, the decades since the end of the Cold War are best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as a ?new peace?, as an era of historically unprecedented low levels of physical violence, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon which throughout the book is basically conceptualised as killing in its various forms, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homicide to genocidal warfare. For Pinker, this recent quantitative reduction in interpersonal violence is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last step in a long historical decline of violence. In a )] TJ ET BT 304.976 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tour de force)] TJ ET BT 366.968 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( through the ages, from prehistoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunter-gatherers to the international history of the Cold War, Pinker charts the rate of killings through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murder and warfare in per cent of the actual population, rather than the actual number of victims, in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow comparisons across the millenia and between societies with vastly different demographics. The vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of evidence marshalled and plotted in a large number of graphs only serves to drive home the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point: a number of historical factors and evolutionary advances have worked together to tame and control the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human impulse for violence, and to usher in a world which has managed to reduce violence to such low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels that there is reason to take pride in the achievements of Western modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the key factors and processes Pinker identifies as drivers of this fundamental change, a few are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worth explaining in some detail. There is first the notion of a ?civilizing process?, derived from the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the same title by German sociologist Norbert Elias, first published in 1939. According to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable Freudian underpinnings of this argument, the spreading of new codes of civilised behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed individuals ?to keep their biological impulses ? in check? \(p. 73\), in a process that gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentum since the 16th century. As chains of interdependence within society expanded and prolonged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals learned to control themselves, a process which not only led to vastly improved table manners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also to declining homicide rates across Europe. While Pinker?s remarks about declining rates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homicide are corroborated by Robert Muchembled in his book )] TJ ET BT 336.968 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Violence)] TJ ET BT 440.624 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which should bear the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title )] TJ ET BT 55.688 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Homicide)] TJ ET BT 164.012 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as it is about that and nothing else\), Muchembled actually sees other historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors at work. Based on decades of empirical work mostly on regional evidence from northern France in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early modern period, Muchembled puts the difficult situation of young males in rural and urban settings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre stage. Before they settled through marriage and the establishing of a family, small bands of young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men roamed the streets of and between villages, regularly engaging in quarrels or duels which could quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead to fighting and ultimately murder. Only from the 17th century on, when the adult males in towns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villages found ways of ??fabricating? a docile youth? \(p. 122\) ? whatever that may have meant in practice ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and managed to keep tabs on their violent impulses, did the homicide rate drop significantly. Muchembled?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference for the uncontrolled group dynamics of young males and their rites of passage to adulthood as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key explanatory factor, however, is not fully borne out even by his own evidence for the Artois, which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has studied in-depth. During the period from 1400 to 1660, 59 per cent of those in the Artois who stood in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dock for homicide were young men. This does suggest that this age cohort was significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overrepresented. Nevertheless, 41 per cent of the defendants were married, and it is not entirely clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether and to what extent adult perpetrators took part in the historical decline of homicide rates. Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness of Muchembled?s account is its geographical limitation. Apart from France and England, only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Low Countries are covered in some detail. The Holy Roman Empire is virtually absent from Muchembled?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(map of Western Europe, as is Switzerland. Thus, the reader can only guess whether the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessionalization with its concomitant drive for a tightening of moral control \(not only in the Calvinist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of ?Sittenzucht?\) had had any impact on the long-term decline in murder rates in Western Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Returning to Steven Pinker, the second key factor for the decline of violence he identifies is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?humanitarian revolution? of the 17th and 18th centuries, that is, the Enlightenment culture with its focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empathy and respect for human life, as exemplified in the abolition of witchraft persecution, torture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cruel punishments. Pinker identifies one crucial ?exogenous? factor that was driving this change, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th?century reading revolution with increasing rates of literacy and mass circulation of books. The reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of novels, Pinker argues, allowed people to take on the perspective of other human beings and to develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into their plight and suffering, thus supporting attempts to abolish slavery and increasing awareness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the human cost of war. But if that were the case, why did one contemporary reviewer of Remarque?