%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R 43 0 R 54 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141020002329+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141020002329+01'00') /Title (Emanuel Swedenborg, Secret Agent on Earth and in Heaven: Jacobites, Jews, and Freemasons in Early Modern Sweden) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3960 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Emanuel Swedenborg, Secret Agent on Earth and in Heaven: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Jacobites, Jews, and Freemasons in Early Modern Sweden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emanuel Swedenborg \(1688?1772\) claims an exceptional place in history as a famous scientist, theosopher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and visionary. The son of a senior Swedish Lutheran bishop, he devoted himself to scientific studies, visiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, Holland and France as a young postgraduate student to absorb the latest thinking of Issac Newton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Flamsteed, Christian Huygens, Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke and Hermann Boerhaave. In the 1720 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1730s Swedenborg worked on a fast-revolving stage of new discoveries, inventions, machines and large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineering projects. He travelled widely through Europe and published pioneering works in astronomy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physics, engineering, chemistry, geology, anatomy, physiology and psychology. At the same time he played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a prominent role in Swedish public institutions concerned with mining, finance and politics. These worldly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rational interests totally absorbed Swedenborg. At the peak of his powers, a renowned figure of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science and member of the Swedish Academy of Sciences, Swedenborg's life changed for ever in the spring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1744.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While in Holland, Swedenborg underwent an emotional crisis culminating in a nocturnal vision of Christ and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he felt he had been divinely commissioned to a special task. Then, in the spring of 1745, while resident in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, he had his first vision of the spiritual world and its inhabitants. The Lord God appeared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1236)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 19 April, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marsha Keith Schuchard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9789004183124)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(189.32)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(804pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leiden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7823 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg and told him his mission was to ?explain to men the spiritual meaning of Scripture?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henceforth, Swedenborg possessed the gift of vision into the spirit world and received constant inspiration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his new vocation. In 1748 he began working on )] TJ ET BT 282.308 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arcana Coelestia)] TJ ET BT 365.972 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a major eight-volume visionary work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which heralded a stream of books devoted to theology and biblical exegesis, including )] TJ ET BT 451.292 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Earths in the Universe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 40.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Last Judgment)] TJ ET BT 131.348 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 137.348 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine)] TJ ET BT 340.976 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and his most famous book, )] TJ ET BT 478.976 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heaven and Hell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, all published in 1758. During the 1760s he continued to publish substantial works, all based on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of scripture, which the angels and the dead explained to him through spirit vision. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s visionary exegesis offers a prosaic yet compelling record of encounters with the spirits, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer detailed information concerning God, heaven and earth, man?s purpose, the Last Judgment, and the life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Previous scholarly studies of Swedenborg have celebrated the scientist and the mystic. Martin Lamm, Ernst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benz, Cyriel Odhner Sigstedt, and Inge Jonsson have painstakingly documented Swedenborg?s scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests and also indicated the philosophical continuities between his earlier scientific thought and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neoplatonic conceptions of the soul and its divine inspiration.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.664 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.664 585.747 m 345.656 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marsha Keith Schuchard?s massive 800-page volume on Emanuel Swedenborg?s career as ?a secret agent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Earth and in Heaven? represents a study of Swedish political and diplomatic history in the 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with constant reference to the life and times of the famous Swedish scientist and later visionary. Disputing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the settled portrait of Swedenborg as a dedicated scientist, technocrat, and a visionary interpreter of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bible, Dr Schuchard asserts that Swedenborg also pursued an active career as a Jacobite spy on behalf of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedish government, that he was a Freemason and used secret Masonic networks to relay intelligence back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Sweden and to undertake other secret missions. Furthermore, she stresses his reception of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kabbalah, involving the development of ecstatic, visionary techniques. These interests are linked to his early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific studies in telepathy and thought-reading, and their practice is related to his diplomatic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence activities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The scope of Schuchard?s study, comprising 22 chronological chapters, embraces the entire period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s adult life, making an unusual contribution to the historical and political study of Sweden?