%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902160157+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902160157+01'00') /Title (The Capital and the Colonies: London and the Atlantic Economy, 1660-1700) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4108 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Capital and the Colonies: London and the Atlantic Economy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1660-1700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nuala Zahedieh?s )] TJ ET BT 123.320 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Capital and the Colonies)] TJ ET BT 264.668 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( explains the rise of London to preeminence in the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. Between 1660 and 1700, Londoners used their considerable political and economic advantages to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape a commercial system that fostered competition, rewarded personal initiative, and tapped into the vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth-generating potential of the English settlements in the western Atlantic that had taken root in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the 17th century. As Zahedieh, a senior lecturer in economic and social history at the University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Edinburgh, tells us in her introduction: ?This study looks at how late-seventeenth-century Londoners, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily dominated England?s colonial trade, responded to the opportunities and challenges posed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infant imperial project and set in place a durable mercantile system which underpinned both extensive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensive growth and made the Industrial Revolution more likely? \(p. 3\). Zahedieh argues that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation was not ? as is sometimes posited ? a consequence of the English Acts of Trade and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navigation \(1660 and thereafter\). The late 17th-century English state, she contends, lacked the means to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforce legislation intended to exclude the Dutch from an intermediary role in England?s Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce. Instead, credit should go to the participants themselves and the efficiencies they achieved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finance, manufacturing, shipping, and distribution in a highly competitive commercial environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1234)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 12 April, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nuala Zahedieh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521514231)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas M. Truxes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8291 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considering the importance of the subject, it is striking that there is so little in print about London as a 17th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Atlantic port. Among the books that come immediately to mind ? each with a different emphasis are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Brenner?s )] TJ ET BT 121.328 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Overseas Traders, 1550-1653)] TJ ET BT 177.668 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\); Peter Earle?s )] TJ ET BT 284.972 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the English Middle Class: Business, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society and Family Life in London, 1660-1730 )] TJ ET BT 261.344 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1989\); and Jacob M. Price?s )] TJ ET BT 404.648 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perry of London: A Family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a Firm on the Seaborne Frontier)] TJ ET BT 191.672 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1992\). Noteworthy as well are relevant comments in Ralph Davis? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rise of the English Shipping Industry)] TJ ET BT 213.020 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1962\) and G. V. Scammell, )] TJ ET BT 354.668 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The First Imperial Age: European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Overseas Expansion, c. 1400-1715)] TJ ET BT 201.656 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\). Students interested in the nitty-gritty of London?s involvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Atlantic economy will do well to consult two volumes of edited mercantile papers: )] TJ ET BT 451.976 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(James Claypoole's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letterbook, London and Philadelphia, 1681-1684)] TJ ET BT 272.684 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Marion Balderston \(1967\) and )] TJ ET BT 474.656 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Letters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William Freeman, London Merchant, 1678-1685)] TJ ET BT 268.664 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by David Hancock \(2002\). For a sampling of work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on 17th-century Atlantic ports elsewhere in the British Isles, see David Harris Sacks, )] TJ ET BT 444.284 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Widening Gate: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bristol and the Atlantic Economy, 1450-1700)] TJ ET BT 252.008 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\); Tom Barclay and Eric J. Graham, )] TJ ET BT 457.964 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transatlantic Trade of Ayr: 1640-1730)] TJ ET BT 222.020 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\); and David Dickson,)] TJ ET BT 359.000 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Old World Colony: Cork and South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Munster, 1630?1830 )] TJ ET BT 137.012 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2005\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Capital and the Colonies)] TJ ET BT 175.364 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( consists of seven chapters and a bibliography. In her introductory chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zadehieh distinguishes her approach to post-Restoration English Atlantic commerce from earlier scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lays out a roadmap for what is to follow. The heart of the presentation begins with the second chapter: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?London and the Atlantic economy?. Here ? and throughout the book ? readers will be grateful for the care )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author has taken to anchor her argument in archival sources. Chapter two situates late 17th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London in both a national and Atlantic context, and examines the institutional arrangements within which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city?s colonial commerce functioned. The presentation is divided into sections dealing with ?London in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late seventeenth century?, ?The extension and consolidation of England?s New World colonies?