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(All Quiet on the Western Front)] TJ ET BT 183.008 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1929\), which features in Pinker?s list of high-profile titles which allegedly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7812 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?raised public awareness of the suffering of people? in war \(p. 177\) and is usually considered to be the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful anti-war book of the 20th century, describe the novel as ?pacifist war propaganda?? What he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant was that Remarque described the war as an enticing adventure, rather than inviting readers to develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empathy with the victims of war. And as a matter of fact, Remarque reiterated many tropes which portrayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war as a positive and meaningful experience of adventure and male bonding, one reason why his book was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost compulsory reading among the Wehrmacht soldiers who trampled over Europe from September )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1939. This is only one example of the ways in which Pinker presents an often mechanical, one-directional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument which is almost systematically devoid of historical context and, even more importantly, lacks a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of the inherent ambivalence of historical processes and indeed of the very notion of ?progress? itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The limitations of Pinker?s intellectual approach ? and of his actual engagement with key texts on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and theory of violence ? are nowhere more obvious than in a footnote on p. 735, which informs the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader that among those incurable Lefties who are allegedly ?blaming [!] the Enlightenment for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust? are not only the usual suspects such as Michel Foucault or Zygmunt Bauman, but also Theodor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Adorno. Reading this footnote made me wince, not only for the fact that Max Horkheimer, the co-author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1944 text on the )] TJ ET BT 145.340 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialectics of Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 279.332 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is simply obliterated, but more so for the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiosity on the side of Pinker in the argument the two emigr thinkers develop in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The extended argument in chapter five, which charts the decreasing magnitude of wars throughout the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century apart from the two World Wars, also invites criticism. Pinker describes the post-war period as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?long peace?, thus employing the highly contested term first suggested by John Lewis Gaddis in 1986 as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinent label for the Cold War as a whole. Yet many historians of the Cold War tend to disagree with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(label, and would certainly not be ready to dismiss nuclear deterrence as quickly as a factor for the non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurrence of a major war between the two superpowers as Pinker is inclined to do, mainly relying on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather dubious arguments brought forward by John Mueller \(p. 268ff.\). Equally unconvincing is Pinker?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to reformulate the notion of ?democratic? or ?liberal? peace rather quickly as ?capitalist peace?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This argument is based on a set of correlations in a multiple-regression analysis of quantifiable indicators, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculation which apparently identified ?gentle commerce? as a pacifying factor \(p. 287\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To be fair, there is a lot more pertinent quantitative evidence presented in the first six chapters of Pinker?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book than can be reviewed here in a few paragraphs. Nevertheless, there are many reasons why Pinker?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book can at best be only a starting point for a much more thorough, nuanced and historically-informed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation into the long-term decline of violence over the past five millenia. In its present form, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is rather shallow and unconvincing. The basic point, to be sure, remains valid. Calculated as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chance of an individual to die as a result of homicide, torture and capital punishment, war or genocide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(throughout the book expressed as the number of cases among 100,000 people per year\), a person in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world society of the early 21st century is much less likely to suffer a violent death than one of our ancestors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the tribal societies and agricultural settlements of the period around 10,000 BCE. To some extent, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this finding is basically a statistical artefact, the result of the exponential growth in world population during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century, against which percentages for earlier periods are calculated. Does this really mean that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present situation is aptly described as ?peace?? Is the quantitative evidence sufficiently reliable to underpin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the details and the general nature of Pinker?s argument, and sufficient as an historical explanation? And, last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but not least: is his understanding of violence as a social phenomenon sufficient to corroborate this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my view, the answer to all three questions is ?no?. I start with the evidence. Pinker plots the decline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence in dozens of charts, thus suggesting that it is possible to make exact statements not only about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general trend, but also about its dimensions. Most of his argument on prehistoric non-state societies is taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a book by Lawrence Keeley, published in 1996. Yet experts in pre-historic archaeology have noted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological evidence ? compared to data derived from ethnographic observation ? suggests ?much less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent? societies, and indeed the absence of wars in the ancient Near East ?until the late Neolithic?