%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818065928+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818065928+01'00') /Title (The Making of the Modern Scottish Highlands, 1939-1965: Withstanding the ?Colossus of Advancing Materialism?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1884 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Making of the Modern Scottish Highlands, 1939-1965: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Withstanding the ?Colossus of Advancing Materialism?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1238)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 19 April, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John A. Burnett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846822414)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four Courts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Blaikie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7542 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book about discourses ? the conflicting ideological positions from which the idea of a region and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture in transition was formed and fragmented ? not about how the Highlands were made ?on the ground?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not a materialist account in the sense of being an empirical economic and social history. However, as its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub-title hints, it is nevertheless concerned with the confrontation between a perceived ?ethnic culture? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of capitalism. In the 1970s, social scientists besotted with development theories applied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal colonialism thesis to the Celtic Fringe: the Highlands could be regarded as a peripheral region, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just exploited but deliberately retarded in its growth by the metropolitan core. Through modernization, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only was the old order dismantled, but also history was revised so that its ?traditional? culture came to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as by definition backward and less-than-fully modern. From a policy perspective, it followed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?development? was needed to ensure planned integration within the UK economy. Against this, historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as James Hunter have argued that the view from within could be otherwise. Crofting, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be interpreted as a rational and increasingly contemporary response to straitened circumstances rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the last stand of a doomed way of life. The recent experience of the Highlands and Islands certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casts doubt upon the wisdom of the industrial and social strategies imposed by government after 1965, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crofting is thriving, but what of the ideological battlefield from which these divergent ways of seeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In casting the period between the outbreak of the Second World War and the mid 1960s as the ?pivotal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment? \(p. 11\) in the transformation from what was seen as old and what was regarded as new, Burnett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throws down a refreshing historiographical challenge, for although ?no one could escape the loaded history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Highlands? \(p. 269\) and particularly the long shadow cast by the Clearances informing so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking, it is important to re-evaluate the works of Ian Grimble, John Prebble and others whose ?uncritical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotive and popular history largely informed public discourse? \(p. 31\). We should understand both why the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era after Culloden holds undue influence in historical interpretation and why a much briefer mid 20th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century spell represents the critical juncture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By way of establishing a context, the first third of the book considers the period from 1745 to 1939, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enumerating a set of motifs ? victimhood, pauperization, fatalism, loss of place, people or deer ? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlay the later discussion of Highland affairs, alongside the idealization and exile associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration but also the resistance built around claims to land and language. Although these fall under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter heading of ?economic and social perspectives?, Burnett?s aim is to establish the rhetorical force of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular themes using copious extracts of poetry and song. While many of the quotations here are vivid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminating, the story is a familiar one of ?gnawing nostalgia? coupled with revivalism. Read: Chapman, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Womack, the Golds. In Iain Crichton Smith?s words: ?He who loses his language loses his world?; hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the desire of J. S. Blackie to fuse Gael and Highlander wherein the ?maintenance of a race of genuine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Highlanders in the Highlands? could be achieved by using Gaelic as ?one of the oldest and least mongrel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types of the great Aryan family of speech? \(p. 53\). While a folkloric urgency to preserve was redolent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Celtic twilight, the romanticism of Ossian and Balmorality was met by the ethnic chauvinism of William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharp \(?Fiona MacLeod?\) whose claim that ?in the maelstrom of the cities the old race perishes? \(p. 83\) was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much anti-modern as it was eugenic. The ?idea of Highland culture?, then, was partly an invented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition imposed from without and partly indigenous cultural defence. The attendant mythology is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusing to analyse; indeed, since Burnett himself talks about ?the Gaels? throughout it is sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to establish just where the essentialism ends and constructionism begins in his own diagnosis. As he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes on to acknowledge, ?calls for reimagining what it means to be ?a Gael?? \(p. 282\) remain problematic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not least because the valorization of such a figure renders the people themselves both marginally ?other? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically impotent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because the cultural and linguistic )] TJ ET BT 202.328 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gidhealtachd)] TJ ET BT 273.656 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is distinguishable from the Highlands as a geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region, those who tackled the ?Highland problem? after 1939 failed in achieving a harmonious solution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blending ?the idea of a special ?way of life? [that] was founded upon an interwoven and spiritual uniqueness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of place? \(p. 96\) and the hard-headed materialism of most political assessments. The watchword of the era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was planning, initiated by Labour?s )] TJ ET BT 208.664 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plan for Post-War Scotland)] TJ ET BT 342.332 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1941\) and culminating in the formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Highlands and Islands Development Board in 1965. Part two of the book establishes the different )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7710 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political approaches, then considers the activities of the agencies set up by government. While nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struck a discordant note within post-war Europe, and the Conservatives were deliberately lacklustre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding state-directed initiatives, the Liberals were relatively imaginative ? wanting to finance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration, set up a Highlands university ? but had no power. Meanwhile, collectivist strategies, from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea that the people should take over all of Scotland north of the Highland line ?as a great State Farm and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Park? \(p. 103\) to afforestation, new roads and ferry terminals and the air ambulance service, caught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mood of reconstruction. A policy history, rich with quotation from government reports and white papers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost inevitably becomes turgid, and parts of the discussion are heavy going. Nevertheless, vivid glimpses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge amongst the campaigning literature, as when the Labour Party made proud boast of its work to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop hydro-electricity:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At Morar in Inverness-shire and at Lochalsh in Wester Ross the other day, a crofter?s wife pulled a switch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the dim glows of the paraffin lamps were eclipsed by the flood of electric light \()] TJ ET BT 438.608 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(West Stirling Gazette)] TJ ET BT 540.608 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1951, cited p. 141\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emblematic bringing of power to the glens highlights features of the ongoing debate. A key means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(job creation, resource provision and thus of staying the haemorrhage of depopulation, it was a precursor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s ?white heat? of technological progress. Opposed by landowners and others, who argued in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(romantic tradition of landscape appreciation that the scenic beauty of the region and its attendant tourism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and field sports would be forever ruined, hydro schemes forged ahead under the expert pilotage of Tom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnston. Johnston was Secretary of State for Scotland from 1941 to 1945, and in a pre-devolution era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burnett rightly underlines the strategic significance of the role: with no later incumbent matching Johnston?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calibre until Willie Ross took over in 1964 the result was drift and indecision. The Advisory Panel on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Highlands and Islands performed a thankless task as a sounding board, creating more reports, the )] TJ ET BT 502.928 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotsman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lamented, ?for the Secretary of State?s private consumption? \(p. 147\). When Harold Macmillan took to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grouse moor, those locals not conscripted as loyal ghillies and beaters either got in the way of the prey, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most often remained invisible. Yet members of the Highland Panel persisted in their advocacy, and Burnett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides excellent coverage of the campaigning concerns of its two most illustrious members, the writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neil Gunn and Naomi Mitchison. There is also much useful policy history excavated from the reports of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crofters Commission, reflecting, not least, the continuing emotive questions of land-use and land-ownership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during an era when putting large tracts under state control and focusing on agriculture alone failed to effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically viable solutions or to empower crofters themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part three, the analysis shifts to contemplating ?the view from within?, focusing first upon the output of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals ? principally Gunn and Mitchison \(whom Burnett interviewed\) ? as ?Highlands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives?, and second ?the body of records generated by the Gaels themselves? \(p. 184\), namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Gaidheal)] TJ ET BT 95.012 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the bilingual magazine of )] TJ ET BT 226.328 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Comunn Gidhealach)] TJ ET BT 348.320 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the key pressure group promoting Gaelic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language and culture as well as ?the furtherance of the cultural dimension of the ?Highlands? as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gidhealtachd)] TJ ET BT 105.344 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 219\). As both socialists and supporters of Scottish nationalism, Gunn and Mitchison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to preserve a noble civilization threatened by the ?blind forces of advertisement? \(p. 190\), where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wireless \(latterly television\) killed ceilidhing, and tourism turned crofters into waiters and chambermaids. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both also felt that the physical environment encouraged a particular outlook on life, and in this sense shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the holistic vision of Adam Collier and Frank Fraser Darling, whose research projects sought to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crofting within an ecological balance of natural, social and economic forces. But they were also prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocate grand plans after the example of the Tennessee Valley Authority or the Norwegian government?