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Institutional framework of England?s Atlantic system?. Zahedieh shows that the city?s commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvements in Newfoundland, the Chesapeake, New England, and the West Indies were only superficially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantaged by the Acts of Navigation. Far more important than restrictive legislation was the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English capital as a driver of competition. In this regard, the author emphasizes London?s role as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial hub with a large concentration of people, wealth, political patronage, and mercantile expertise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The London she describes ? rebuilt in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1666 ? was a citizen?s city, a place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of aspiration and opportunity. Zahedieh?s London was becoming a center of global commerce. And to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large degree, this process was being pushed forward by the increasing efficiency in finance, manufacturing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and distribution gained through competition with the Dutch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third chapter, ?Merchants,? is about London?s post-Restoration merchant community and its role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolving structure of Atlantic commerce. Zahedieh focuses on the 170 largest participants in a field of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roughly 1,500 merchants whose Atlantic involvements are recorded in the city?s 1686 port books. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by an examination of the day-to-day operations of London merchants in colonial trade and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies they employed to manage risk and reduce cost in a complex commercial environment. Regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the training of young merchants, Zahedieh relates literacy, numeracy, and a practical education in the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the world, to success in long-distance trade. ?Most of the big colonial traders,? she says, ?were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprenticed to merchants and learnt about the intricacies of charter parties, bills of lading, invoices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contracts, bills of exchange, insurance policies, weights and measures, and other details of business, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including a host of unwritten customary practices? \(p. 88\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An advantageous marriage was among the wealth-building strategies employed by aspiring merchants. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accumulating capital and credit \(by whatever means\) could not sustain a late 17th-century trader who lacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reputation for integrity in his business affairs. Such a reputation, Zahedieh tells us, was ?built on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universally accepted code of conduct, which had evolved alongside an increasingly commercial society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combining rules of reason and religion, interest, and honour? \(p. 94\). Reputation was enhanced ? and tested ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in associational relationships, which helps to explain why clubs and societies of all kinds flourished in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s thriving urban environment. ?Examination of the big colonial merchants? lives reveals that all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belonged to a handful of such clubs?, writes Zahedieh, ?which combined with Church, and companies, to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7328 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seal reputations, encourage exchange of information, strengthen mutual regard, and promote various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business enterprises? \(p. 106\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Capital and the Colonies)] TJ ET BT 175.364 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( goes on to look at kinship, ethnicity, and other bases of trust relationships. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, Zahedieh underscores the value of religion: ?The capacity to obtain good economic and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence, and high levels of adherence to a collective code of conduct?, she writes, gave the Jews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakers, and other cohesive religious groups, ?undoubted competitive advantages? \(p. 113\). Politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided another means of gaining a competitive advantage. Readers will not be surprised to learn that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s Atlantic traders took advantage of their proximity to the levers of power. But negotiating a safe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(path through the contested political landscape of late 17th-century England was no easy matter. In spite of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to benefits only the Crown could bestow, the most powerful of London?s colonial merchants saw it in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their interest to support Parliament and the City, and gave their financial support to the Glorious Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four, ?Shipping?, analyzes the relationship between the expansion of England?s shipping capacity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Acts of Trade and Navigation. Zahedieh begins by discussing the share of London tonnage taken up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Atlantic trade. By 1686, her benchmark year, ?colonial trade had become by far the largest consumer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s overseas trading tonnage? \(p. 138\). By that year, because of the prevalence of bulky cargoes on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homeward-bound voyages, the proportion of London tonnage committed to colonial trade took up more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the city?s available shipping capacity \(although the value of imports from the plantations was roughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16 per cent of the total value of English imports\). The disproportionate demand for shipping space was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of distance, crop cycles, and weather conditions that slowed the movement of ships and tied up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital. In her comments on the city?s investment in shipping, Zahedieh examines the sources, deployment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and return on capital in one of the most resource-intensive sectors of the late 17th-century English economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She dismisses the significance of the requirement that ships operating in colonial trade must be English-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built: ?English ships were used because they suited Atlantic conditions and, furthermore, they could be built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England at prices which competed with those of their rivals? \(p. 155\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zahedieh looks next at the impact of Atlantic trade on the London workforce. ?Colonial commerce not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a large demand for ships?, she tells us, ?but also served as a ?nursery of [the] seamen? that ?great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princes? needed to swell the ranks of their small standing navies in time of war? \(p. 159\). She estimates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s Atlantic merchant fleet employed around 6,300 sailors in 1686, most of whom were recruited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the port?s large pool of unskilled labor. Even greater numbers were employed on