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their rare occurrence in ancient China, Japan and in a number of other places.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.572 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.572 89.043 m 419.564 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 419.564 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Given the scattered nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of archaeological evidence, Pinker confronts the reader with graphs which suggest a level of accuracy which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is simply unobtainable for pre-historic times \(see p. 49\). Similarly, the data for the decline in annual )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.5717 89.3575 419.5637 101.2375 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7821 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homicide rates in Western Europe are much less-clear cut then Pinker suggests: ?from between 4 and 100 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homicides? [!] per 100,000 people in the Middle Ages to about 0.8 in the 1950s \(p. 62\). Various factors, also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not comprehensively discussed by Muchembled, undermine the only-at-first-glance suggestive accuracy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these figures: population statistics for the period before 1800 are rough estimates at best, and short-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluctuations in the local population of one town or county ? from which all these calculations are derived ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be accounted for; most early modern homicide victims did not die immediately, while improvements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in medical care have to be factored in well before the 20th century; access to stabbing weapons was a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor for the propensity of lethal violence, and might indeed explain many of the differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions, countries and even more so between the USA and Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally unconvincing, at least from the historian?s point of view, is Pinker?s reliance on Norbert Elias. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many good reasons to reject Elias? utterly simplifying portrait of late medieval European societies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is the necessary backdrop to his argument about the ?civilizing process?. From a conceptual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, Elias is also certainly not ?the only theory left standing? \(p. 64\). Max Weber and Niklas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luhmann are only two of the many sociologists which historians have put to good use to explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of state control and the pacification of early modern societies. Pinker reproduces two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations from the late 15th century ?Housebook? which Elias used in order to explain how late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knights indulged in relentless, brutal acts of savagery. Here as on other occasions, Pinker uses pictorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence in a highly nave manner, suggesting that these images simply depict historical ?reality? \(pp. 65f., )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(112\). Far from it. Historians have shown in quite some detail that the use of primary evidence by Norbert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elias, and particularly his interpretation of the ?Housebook?, was nave and utterly misleading by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards of historical knowledge already achieved by the 1930s, when he worked on his book. Rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply being a realistic depiction of actual violence, these images offered a highly normative reading of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary situation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.004 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.004 469.443 m 161.996 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet it is not only the degree of accuracy Pinker suggests is achievable in the calculation of rates of violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across centuries and millennia that is problematic. Equally unconvincing is his insistence that large-scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidents of violence can be compared across time without the need to account properly for their context and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the meanings historical actors attached to them. The mechanistic nature of his reasoning is best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified by a table which offers the estimated death toll of 20 major wars and atrocities across the ages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their ?adjusted rank? in relation to the mid 20th century size of the global population \(p. 195\). For those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are unfamiliar with early modern history, the table can serve as a helpful reminder that the Thirty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Years? War was ? in adjusted population figures ? more lethal than both the Napoleonic Wars and the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, suggesting that it is wrong to calculate the destructive nature of the ?total wars? of the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century in terms of their absolute death toll alone.