%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 26 0 R 34 0 R 54 0 R 87 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150422114324+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150422114324+01'00') /Title (The British People and the League of Nations; Democracy, Citizenship and Internationalism, c.1918-45) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4924 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The British People and the League of Nations; Democracy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Citizenship and Internationalism, c.1918-45)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen McCarthy writes of a ?recent groundswell of scholarly interest in the League [of Nations]?, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveyed by Susan Pedersen in a 2007 review essay.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.632 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.632 250.545 m 299.624 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.624 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To this she adds my own 2009 book )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.288 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.288 250.545 m 493.280 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 493.280 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in time for her to notice, but not to use. Her own book is another valuable addition, along with Ruth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henig?s general survey, Daniel Laqua?s edited volume on interwar internationalism, and the 40-odd papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from some 15 countries presented at last August?s conference at the Graduate Institute at Geneva.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.236 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.236 207.777 m 518.228 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCarthy?s title is slightly misleading in that her book is not about the League, but rather about the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League of Nations Union and how it ?inspired a rich and participatory culture of political protest, popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and civic ritual...? \(p. 1\). She sees this as an important part of ?the larger history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratisation of Britain?s political culture between the wars? \(p. 2\). Hers is very much history from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground up. It does not challenge the main conclusions of Donald Birn?s pioneering 1981 study )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.972 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.972 124.497 m 505.964 124.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 505.964 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broaden and deepen it. McCarthy finds that ?the LNU?s gospel of universal participation was belied by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological reality of its membership, dominated as it was by middle-class branch officers or super-wealthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrons? \(p. 156\). The participation of the middle-classes in the Union suggests that accounts of their retreat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into suburban domesticity have been exaggerated. Yet, middle-class dominance at the grass roots was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of fact rather than aspiration. The LNU was not intended to ?shore up middle class anti-socialism? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1235)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 12 April, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen McCarthy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719086168)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Yearwood)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.6317 250.8595 299.6237 262.7395 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 479.2877 250.8595 493.2797 262.7395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.2357 208.0915 518.2277 219.9715 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.9717 124.8115 505.9637 136.6915 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7958 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(157\). Socialists such as Philip Noel-Baker were prominent in its leadership, and trade unionists were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actively encouraged to join. But workers who did join often felt patronised and talked down to. One trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist on an LNU deputation to Downing Street found his colleagues ?a poor babbling crowd with all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional courtesies, gratitudes and sophistication, so that I felt quite out of place and unhappy? \(p. 169\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Workers had their traditional forms of sociability, many of which, such as the public house, were male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oriented. The LNU, as McCarthy brings out, was to a quite remarkable degree based on church and chapel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregations, which were predominantly female. This imbued ?the grassroots movement with a distinctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious flavour?? \(p. 3\), but may well have been off-putting for working men. Moreover, the Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealed much more to the reclining Nonconformists than to the members of the Established Church, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly at all to the still expanding Roman Catholics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Nonconformists, of course, had been one of the mainstays of pre-war Liberalism. All writers on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LNU have stressed the degree to which it carried on the traditions of liberalism at a time when the Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party became fragmented and marginalised. McCarthy pushes this further in arguing that ?the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diffusion of those values, in part accomplished by the diaspora of Liberal personnel into new institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes, was integral to the political realignment of the interwar years? \(p. 55\). Education was a key liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value, seen as a means of socialising mass democracy. The editor of the Union?s journal )] TJ ET BT 461.600 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Headway)] TJ ET BT 506.924 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a circulation of some 100,000 at its peak, saw its purpose as ?primarily to instruct, and only secondarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to entertain?; reading its more difficult articles was ?a duty any man or woman of serious purpose ought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be ready to carry out? \(p. 25\). Schools were a particular concern of the LNU, partly because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement of the historian H. A. L. Fisher, a Liberal who had been President of the Board of Education in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lloyd George Coalition. LNU speakers gained easy access to the classroom. Iris Murdoch would recall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?she and her fellow students used to carry a copy of Article 16 in their pockets at all times? \(p. 112\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though McCarthy accepts that such zeal was likely confined to Badminton. While teachers largely accepted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Union?s internationalism as part of the general turn away from the jingoistic masculinity of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian and Edwardian periods, they worried about the possible intrusion of ?propaganda? into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classroom. This would significantly restrict the ability of the LNU to act as a campaigning organisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The League of Nations Union saw its job as ?fostering intelligent citizenship and developing enlightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotism? \(p. 132\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.008 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.008 386.163 m 146.000 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 146.000 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It did not challenge the idea of Great Britain?s central role in the development of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better world. It expected to support governments of whatever party in promoting a widely accepted national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy. In discussing this, McCarthy does not always get her tone right. She tends to see Conservative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional lite backing of the League as a concession to public opinion, and perhaps amounting to little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than lip-service. I have argued that British political leaders and senior officials wanted a League not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of subservience to popular pressures, but because they believed that it would provide the desired basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for post-war stability. The LNU was not asking them to go in a direction where they did not want to go. Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Cecil, the Chairman and effective leader of the Union throughout, in government or out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristically tried to contrast his zeal for the League with the alleged indifference of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives. His largely self-serving rhetoric has too often been taken at too close to face value by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. McCarthy is therefore misleading when she speaks of the LNU?s ?appeasement? of the right \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(162\) and its concessions to ?popular militarism?\(pp. 137?41\). Certainly, as a critic pungently put it, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union?s leadership did include a surprising number of military figures, ?disgruntled generals, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointed admirals?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.004 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.004 200.835 m 161.996 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 161.996 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It did establish links with the British Legion, and recruited heavily on Armistice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Day. But 11 November was about commemoration, not celebration, and the Legion was hardly a militarist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body like the German Stahlhelm, far less the SA or the SS.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like most historians of the inter-war period, McCarthy?s focus is more on the 1930s than on the 1920s. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is particularly weak in outlining the origins of the League of Nations Union in the earlier League of Nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society, which was very much an intellectual lite group initially unwilling to proselytise for fear of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as a stop-the-war movement, and the League of Free Nations Association organised by David Davies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and several others connected with Great Britain?s 1918 propaganda offensive, who urged the immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of a League among the Allied Powers which would control the world?s resources and force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany to pay a high price for admission. It may be argued that this deserves only a couple of paragraphs )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 132.0077 386.4775 145.9997 398.3575 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.0037 201.1495 161.9957 213.0295 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8774 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a book whose focus is elsewhere, but it may also be argued that those paragraphs could and should have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been better.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.996 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.996 780.819 m 103.988 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.988 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Origins matter in another respect. Revulsion against war and the desire for ?Never Again? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly did much to turn the LNU into a mass popular movement with a membership of more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400,000 at its peak in 1931. The war and the immediate post-war period was important also in that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments were coalitions, traditional party divisions seemed decreasingly relevant, and all men of good-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will were expected to work together for the national good.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.292 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.292 723.795 m 327.284 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.284 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The centrism of the LNU was a reflection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the times in which it emerged. While Cecil was one of the first to break away from Lloyd George, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention was to create a different centre grouping of politicians of higher moral tone and ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment. Although Cecil was premature, and his political schemes came to nothing, the Union followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his centrist vision. Although party politics eventually reasserted themselves, Baldwin succeeded because he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered the same moral leadership that Cecil had promised. The Corfu crisis, the revulsion against Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birkenhead?s call for sharp swords, and the apparent revival of Liberalism in the 1923 election, made it clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that support for the League of Nations could not be challenged in British politics. Not even Neville )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain in the late 1930s was ready for an open break with the LNU.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As McCarthy clearly shows, the League was both a popular cause and a national one. While it appeared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have triumphed internationally in the mid 1920s, Susan Pedersen has argued that public opinion both in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and in Germany turned away from it as the fruits of Locarno appeared to be slow in coming.