the docks and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowded streets and alleyways along the Thames. Behind the apparent congestion and disorder in the busy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(port, there was a well developed ? and reasonably efficient ? infrastructure employing a dizzying array of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradesmen in support of maritime life. Efficiencies achieved here ? along with those realized in counting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses and aboard ships at sea ? help to explain London?s rise to preeminence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, ?Imports,? underscores the significance of American produce. ?London?s plantation imports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubled in value between the Restoration and the end of the century,? Zahedieh tells us, ?and by 1700 they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounted for not only around a fifth of the capital?s inward trade but also a third of its re-export trade to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe? \(p. 184\). Regarding England?s ?early expectations and experiments in the New World?, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that 17th-century ideals of improvement and self-sufficiency, together with the aspirational impulses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of English Protestantism, manifested themselves in agricultural experiments in Virginia, New England, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West Indies. There were many failures ? viniculture and silk production are just two examples ? but there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were impressive successes. The best-known are tobacco and sugar, both of which had transformative effects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the port of London, and ?the growing taste for smoke and sweetness in seventeenth-century Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured the success of England?s settlement project? \(p. 189\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s colonial imports included goods acquired from the ?natural bounty? of North America, notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fish, furs, and forest products. The volume of dried and salted fish from Newfoundland grew to vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportions ? fluctuating between 200,000 and 300,000 quintals in most years ? and ?helped England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finance its deficit in bilateral trade in a number of regions? \(p. 192\). Furs were important in the early years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial settlement. However, the trade suffered from the depletion of fur-bearing animals in the vicinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of settled areas and shifted northward after establishment of the Hudson?s Bay Company in 1670. Timber )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7283 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also held out tantalizing prospects to early projectors of Anglo-American commerce, but transport costs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendered large-scale shipments of American timber unfeasible. Masts were the most valuable output of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North American forests, and a mast trade developed in which London played a significant role. It was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the next century that a sustainable trade in strategically important naval stores began to emerge, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then only with the support of state subsidies. Tobacco was, without question, the most important North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American export. ?Tobacco sealed the success of early English settlement in both mainland America, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Caribbean, and demonstrated that new lands could provide profits for producers, merchants, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturers? \(p. 199\). Efficiencies gained in the shipment, processing, and distribution of tobacco spilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over into most areas of London commerce.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugar was the greatest of the colonial staples, and London situated itself at the center of the trade. Zahedieh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports that by 1686 the value of London?s sugar imports exceeded those of tobacco by roughly four times. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And she challenges ?the ?myth? of heavy Dutch investment? in the early stages of sugar production on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbados and other English islands, arguing instead that ?the rapid expansion in the early years rested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely on high profits and substantial ploughback of earnings? \(p. 212\). The dramatic growth in the sugar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade had a broad stimulating effect on English economic life, particularly in the capital. Sugar refining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became an important industry and, while not labor-intensive, required substantial capital investment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although sugar dominated imports from the English islands, it was not the only semi-tropical article to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a market in the city. Cotton, dyestuffs \(notably indigo and logwood\), ?foodstuffs such as cocoa \(combined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with sugar and spices to make chocolate\), ginger, lime juice, pimento, and array of spices, drugs, gums, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spermaceti oil, hardwoods for furniture, and exotic commodities such as tortoiseshell? entered the port of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London from the colonies \(pp. 229?30\). In addition, there were significant imports of gold and silver bullion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obtained ?from America through plunder or peaceful contraband commerce? \(p. 230\). By the turn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century, London?s colonial import trade far exceeded the aspirations of Hakluyt and other early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoters an English presence in the Atlantic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six is about London?s involvement in the various export trades to colonial America. The first part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centers on human cargoes: indentured white servants and enslaved black Africans. From early in the 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the city had a hand in the carriage of large numbers of servants to Virginia, New England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbados, and elsewhere in the American plantations. The volume of this activity cannot be known with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precision, but it is enough to say that the persistence of excess carrying capacity on vessels bound for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America encouraged shippers to take in servants. Greater still was the city?s role in the slave trade ? from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1650s through abolition of the commerce in the early 19th century. In 1660, the Company of Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adventurers Trading to Africa ? London-based and well connected to the city?s political elite ? received a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charter from the Crown that gave the Adventurers monopoly rights on the west coast of Africa, as well as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English plantations in America. But war with the Dutch ? and the encroachments of private traders ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enfeebled the Company of Royal Adventurers which was reconstituted in 1672 as the Royal African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company. Although encumbered with overhead and forced to come to terms with interlopers, the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African Company played a critical role in channeling London?s vast financial resources into the darkest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of Atlantic commerce.