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.984 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.984 314.883 m 286.976 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 286.976 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But is it historically apt and insightful to compare the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deaths during the Mideast and Atlantic slave trades, which occurred from the 7th to the 19th and the 15th to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th centuries respectively \(and given third and eighth place in ?adjusted? rank\) with the those from the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War \(number 16 in the adjusted ranking\), when fatalities were mostly confined to Europe during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War, and between two and 21 per cent of all males in the age-cohort from 18 to 45 in most European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries were wiped out in slightly more than four years? There is no denying that quantitative evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about violence, however tentative it might be for the period before 1800, can work as a starting point for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the decline of violence in history. But any such endeavour is bound to fail when it does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try to reconstruct the implicit rationality and the different levels of the organization and implementation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence in the past. Practices of killing are usually connected to institutions which employ violence, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the uses and the possible decline of violence cannot be explained without taking these institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts into account. It is irritating to see that Pinker, whenever he is prompted to consider such contexts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and causes of mass violence, falls for the most simplistic and superficial explanation that is on offer. Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples must suffice to make this point: ?No Hitler, no Holocaust? \(p. 209\), and again Hitler alone ?mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible? for the Second World War \(p. 248\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final two chapters, the psychologist Pinker offers discipline-specific arguments about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological motives which can be used to explain the drive towards violence or the causes for peaceful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orientations as the ?output of several psychological systems? \(chapter XXV\), urges such as the drive for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.0037 469.7575 161.9957 481.6375 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 272.9837 315.1975 286.9757 327.0775 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 8712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance, revenge, sadism or, perhaps surprisingly listed as a psychological faculty, ideology. Here, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader is confronted with the results of various laboratory experiments, and with neurobiological insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the specific parts of the brain which apparently enable or disable some of these motives. I am a not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologist and hence not in a position to assess the accuracy of any of these explanations. It is, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to establish why their explanatory value is rather limited: under any circumstances, violence is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of a social relation, mainly between the perpetrator and the victim, but often including bystanders as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third party. It is possible and necessary to differentiate even further, and to distinguish between short-lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent encounters, the specification of roles in organised violence such as in the military or organised crime, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the general level of violence in a given society.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.628 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.628 681.027 m 294.620 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.620 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet in any of these configurations, violence is a ?fait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social? in the original meaning of the term: it is something which cannot be explained as a result of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological motivations of the individuals involved, but is a result of the social dynamics of either fleeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters or formal organizations, while any original psychological motivations of the people involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often disappear or become largely irrelevant in the process of practicing violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, a word on peace. Peace is indeed part and parcel of the ?project of modernity?, to use the phrase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coined by Jrgen Habermas. And it seems very appropriate to emphasise the notion of a project, a collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavour on which humankind has embarked upon ever since late medieval city communities developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more elaborate ideas on how justice and the rule of law can nurture the bonds between the citizens of a given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity. In that sense, any substantial form of peace is not only the result of evolutionary advances and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing value systems or more recent claims for entitlement, as Pinker suggests. Peace has to be contructed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and established \(?stiften?, invoking the connotations of an endowment and a constitution, is the term used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kant\). And in that sense, any proper explanation of the decline in violence in recent times has to give due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to both peace-keeping and peace-building, two topics which receive virtually no attention by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pinker.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Ferguson, ?Review of Lawrence Keeley, war before civilization. The myth of the peaceful )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savage?, )] TJ ET BT 107.996 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Anthropologist)] TJ ET BT 229.664 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 99 \(1997\), 424f.