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.912 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.912 554.979 m 526.904 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While McCarthy does not make an international comparison, the development of British public opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly followed a different path. Support for the League peaked in 1931 just as it was ebbing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent. The crisis for Great Britain would come in 1935?6 with the Peace Ballot and the Abyssinian War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCarthy examines the Peace Ballot in some detail. Her most interesting point is that, as something to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filled out at leisure at home, it reflected a feminised approach to politics, and, indeed, women played a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in organising and carrying it out. Partly for that reason it has faded almost completely from public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory. What appeared to have been the repudiation of the League with the Hoare-Laval Pact largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed the credibility of Geneva. The centrist policy of the LNU was to a large degree abandoned as Cecil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved the organisation sharply to the left, aligning it with the International Peace Campaign and functioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as part of the Popular Front. Others, particularly the Secretary, Maxwell Garnett, had reservations, but Cecil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was convinced that the IPC was ?almost the last hope for peace in Europe ? If it fails, I do not think the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League can go on?\(p. 223\). McCarthy earlier emphasised how far Cecil had transcended his earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishmentarian Anglicanism to gain acceptance by Nonconformists as an outstanding Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statesman. Salvador de Madariaga famously described him as a ?civic monk?. However, as Asquith had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once noted, he could be a ?ruffian?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.292 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.292 341.139 m 225.284 341.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 225.284 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He was a Free Trade Tory who had put himself at the head of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass popular movement. He now admired the Campaign for its youthful vigour. McCarthy shows how his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice undermined the LNU, which came to be seen as propagandist rather than educational. By 1939 its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership had halved, and only 9,000 still bothered with )] TJ ET BT 319.664 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Headway)] TJ ET BT 364.988 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. On the other hand, Cecil aligned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself with men like Attlee, Dalton, Noel-Baker, Lloyd George, Sir Archibald Sinclair, and Winston )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill in support of the League and collective security.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.640 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.640 269.859 m 333.632 269.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.632 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In retrospect this would not seem a bad cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or bad company.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her conclusion McCarthy quotes the reflection of a Branch Secretary: ?Let us be honest with ourselves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very few of us who were in the Union heart and soul considered the Covenant absorbingly interesting. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found it difficult to thread our way through the Optional Clause, Technical Commissions, Voting Procedure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and so on?? \(p. 242\). She has the same problem herself. She does not know enough about the League and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues confronting it. Her claim that the Geneva Protocol of 1924 was ?milder? than the Treaty of Mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assistance of 1923 \(p. 22\) is unsupported by evidence or analysis, and is simply incorrect. She refers several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times to the Four Points of the International Peace Campaign, but she never gives them, even though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether to grant dispensation from the third point \(calling for ?Strengthening of the League of Nations for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prevention and stopping of war by the organization of Collective Security and Mutual Assistance? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.280 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.280 115.299 m 546.272 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 546.272 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a matter of considerable importance within the Union. Particularly shocking is the complete absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any discussion of the Optional Clause. Getting London to sign this provision for the compulsory jurisdiction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the International Court in justiciable disputes was seen as a key issue for the LNU in the second half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1920s. It is the subject of an excellent but rather neglected book by Lorna Lloyd, of which McCarthy )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.9957 781.1335 103.9877 793.0135 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.2917 724.1095 327.2837 735.9895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.9117 555.2935 526.9037 567.1735 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.2917 341.4535 225.2837 353.3335 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.6397 270.1735 333.6317 282.0535 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.2797 115.6135 546.2717 127.4935 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 10341 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems quite unaware. Lloyd provides a careful and incisive analysis of the failure of the Union to shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government policy on this matter. Many of the tensions between the centrist and the campaigning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches and the intrinsic weaknesses of the LNU are clearly brought out. The Union?s failure prefigures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its failure in the late 1930s, though in the earlier case it abandoned its campaign once it became clear that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government would not budge. Lloyd?s conclusion is trenchant: ?the hope that British public opinion could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play an important role in the making of foreign policy had proved to be ill-founded?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.960 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.960 723.795 m 460.952 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.952 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This contrasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharply with the bland, almost feel-good statement with which McCarthy ends her book: the League of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations Union ?succeeded ? in persuading Britain?s quiet citizens to recognise foreign affairs as their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimate concern and international government as a cause which deserved their support, and perhaps even, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on occasion to break their silence in order to say as much? \(p. 253\). McCarthy?s strength is in her attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ask new questions and to try different approaches to the development of a popular movement, but other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians? questions about issues and high politics are also still worth asking. It is certainly right for her to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try to go ?beyond the Senior Combination Room or the steps of the Foreign Office? \(p. 7\), but those places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained important, and usually decisive. The League and the LNU can be understood only if both sets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions are asked and answered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 561.