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Age of Liberty? from 1719 to 1772.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.652 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.652 376.419 m 225.644 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 225.644 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When King Charles XII succeeded to the throne in 1697, he faced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triple alliance of Denmark, Poland and Russia, against which he led a victorious Swedish army, subduing all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies but Russia, and installing a friendly monarch, Stanislaus Leszczynski, on the Polish throne. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pursuing his campaign deep into Russia, Charles?s army was defeated at Poltava in June 1709 and he took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refuge in Turkey, where he remained a semi-hostage until his heroic ride across Europe back to Sweden in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 1714. He was visited there by Georg Heinrich von Grtz, a Holstein baron and diplomat, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swiftly made himself indispensable to the king, organising a copper-based currency and advancing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king?s plans against Denmark. Again, Charles strengthened his army and turned on Norway in an attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subdue the Danes in order to have a free hand against Russia. During this campaign Charles was killed \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 1718\), to be succeeded on the throne by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora \(1719?20\), who quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abdicated in favour of her consort Frederick I of Hesse \(1720?1751\). Baron von Grtz?s policies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reckless encouragement of Charles led to his own summary execution. In 1719 peace was made with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover on Sweden?s relinquishment of Bremen and Verden; in 1720 peace was made with Denmark and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1721 with Russia at Nystad, when Sweden gave up Livonia, Estonia and parts of Finland. Whereas Sweden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had acted as one of the great powers of Europe for over half a century, the nation was now exhausted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles? martial endeavours. Sweden was now chastened, and its leading statesman Count Arvid Horn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily pursued a prudent peace policy to the end of the 1730s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Against this momentous turn in Swedish political and military history Schuchard seeks to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s life. Swedenborg?s frequent international travels do indeed provide a fertile soil for enquiry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into his diplomatic and intelligence activities, beginning as young student in England, Holland and France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and across Germany in the period 1710?14. There followed his second European trip, 1720?2 \(Holland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany\); his third European trip, 1733?4 \(Germany, Bohemia, Poland\); his fourth European trip, 1736?40 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Denmark, Holland, France, Italy\); his fifth European trip, 1743?5 \(Germany, Holland, England\), )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.6637 586.0615 345.6557 597.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.6517 376.7335 225.6437 388.6135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7315 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminating in his vision of Christ at Delft \(April 1744\) and the opening of his spirit vision and commission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Lord to interpret Holy Scripture in London \(April 1745\). Given Swedenborg?s major interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology involving military works, metals and mining, and navigation, earlier biographers had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content to regard his international movements as part of his quest for scientific and technical knowledge. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, Schuchard insists that Swedenborg was drawn early on into political and diplomatic intrigue on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behalf of Sweden, and in particular by parties favouring Jacobite allies against the English government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuchard?s approach involves an extensive account of the international political and diplomatic context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the ?Glorious Revolution? in England of 1688 and the Hanoverian succession, when the Elector of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover became King George I of England in 1714. The formal deposition of the Stuart dynasty had left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many sympathisers among the Catholic monarchs of continental Europe and the English Tories had still had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comfort of a Protestant Stuart on the throne in the form of Queen Anne up until this time. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverians who succeeded to the British throne were seen as Protestant usurpers and there was widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for the exiled Stuart house in France, Spain, Austria, and the Italian principalities. King James VII )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and III \(James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, 1688?1766\) claimed the British throne on the death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the deposed James II in 1701, and was recognised as such by France, Spain, the Papal States and Modena. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides Catholic state support, Jacobite efforts to restore the Stuart dynasty in Britain also reached out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-Catholic powers such as Sweden and Russia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuchard argues that that dynastic union between England and Hanover produced friction between Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Sweden, as Hanover wanted to occupy the Swedish possessions of Verden and Bremen in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to gain access to the North Sea coast. Schuchard claims that King Charles XII accordingly began to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Franco-Jacobite agenda to put pressure on Britain. After his escape from captivity in Turkey in 1714, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles laid his plans for an invasion in early 1716 of Norway, which he hoped to capture from the ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Danes. Schuchard has quarried the scattered primary diplomatic sources and some interesting scholarship to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show the extent of an emergent Swedish-Jacobite plot in 1715?16 to support a Jacobite rising by invading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland from Norway which was duly exposed and aborted in January 1717. At the same time, Schuchard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the importance of Scottish Freemasonry as an independent tradition which utilized military field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lodges among the exiled Jacobites. She produces the late 18th-century testimony of Elis Schrderheim, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedish Freemason, that such military lodges were involved in the Swedish-Jacobite plots, coupled with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern historian Claude Nordmann?s documentation that Franco-Scottish regiments were initiated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military field lodges in 1715?18, all to posit the existence of an extensive network of Jacobite supporters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles? last campaign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Swedenborg had sailed to London in July 1710 on his first European trip, Schuchard seeks to place the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young student in the cockpit of international intrigue involving Anglo-Swedish relations and Jacobite plots, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in close association with the Swedish ambassador Carl Gyllenborg \(1679?1746\). There is no doubt of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gyllenborg?s Jacobite sympathies. After serving in the Polish War, Gyllenborg had been sent to London in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1703 as secretary of legation, and promoted resident in 1710, when he married a Tory widow, Mrs Sara )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derith, who maintained strong Jacobite sympathies and exerted a strong influence on her husband. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gyllenborg was made minister plenipotentiary in 1715, became implicated in Jacobite plots of the Holstein )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomat, Baron Georg Heinrich von Grtz, against the Hanoverian throne and two years later was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisoned in England for five months because of his participation in the Jacobite plot to reinstate the House )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Stuart. Returning to Sweden, he went on to high office, being appointed Councillor of State in 1723, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister in 1738. While in this office, he founded the activist Hattparti or Hattar \(?Hat? Party\) ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish itself from the passive ?Cap? party ? which launched the disastrous Russo-Swedish War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1741?1743\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuchard claims that Gyllenborg?s most pressing concern in 1710 when King Charles XII was still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detained in Turkey was to promote his cause and find English supporters for a pro-Swedish foreign policy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queen Anne?s ministry, notably Lord Bolingbroke, secretary for northern affairs. Gyllenborg, she claims, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced Swedenborg to the world of diplomatic intrigue which would continue throughout his life and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually involve him directly in ?Hat? politics. Gyllenborg is even credited with receiving royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permission \(from Charles in Turkey?\) to employ young Swedenborg in secret diplomatic initaitives, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8128 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning with his preparations in August 1712 to move his operations from England to Paris in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitate a Franco-Swedish alliance in response to Hanover?s occupation of Verden. However, once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gyllenborg sensed that ?his secret French-Swedish-Jacobite agenda? was being jeopardized by Tory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrigues against Bolingboke he switched Swedenborg?s assignment in January 1713 to Utrecht, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European powers were negotiating to end the War of Spanish Succession and the Great Northern War. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg spent much time in the company of Baron Johan Palmquist, the main Swedish plenipotentiary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuchard follows the twists and turns in the Swedish fortunes at Utrecht, insisting that Swedenborg?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in mathematics, Hebrew and French enabled him to devise ?complex French-Swedish codes, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included Kabbalistic-style transposition of letters and numbers? for undercover communication against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian spies. However, Schuchard cannot pinpoint any specific intelligence work that Swedenborg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried out, apart from the young student and baron-diplomat?s shared enthusiasm for discussing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematics, algebra, and a solution to the longitude problem. As Lars Berquist implies, time may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply hung on Palmquist?s hands as Sweden was no longer a major player after her defeat and the king still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostage in Turkey.