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.652 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.652 389.667 m 367.640 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerd Schwerhoff, ?Zivilisationsprozess und Geschichtswissenschaft. Norbert Elias )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forschungsparadigma in historischer Sicht?, )] TJ ET BT 280.328 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historische Zeitschrift)] TJ ET BT 388.004 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 266 \(1998\), 561?605, here )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(573?81; the attempt to rebut these criticisms by Pieter Spierenburg, ?Violence and the civilizing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process: does it work??, )] TJ ET BT 182.324 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crime, History & Societies)] TJ ET BT 312.320 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 \(2001\), 87?105, refuses to engage properly with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schwerhoff?s argument, and offers a mere caricature of his position.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.924 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.924 318.387 m 446.912 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dieter Langewiesche has made this point a couple of years ago, and has urged historians to make )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematic use of the quantitative evidence provided by databases such as the ?Correlates of war? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project, which Pinker uses throughout his book. See Dieter Langewiesche, ?Eskalierte die )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kriegsgewalt im Laufe der Geschichte??, in )] TJ ET BT 278.288 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Moderne Zeiten? Krieg, Revolution und Gewalt im 20. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jahrhundert)] TJ ET BT 123.344 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Jrg Baberowski \(Gttingen, 2006\), pp. 12?36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.980 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.980 247.107 m 426.968 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thorsten Bonacker, ?Zuschreibungen der Gewalt. Zur Sinnfrmigkeit interaktiver, organisierter und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gesellschaftlicher Gewalt?, )] TJ ET BT 196.976 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soziale Welt)] TJ ET BT 256.640 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 53 \(2002\), 31?48.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.960 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.960 218.595 m 401.948 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 193.733 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thinking Faith)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thinkingfaith.org/articles/BOOK_20120111_1.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 163.827 m 335.684 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.684 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/09/books/review/the-better-angels-of-our-nature-by-steven-pinker-book-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 135.315 m 548.600 135.315 l S BT 34.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 121.059 m 91.676 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 94.676 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scientific American)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 92.547 m 258.308 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 261.308 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/sep/22/better-angels-steven-pinker-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 64.035 m 428.288 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.288 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 36.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/8853185/The-Better-Angels-of-our-Nature-the-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 35.523 m 530.924 35.523 l S BT 34.016 22.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Decline-of-Violence-in-History-and-itsCauses-by-Steven-Pinker-review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 21.267 m 406.268 21.267 l S endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.6277 681.3415 294.6197 693.2215 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.6517 389.9815 367.6397 401.8615 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 392.9237 318.7015 446.9117 330.5815 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.9797 247.4215 426.9677 259.3015 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.9597 218.9095 401.9477 230.7895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 164.1415 335.6837 176.0215 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thinkingfaith.org/articles/BOOK_20120111_1.htm) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 135.6295 548.5997 147.5095 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/09/books/review/the-better-angels-of-our-nature-by-steven-pinker-book-review.html?pagewanted=all) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 121.3735 91.6757 133.2535 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/09/books/review/the-better-angels-of-our-nature-by-steven-pinker-book-review.html?pagewanted=all) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 92.8615 258.3077 104.7415 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=mind-reviews-the-better-angels) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 64.3495 428.2877 76.2295 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/sep/22/better-angels-steven-pinker-review) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 35.8375 530.9237 47.7175 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/8853185/The-Better-Angels-of-our-Nature-the-Decline-of-Violence-in-History-and-itsCauses-by-Steven-Pinker-review.html) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 21.5815 406.2677 33.4615 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/8853185/The-Better-Angels-of-our-Nature-the-Decline-of-Violence-in-History-and-itsCauses-by-Steven-Pinker-review.html) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 4985 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street Journal)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111904332804576537813826824914.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 458.372 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.372 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foseti)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://foseti.wordpress.com/2012/03/29/review-of-the-better-angels-of-our-nature-by-steven-pinker/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 738.051 m 514.580 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 517.580 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daily Beast)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/10/02/steven-pinker-s-better-angels-of-our-nature-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 709.539 m 505.256 709.539 l S BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 695.283 m 91.676 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 94.676 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-better-angels-of-our-nature-the-decline-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 666.771 m 556.232 666.771 l S BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of-violence-in-history-and-its-causes-by-steven-pinker-2366392.