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Pedersen, ?Back to the League of Nations?, )] TJ ET BT 307.964 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 464.948 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 112/4 \(October )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007\), 1091?1117.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.340 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.340 515.715 m 208.328 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter J. Yearwood, )] TJ ET BT 158.324 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guarantee of Peace, The League of Nations in British Policy 1914?1925)] TJ ET BT 507.980 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 487.203 m 149.000 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Henig, )] TJ ET BT 125.684 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The League of Nations)] TJ ET BT 234.692 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2010\); )] TJ ET BT 319.352 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Internationalism Reconfigured. Transnational )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas and Movements Between the World Wars, )] TJ ET BT 297.308 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Daniel Laqua \(London and New York, 2011\); The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graduate Institute Geneva, Department of International History, Conference on the League of Nations, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25?26 August 2011. I thank Stephen Wertheim for having provided me with copies of these papers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 415.923 m 118.004 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 403.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald S. Birn, )] TJ ET BT 142.352 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The League of Nations Union 1918?1945)] TJ ET BT 341.360 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.008 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.008 401.667 m 473.996 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The quotation is from )] TJ ET BT 171.344 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Headway)] TJ ET BT 216.668 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(August 1927\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 292.328 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 292.328 387.411 m 346.316 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major E.W. Polson-Newman, ?The League of Nations Union?, )] TJ ET BT 369.956 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Review)] TJ ET BT 465.284 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(May 1929\), 579, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted in Lorna Lloyd, )] TJ ET BT 178.340 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peace through Law; Britain and the International Court in the 1920s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1997\), p. 88. Major Polson-Newman pointed also to ?doctrinaire professors? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?a miscellaneous collection of visionaries and elderly women?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.620 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.620 330.387 m 441.608 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For generations the standard work on the League movement during the First World War has been )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised to be Henry Winkler, )] TJ ET BT 223.976 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The League of Nations Movement in Great Britain, 1914?1919)] TJ ET BT 526.304 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd )] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed., Metuchen, NJ, 1967\). Its continuing relevance was recently reaffirmed by Martin Ceadel : ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins and Covenant of the League of Nations: a corrective to two standard simplifications?, Graduate )] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute Conference, Geneva, 25 August 2011.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.976 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.976 259.107 m 343.964 259.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 246.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For centrism in the early post-war period see Kenneth O. Morgan, )] TJ ET BT 384.284 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Consensus and Disunity: The Lloyd )] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George Coalition Government 1918?1922)] TJ ET BT 267.668 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1979\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.316 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.316 230.595 m 400.304 230.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 217.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pedersen, ?Back to the League of Nations?, 1096?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.624 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.624 216.339 m 368.612 216.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 203.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asquith to Lady Venetia Stanley 12 March 1915, in )] TJ ET BT 315.992 203.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(H.H. Asquith, Letters to Venetia Stanley, )] TJ ET BT 514.652 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael & Eleanor Brock \(Oxford, 1985\), p. 477.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.972 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.972 187.827 m 362.960 187.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 174.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Save the League: Save Peace? issued at the beginning of 1937. The other signatories were Mrs Corbett )] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashby, Lord Lytton, the Duchess of Atholl, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Gilbert Murray. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viscount Cecil Robert, )] TJ ET BT 177.344 146.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Great Experiment)] TJ ET BT 273.992 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1941\), pp. 289?90.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.644 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.644 145.059 m 474.632 145.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 132.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Points are given in Cecil, )] TJ ET BT 209.672 132.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Great Experiment)] TJ ET BT 295.988 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 284?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.316 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.316 130.803 m 412.304 130.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 117.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd, )] TJ ET BT 98.684 117.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peace through law)] TJ ET BT 189.344 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 89.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.344 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.344 116.547 m 282.332 116.547 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 101.215 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 83.435 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 83.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1235)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 82.041 m 328.316 82.041 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 57.064 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.9597 724.1095 460.9517 735.9895 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 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