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.668 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.668 609.747 m 137.660 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuchard?s detailed documentation of diplomatic moves, strategic plots and alliances, and their formulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reversal, presents an impressive tableau of political intrigue in which Gyllenborg, Baron Grtz of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holstein, Palmquist, and Charles XII prominently feature, while the involvement of the young Swedenborg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is recurrently implied by association or proximity. Suggestively, Swedenborg travelled back from France via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover \(where he missed meeting the polymathic genius Leibniz\) and reached Rostock in Swedish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pomerania in August 1714. Again, his letters to his brother-in-law Eric Benzelius, who was evidently at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of political intrigues, might suggest a political interest, but the oblique and allegorical language of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirant young poet may or may not represent a coded diplomatic letter. Similarly, Schuchard interprets his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poem )] TJ ET BT 63.680 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Camena Borea )] TJ ET BT 139.004 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as containing allegorical accounts of his own experience of political intrigues and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his role as a spy, though Swedenborg may have been simply emulating a theme in Alexander Pope?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary )] TJ ET BT 103.664 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rape of the Lock )] TJ ET BT 187.652 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1714\). When Charles arrived in November 1714 at Stralsund, Swedenborg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penned the celebratory poem )] TJ ET BT 175.976 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Festivus Applausus )] TJ ET BT 271.976 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a eulogy of the king?s expected restoration of Swedish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunes against a background of feverish plotting on the part of Gyllenborg and Baron von Grtz to brief the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king on the French-Jacobite plans. Amid Schuchard?s narrative focus on the Franco-Swedish-Holstein plot, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she must concede that there is no evidence of Swedenborg?s response to the actual Jacobite rising of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 1715 under the Earl of Mar, its speedy defeat after the arrival of the hapless Pretender at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christmas 1715 and his final flight from Scotland in February 1716.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of Schuchard?s evidence is circumstantial, frequently pleading the absence \(or even suppression\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary sources. Thus, Swedenborg?s accommodation on his travels often provides Schuchard with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent evidence for his involvement in intrigue. She notes that his inn, ?The English Crown?, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing through Hanover \(August 1736\) was directly above the post office, and that this was also the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of Robert Walpole?s espionage activity. When Swedenborg wanders in the royal gardens, he must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathering information on King George II, and so on. After moving on to Paris later in the month, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s hotel is linked by Schuchard to at least four linking streets known to have hosted Masonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lodges. Schuchard concedes that Swedenborg )] TJ ET BT 255.968 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(probably )] TJ ET BT 302.300 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visited two of these lodges, and for good measure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims his ?proximity? to these lodges provides a suggestive background to his further contacts in Paris. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s subsequent meeting with Swedish ambassador Per Niklas Gedda, whose dealings with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English had attracted the suspicion of the new French ambassador in London, Germain Louis Chauvelin, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pro-French party in Stockholm, is interpreted as a surveillance operation, in which Swedenborg will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deploy his paranormal skills in telepathy and face-reading. Swedenborg next meets General Johan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stenflycht, who had just arrived at the same Paris hotel after escorting the failed Polish monarch Stanislaus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leszczynski from his refuge in Knigsberg to a meeting with King Louis XV. Stanislaus, the deposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedish candidate for the Polish throne, was reduced to living )] TJ ET BT 336.980 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(incognito)] TJ ET BT 382.316 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at Versailles with his daughter, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estranged wife of the French king. Again, Schuchard cannot resist suggesting that Stenflycht ?possibly? took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg to meet Stanislaus and the French queen, a meeting supposedly reflected \(only much later in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 1744\) in one of Swedenborg?s ?spirit conversations? from his )] TJ ET BT 375.956 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Dreams.