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians have paid considerably less attention to the exportation of food and manufactured goods. London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not have a large role in the preparation and packaging of food and beverage products for carriage to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American colonies. But this does not mean that the city was uninvolved. Following the Restoration, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged a huge trade in Irish salted provisions that became a structural feature of Atlantic commerce. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London commission houses in the sugar trade figured prominently in this activity, placing orders with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisioners in Cork and elsewhere in Ireland and securing payment. London was also involved in managing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a large trade in wine and spirits for markets in colonial America. It was a business that drew its product from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wide variety of sources, some of them \(as in the case of Madeira wines\) outside the trading system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envisioned by the Acts of Navigation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The largest component of direct exports from London to the colonies fell under the broad heading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufactured goods. To a striking degree, they fulfilled Hakluyt?s promise that the New World would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide markets for English manufactures ? notably woolens ? facing shrinking demand due to European )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4957 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition. Of even greater significance to the economy of the Home Islands was the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely new industries that arose in response to commercial expansion in the Atlantic. Historians, dazzled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the flood of sugar and tobacco into the port of London, might miss the fact that exports grew faster than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imports, and that by the 18th century growth in the export sector had transformed the English economy into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that would have been unrecognizable to Hakluyt?s generation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her conclusion, Zahedieh underscores the importance of capital, mercantile skill, and entrepreneurial spirit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the formation of England?s Atlantic economy. The Acts of Navigation, she emphasizes, played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting role in the post-Restoration decades. At best, they nudged the economy forward and provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure. But their great significance was as a generator of revenue for the Crown. It would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible for England to displace the Dutch as the dominant trading nation in the Atlantic had it not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the efficiencies achieved by London merchants. ?England had entered the seventeenth century as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial laggard, but the rapid expansion of long-distance, and above all colonial trade, played an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important role in encouraging the accumulation of skills, information, and liquid capital \(reflected in falling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private interest rates\) which by 1700 had allowed London to establish itself as a financial centre to rival, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon overtake, Amsterdam? \(p. 287\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Capital and the Colonies)] TJ ET BT 175.364 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an important book with many strengths. British readers will be reminded of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the centrality of London?s post-Restoration Atlantic commerce to the story of their nation?s rise as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic power on a global scale. American readers will be reminded that their colonial forebears, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprising and resourceful, did not reside at the center of the universe. And readers everywhere will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminded ? if they need reminding ? that England?s emergence as a wealthy, sophisticated, and highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated market-driven economy was made possible by the productive output of millions of enslaved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africans. Zahedieh has performed other services as well. Not the least of these is demonstrating to a rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of young scholars the benefits of a solid grounding in archival sources. )] TJ ET BT 430.616 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Capital and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colonies)] TJ ET BT 76.688 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Nuala Zahedieh should be required reading for students of Atlantic and global commerce, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as those interested in the role ? as well as limitations ? of the early-modern state in the formation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EH.net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eh.net/book_reviews/capital-and-colonies-london-and-atlantic-economy-1660-1700)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 359.907 m 464.948 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 467.948 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 356.575 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 338.795 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 338.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1234)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 337.401 m 328.316 337.401 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 312.424 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/12815)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://eh.net/book_reviews/capital-and-colonies-london-and-atlantic-economy-1660-1700)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 360.2215 464.9477 372.1015 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://eh.net/book_reviews/capital-and-colonies-london-and-atlantic-economy-1660-1700) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 337.7155 328.3157 349.5955 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1234) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000582 00000 n 0000000664 00000 n 0000004824 00000 n 0000004933 00000 n 0000005043 00000 n 0000005152 00000 n 0000008713 00000 n 0000008841 00000 n 0000008925 00000 n 0000008990 00000 n 0000017334 00000 n 0000017399 00000 n 0000024780 00000 n 0000024845 00000 n 0000032181 00000 n 0000032272 00000 n 0000037282 00000 n 0000037409 00000 n 0000037546 00000 n 0000037674 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37770 %%EOF