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 652.515 m 367.616 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 370.616 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mind Hacks)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://mindhacks.com/2011/10/18/a-review-of-pinkers-the-better-angels-of-our-nature/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 624.003 m 450.932 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 453.932 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Public Intelligence Blog)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.phibetaiota.net/2012/03/review-guest-the-better-angels-of-ournature-why-violence-has-declined/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 595.491 m 556.568 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 577.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 560.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 560.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1232)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 558.729 m 328.316 558.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 533.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/12802)] TJ ET BT 34.016 504.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/12803)] TJ ET BT 34.016 490.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.thinkingfaith.org/articles/BOOK_20120111_1.htm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 476.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/09/books/review/the-better-angels-of-our-nature-by-steven-pinker-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book-review.html?pagewanted=all)] TJ ET BT 34.016 447.496 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=mind-reviews-the-better-angels)] TJ ET BT 34.016 433.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/sep/22/better-angels-steven-pinker-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/8853185/The-Better-Angels-of-our-Nature-the-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Decline-of-Violence-in-History-and-itsCauses-by-Steven-Pinker-review.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 390.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111904332804576537813826824914.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9] http://foseti.wordpress.com/2012/03/29/review-of-the-better-angels-of-our-nature-by-steven-pinker/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10] http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/10/02/steven-pinker-s-better-angels-of-our-nature-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.984 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.699 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11] http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-better-angels-of-our-nature-the-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.328 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline-of-violence-in-history-and-its-causes-by-steven-pinker-2366392.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.928 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12] http://mindhacks.com/2011/10/18/a-review-of-pinkers-the-better-angels-of-our-nature/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.643 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13] http://www.phibetaiota.net/2012/03/review-guest-the-better-angels-of-ournature-why-violence-has-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declined/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 766.8775 458.3717 778.7575 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111904332804576537813826824914.html) >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 738.3655 514.5797 750.2455 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://foseti.wordpress.com/2012/03/29/review-of-the-better-angels-of-our-nature-by-steven-pinker/) >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 709.8535 505.2557 721.7335 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/10/02/steven-pinker-s-better-angels-of-our-nature-review.html) >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 695.5975 91.6757 707.4775 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/10/02/steven-pinker-s-better-angels-of-our-nature-review.html) >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 667.0855 556.2317 678.9655 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-better-angels-of-our-nature-the-decline-of-violence-in-history-and-its-causes-by-steven-pinker-2366392.html) >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 652.8295 367.6157 664.7095 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-better-angels-of-our-nature-the-decline-of-violence-in-history-and-its-causes-by-steven-pinker-2366392.html) >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 624.3175 450.9317 636.1975 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://mindhacks.com/2011/10/18/a-review-of-pinkers-the-better-angels-of-our-nature/) >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 595.8055 556.5677 607.6855 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.phibetaiota.net/2012/03/review-guest-the-better-angels-of-ournature-why-violence-has-declined/) >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 559.0435 328.3157 570.9235 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1232) >> endobj xref 0 76 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000538 00000 n 0000000620 00000 n 0000003464 00000 n 0000003573 00000 n 0000003683 00000 n 0000003792 00000 n 0000007353 00000 n 0000007481 00000 n 0000007565 00000 n 0000007630 00000 n 0000015725 00000 n 0000015809 00000 n 0000023674 00000 n 0000023704 00000 n 0000023831 00000 n 0000023867 00000 n 0000023958 00000 n 0000031832 00000 n 0000031862 00000 n 0000031990 00000 n 0000032026 00000 n 0000032056 00000 n 0000032184 00000 n 0000032220 00000 n 0000032381 00000 n 0000041146 00000 n 0000041176 00000 n 0000041304 00000 n 0000041340 00000 n 0000041468 00000 n 0000041523 00000 n 0000041651 00000 n 0000041706 00000 n 0000041834 00000 n 0000041889 00000 n 0000042017 00000 n 0000042072 00000 n 0000042199 00000 n 0000042308 00000 n 0000042435 00000 n 0000042614 00000 n 0000042740 00000 n 0000042919 00000 n 0000043045 00000 n 0000043176 00000 n 0000043301 00000 n 0000043431 00000 n 0000043556 00000 n 0000043778 00000 n 0000043903 00000 n 0000044125 00000 n 0000044265 00000 n 0000049303 00000 n 0000049430 00000 n 0000049560 00000 n 0000049687 00000 n 0000049837 00000 n 0000049964 00000 n 0000050120 00000 n 0000050246 00000 n 0000050402 00000 n 0000050529 00000 n 0000050754 00000 n 0000050881 00000 n 0000051106 00000 n 0000051233 00000 n 0000051369 00000 n 0000051496 00000 n 0000051653 00000 n 0000051781 00000 n trailer << /Size 76 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 51877 %%EOF