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.616 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.616 72.531 m 483.608 72.531 l S endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 123.6677 610.0615 137.6597 621.9415 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.6157 72.8455 483.6077 84.7255 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8739 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume contains massive quantities of research through which Schuchard provides suggestive but often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertain proof of Swedenborg?s parallel career in diplomacy and intelligence work. In 1721 he is allegedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the financiers of the Jacobite pirates of Madagascar, leading to the setting up of the Swedish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East India Company. His meetings during his 1733?4 travels in Germany and France are linked to Swedish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to restore the deposed Stanislaus Leszczynski to the Polish throne, a campaign that again involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg with Swedish officers and Masonic bankers at Paris in 1736?7. The momentous oration in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 1736 of the Jacobite exile Andrew Michael Ramsay, former tutor to Charles Edward Stuart, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which traced the origins of Scottish \()] TJ ET BT 211.328 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecossais)] TJ ET BT 253.328 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Freemasonry back to the medieval crusading orders, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions were preserved in France and Scotland, is juxtaposed with Swedenborg?s visit to the Temple in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris. For Schuchard, Swedenborg?s journey to Italy is freighted with Jacobite and Masonic significance, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Stuart court had removed to Rome after becoming an embarrassment to Louis XV in France after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of the 1715?16 rising. During his residence at Rome \(September 1738?February 1739\), Swedenborg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent much time with Count Nils Bielke, a Jacobite Mason since 1730, and related by marriage by Count )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tessin, a prominent Hat figure. Through Bielke Swedenborg is supposed to have had an audience with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James III and his two sons, Henry and Charles Edward Stuart, otherwise only corroborated by a later dream-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory later recorded at London in July 1744.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.648 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.648 569.235 m 274.640 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.640 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In Italy he is said to have assisted another Franco-Jacobite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plot to obtain Spanish funding for Swedish military intervention in Scotland, and is even alleged to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a previously unknown journey to Spain. On another, formerly undocumented, visit to London in spring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1740, he is alleged to have visited the leading figure of English Freemasonry, Jean Theophilus Desaguliers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now a disaffected Whig, in order to try to recruit him into Franco-Jacobite \()] TJ ET BT 397.280 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecossais)] TJ ET BT 439.280 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Freemasonry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly crucial to Swedish diplomacy. In 1744 Schuchard finds that Swedenborg?s )] TJ ET BT 453.968 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Dreams )] TJ ET BT 547.628 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April\) supplies metaphoric evidence for his own initiation into Jacobite-)] TJ ET BT 380.312 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecossais )] TJ ET BT 425.312 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Masonic high degrees at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Hague. The solitary term ?Jacobite? in the diary is, according to Lars Bergquist, a plain reference to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man who wrestles like Jacob with the angel \(Genesis 12\), in order to reach salvation and God?s patronage as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader of the Israelites.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.312 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.312 440.931 m 157.304 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s mental and spiritual crisis after his vision of Christ at Delft in April, prompting his move to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London in May 1744, is embedded in Schuchard?s parallel acount of the renewed Jacobite crusade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Edward Stuart \(the Young Pretender, 1720?88\), his invasion of Scotland and the ensuing rebellion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in August 1745. Swedenborg?s wholly theological tract on Biblical passages, )] TJ ET BT 407.984 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Messiah about to Come)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(May?June 1745\), with its references to ?Jacobeans/Jacobites?, is unconvincingly decoded by Schuchard as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Swedish outreach project to Jews, linked to Jacobite ambitions within millenarian expectations, against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background of Franco-Jacobite planning for the 1745 rising. The fact is that Swedenborg used the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms in his related work, )] TJ ET BT 159.332 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Word Explained )] TJ ET BT 261.656 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1745?8\), devoted to his exegesis of Genesis and Exodus, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit references to the descendants of Jacob, namely the Israelites, their sins and need for guidance from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God. Schuchard ignores this more obvious interpretation of the former text, seeing it a messianic treatise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predicting the Young Pretender?s restoration of a Stuart ?Temple of the North?. Schuchard suggests that it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a coincidence that Swedenborg notes the date of his arrival in Stockholm on 30 August 1745, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same day Charles Edward raised the Stuart standard at Glenfinnan and declared war on the Elector of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The period 1744?5, notable for Swedenborg?s involvement with the Moravian Church community in The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hague and London, his mental crisis, vision of Christ and the opening of his spirit vision, is interpreted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuchard as a period of mounting anxiety lest his Jacobite intelligence work be exposed to the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities on the one hand, and on the other a record of his experiment with ecstatic and erotic meditation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques to which he was possibly introduced in 1744 by the famous kabbalist Dr Samuel Jacob Falk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1710?82\), the )] TJ ET BT 107.000 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Baal Shem)] TJ ET BT 158.660 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of London.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.988 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.988 131.811 m 228.980 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 228.980 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Schuchard?s reliance on the veiled language and symbolic events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Swedenborg?s )] TJ ET BT 119.996 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Dreams)] TJ ET BT 210.656 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for evidence of his political work at this time has obvious limitations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it is even more problematic when she uses the same ambiguous journal entry to suggest alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events or key meetings at different points of her narrative. Swedenborg was again in London in 1748?9, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schuchard interprets numerous entries in his )] TJ ET BT 250.652 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spiritual Diaries, )] TJ ET BT 337.664 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a private record of his visionary states, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of his close involvement with orgiastic Moravians and the magical and kabbalistic rituals of Dr )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.6477 569.5495 274.6397 581.4295 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.3117 441.2455 157.3037 453.1255 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.9877 132.1255 228.9797 144.0055 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 8248 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Falk and his disciples. Some of Swedenborg?s references to Jews do suggest his dealings with real Jews in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, and a few references in his visions occasionally match other eye-witness accounts of Falk?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices. Others seem to refer to Jewish sirens and sorcerers encountered among a secret group at Metz or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aachen \(September 1749?summer 1750\). Such textual detective work counts among Schuchard?s more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful attempts to make historical sense of Swedenborg?s spiritual observations as referring to actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences and memories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside his alleged Jacobite and Jewish-kabbalistic associations, Swedenborg?s Masonic membership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains a dominant )] TJ ET BT 131.672 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(leitmotif )] TJ ET BT 174.680 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Schuchard?s research. The question whether Swedenborg actually was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mason has posed a perennial puzzle, as the tradition appears to derive from later continental )] TJ ET BT 479.252 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(illumins, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Masonic theosophers, and high-grade Freemasons inspired by Swedenborg?s religious writings. The French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surgeon Benedict Chastanier \(1739?1816\) had founded as early as 1767 in France a lodge of illumined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theosophers, based on his discovery of then anonymous writings of Swedenborg. After migrating to England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1774, Chastanier learned the identity of their author and founded a Masonic society, the Universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society, in 1776 to disseminate Swedenborg?s work. Its members included General Charles Rainsford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1728?1809\), the future governor of Gibraltar, and avid collector of alchemical and Rosicrucian manuscripts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had joined many high-grade Masonic lodges on the Continent in the course of his military service, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was alleged to have known Swedenborg and Dr Falk in London. Chastanier and the Marquis de Thom went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on to join the )] TJ ET BT 100.688 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philalthes, )] TJ ET BT 160.688 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Masonic society in Paris in 1775. Linking Swedenborg?s visit in Paris in 1769 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings with prominent figures such as Cardinal de Rohan and Gerome de Lalande in high-grade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freemasonry, Schuchard is able to point to the Marquis de Thom?s earlier contact with Swedenborg in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(milieu. Swedenborg?s evident 1749 involvement in the Rite of Seven Degrees, a Jacobite Masonic order in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, is allegedly evidenced by passages in his )] TJ ET BT 276.320 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arcana Coelestia, )] TJ ET BT 365.984 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while his work )] TJ ET BT 440.312 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conjugial Love )] TJ ET BT 517.652 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiates, an ?order of knighthood?, and a temple decorated with mystical columns and pyramids, suggesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a thinly disguised description of a lodge meeting during his 1766 visit in London. By these means she seeks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rehabilitate the earlier, discredited view of Samuel Beswick that Swedenborg was both a life-long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freemason, possibly initiated at Lund in 1706, and the progenitor of the posthumous traditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborgian Freemasonry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.320 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.320 412.419 m 191.312 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The entire book is a monument to Dr Schuchard?s archival research and discovery of telling personnel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings, locations, associations, influences and links. Schuchard?s demonstration of political activity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence work in Swedenborg?s career has a definite basis in fact, such as F. G. Lindh?s earlier discovery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1927 that Swedenborg was in receipt of a secret pension from King Louis XV of France from the 1740s to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his death in 1772 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.348 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.348 329.139 m 133.340 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 133.340 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but her relentless claims of Swedenborg?s dominant Jacobite or Masonic associations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularly stretch the interpretation of her sources. This raises the wider question of the nature of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under review. Its subtitle ?Jacobites, Jews and Freemasons in Early Modern Sweden? indicates a revisionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimate of the previously neglected role of these agents in the politics of Sweden and Northern Europe. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this respect, Schuchard?s project succeeeds, for she has assembled an impressive range of primary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary sources to support her thesis of the importance of this role at key moments in Swedish diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs. Harnessing Swedenborg to this project is less successful. Schuchard insists \(on the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstantial evidence\) that Swedenborg?s works on poetry, physiology, psychology and theology are so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many occult keys to his wide-ranging travels and role as a Jacobite spy and Freemason; this reflects her long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing interest in Swedenborg as an esotericist, interested in alchemy, the Kabbalah, and Masonry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.604 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.604 200.835 m 537.596 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her insistence on Swedenborg?s role in network of ?plots? \(involving the French, Jacobites, Tories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freemasons and Jews\) verges on a conspiracy theory that interprets his theological mission as a secret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Lamm, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emanuel Swedenborg: The Development of his Thought, )] TJ ET BT 411.656 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. T. Spiers and A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hallengren \(West Chester, PA, 2000, first published in Swedish, 1915\); Ernst Benz, )] TJ ET BT 473.312 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emanuel )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg: Visionary Savant in the Age of Reason, )] TJ ET BT 320.996 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. N. Goodrick-Clarke \(West Chester, PA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002; first published in German, 1948\); Cyriel Odhner Sigstedt, )] TJ ET BT 377.336 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Swedenborg Epic: The Life and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 36.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Works of Emanuel Swedenborg )] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.3197 412.7335 191.3117 424.6135 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 119.3477 329.4535 133.3397 341.3335 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.6037 201.1495 537.5957 213.0295 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 8121 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1981\); Inge Jonsson, )] TJ ET BT 214.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visionary Scientist: The Effects of Science and Philosophy on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s Cosmology )] TJ ET BT 194.012 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(West Chester, PA, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.660 780.819 m 374.648 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 149.672 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Liberty: Sweden, 1719?1772 )] TJ ET BT 345.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Rev. ed., Cambridge, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.972 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.972 766.563 m 539.960 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lars Bergquist, )] TJ ET BT 141.008 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s Secret: A Biography )] TJ ET BT 314.984 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2005\), p. 45.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.308 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.308 752.307 m 477.296 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lars Bergquist, )] TJ ET BT 141.008 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s Dream Diary, )] TJ ET BT 284.324 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. A. Hallengren \(West Chester, PA, 2001\), #274, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 310?11. The entry actually identifies the king without a retinue as the ?king of France? rather than )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanislaus.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.688 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.688 709.539 m 169.676 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., #215, pp. 251?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.676 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.676 695.283 m 226.664 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., #43, pp. 120?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.676 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.676 681.027 m 220.664 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marsha Keith Schuchard, ?Dr. Samuel Jacob Falk: A Sabbatian Adventurer in the Masonic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Underworld?, in )] TJ ET BT 145.664 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Millenarianism and Messianism in Early Modern European Culture: Jewish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Messianism in the Early Modern World, )] TJ ET BT 260.336 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. by Matt Goldish and Richard Popkin \(Dordrecht, 2001\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 203?226.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.344 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.344 624.003 m 180.332 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel Beswick, )] TJ ET BT 150.344 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Swedenborgian Rite and the Great Masonic Leaders of the Eighteenth Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1870\). The thesis is rebutted by Robert A. Gilbert, ?Chaos out of order: the rise and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall of the Swedenborgian Rite?, )] TJ ET BT 222.656 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, )] TJ ET BT 357.332 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(108 \(1995\), 122?49.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.652 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.652 581.235 m 508.640 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The series of articles published by Frans G. Lindh, ?Swedenborgs Ekonomi?, )] TJ ET BT 438.632 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nya Kykyans Tidning )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(May 1927?October 1929\), cited also in Lars Bergquist, )] TJ ET BT 335.972 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg?s Secret, )] TJ ET BT 444.956 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 353?66.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.284 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.284 552.723 m 555.272 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 539.866 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viz. Marsha Keith Schuchard, ?Swedenborg, Jacobitism, and Freemasonry?, in )] TJ ET BT 447.944 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg and His )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Influence, )] TJ ET BT 114.668 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. by Erland J. Brock )] TJ ET BT 224.984 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET BT 248.984 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bryn Athyn, PA, 1988\), pp. 359?379; ?Yeats and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unknown superiors: Swedenborg, Falk, and Cagliostro?, in )] TJ ET BT 349.328 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secret Texts: The Literature of Secret )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Societies, )] TJ ET BT 112.676 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. by Hugh Ormsby-Lennon and Marie Roberts \(New York, 1993\), pp. 114?68; ?Leibniz, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benzelius, and Swedenborg: The Kabbalistic roots of Swedish illuminism?, in )] TJ ET BT 442.664 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leibniz, Mysticism, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion, )] TJ ET BT 110.684 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. by Allison Coudert, Richard Popkin and Gordon Weiner \(Dordrecht, 1998\), pp. 84?6; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why Mrs Blake Cried: William Blake and the Sexual Basis of Spiritual Vision )] TJ ET BT 440.336 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2006\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters on Swedenborg, pp. 59?121; ?Jacobite and visionary: the Masonic journey of Emanuel )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedenborg \(1688?1772\)?, )] TJ ET BT 199.652 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, )] TJ ET BT 334.328 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(115 \(2003\), 33?72; ?From Poland to London: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sabbatean influences on the mystical underworld of Zinzendorf, Swedenborg, and Blake?, in )] TJ ET BT 513.596 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dissent: Jewish and Christian Mystics in Eastern Europe, )] TJ ET BT 345.680 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. by Glenn Dynner \(Detroit, MI, 2011\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 250?280.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.344 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.344 381.651 m 186.332 381.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 326.883 m 270.668 326.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 323.551 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 305.771 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 305.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1236)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 304.377 m 328.316 304.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 279.400 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 265.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/13718)] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=419376&sectioncode=26)] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.6597 781.1335 374.6477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.9717 766.8775 539.9597 778.7575 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.3077 752.6215 477.2957 764.5015 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.6877 709.8535 169.6757 721.7335 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 172.6757 695.5975 226.6637 707.4775 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6757 681.3415 220.6637 693.2215 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3437 624.3175 180.3317 636.1975 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.6517 581.5495 508.6397 593.4295 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 45 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.2837 553.0375 555.2717 564.9175 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 48 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3437 381.9655 186.3317 393.8455 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 51 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 327.1975 270.6677 339.0775 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=419376§ioncode=26) >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 304.6915 328.3157 316.5715 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1236) >> endobj xref 0 80 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000000717 00000 n 0000004729 00000 n 0000004838 00000 n 0000004948 00000 n 0000005057 00000 n 0000008618 00000 n 0000008746 00000 n 0000008830 00000 n 0000008921 00000 n 0000016797 00000 n 0000016827 00000 n 0000016955 00000 n 0000016991 00000 n 0000017021 00000 n 0000017149 00000 n 0000017185 00000 n 0000017250 00000 n 0000024618 00000 n 0000024709 00000 n 0000032890 00000 n 0000032920 00000 n 0000033048 00000 n 0000033084 00000 n 0000033114 00000 n 0000033240 00000 n 0000033276 00000 n 0000033374 00000 n 0000042166 00000 n 0000042196 00000 n 0000042324 00000 n 0000042360 00000 n 0000042390 00000 n 0000042518 00000 n 0000042554 00000 n 0000042584 00000 n 0000042712 00000 n 0000042748 00000 n 0000042846 00000 n 0000051147 00000 n 0000051177 00000 n 0000051305 00000 n 0000051341 00000 n 0000051371 00000 n 0000051499 00000 n 0000051535 00000 n 0000051565 00000 n 0000051693 00000 n 0000051729 00000 n 0000051890 00000 n 0000060064 00000 n 0000060192 00000 n 0000060247 00000 n 0000060375 00000 n 0000060430 00000 n 0000060558 00000 n 0000060613 00000 n 0000060741 00000 n 0000060796 00000 n 0000060924 00000 n 0000060979 00000 n 0000061107 00000 n 0000061162 00000 n 0000061290 00000 n 0000061345 00000 n 0000061473 00000 n 0000061528 00000 n 0000061656 00000 n 0000061711 00000 n 0000061839 00000 n 0000061894 00000 n 0000062021 00000 n 0000062152 00000 n 0000062280 00000 n trailer << /Size 80 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 62376 %%EOF