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to stabilize its rural population. Stymied by the absence of entrepreneurial activity and the absence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a significant middle class most plans were doomed as sceptical Highlanders showed little will to become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in local decision-making bodies that were perceived as agents to enforce orders made elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burnett suggests that, wishing to preserve Gaelic but unable to speak it, these writers may have created a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misplaced optimism in the durability of the language that failed to perceive just how far outside material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences, including the BBC of which Mitchison had been critical, had succeeded in infiltrating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impoverishing the culture. By 1961, only 1.7 per cent of the Scottish population spoke Gaelic and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant proportion lived in Glasgow anyway. Against Gunn?s broadly inclusive encouragement of in-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7745 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants, )] TJ ET BT 82.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Comunn Gidhealach)] TJ ET BT 204.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( married appeals for language regeneration and socio-economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development by demanding that jobs be reserved for Gaelic speakers. It was an idea destined to fail and one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that reflected the group?s restricted membership and purchase within the community, both Gaelic-speaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and otherwise. In the early 1950s the Scottish Education Department gave especially positive support to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding of summer camps and other recreational ventures to support ?informal education? in the language. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subsequent failure of the initiative due to the indifference and hostility of locals, some of whom saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaelic as a handicap to their children?s advancement, was doubtless highly embarrassing to cultural purists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the historian, it demonstrates the dangers of reliance upon sources that convey less than representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions. The same chapter mentions two other sets of valuable but limited records: the detailed parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys included in the third Statistical Account of Scotland undertaken in the 1950s and 1960s, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluminous ethnological archive of the School of Scottish Studies, established in 1951 to ?collect the rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music and folklore of the Gaels and preserve this material for posterity through taped sessions? \(p. 241\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burnett misses a couple of opportunities here. First, he uses evidence from the Statistical Account to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrate the perceived contrast between the ?spiritually uplifting and morally sound life in a Highland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish? and ?demeaning mere survival in the degrading urban jungle of Scotland?s cities?, one that is being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breached as, to quote one contributor, ?Gambling, especially on the football pools, is prevalent ... Sunday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers are delivered to certain homes. A considerable proportion of the younger ladies indulge in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smoking? \(p. 259\). Such material is rich in social observation, but it is nonetheless a view from the manse. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The survey?s contributors were parish ministers and one can only expect to discern local culture as they saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. Second, although he claims the work of the School of Scottish Studies helped in developing ?greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding and engagement between Gaels and the wider community? \(p. 240\), its preservationist ethos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just as surely contributed to a sense of difference and vanishing otherness. This said, its archive does contain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invaluable oral material that might have been used to get at the voices sadly omitted from other sources. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What of the intangible heritage of living tradition? \(Or did the School, in its antiquarian quest, simply fail to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capture present-minded cultural views?\) The documentaries made by the Films of Scotland Committee from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1955 onwards would provide another fascinating source, in contrast promoting the modernising virtues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial schemes and tourism, although in narration and imagery they exude propaganda rather than social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author makes a strong case for what he terms a ?retreat to essentialism? \(p. 257\), as the language and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of the perceived ethnic homeland became diluted. Its manifestations included not just the piety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ageing clerics and a suspicion of outsiders undertaking surveys, but also a perverse masquerade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superiority. One commentator notes: ?The less intelligent lower strata of society talk English with an accent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more akin to Glasgow and the industrial belt than the soft Gaelic accent of the western seaboard? \(p. 260\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another, discussing incomers to the pulp-milling town of Corpach, intemperately asserted that ?squalid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clusters of prefabricated houses sprang up and to them came the scum of the industrial midlands of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Scotland? \(p. 260\). These are comments neither more nor less offensive than those printed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scots Magazine)] TJ ET BT 109.676 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1762 remarking that Highlanders ?are caught in the mountains when young ... As they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strangers to fear, they make very good soldiers when disciplined ... They discover an extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submission to and affection for their officers? \(p. 76\). One externally perceived Highland problem had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military, solved by the taming of uncouth savages; another Highland problem was the internal experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural attenuation as generations emigrated and the Gaelic language declined. Underlying both was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate ethnocentrism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were many Highland problems, and here the constructionist character of the argument provides both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its strength and its limitation. In the final paragraph of his conclusion, Burnett indicates that he has sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify ?the growing dissonance between the idea of the Highlands as the ?land of the Gael? and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities of contemporary experience? \(p. 282\). The extent to which he has demonstrated this is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assess. The book aims explicitly to articulate the different ?voices?, and Burnett is very successful in mining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his sources to provide a sense of competing rhetorical positions. Conflicting philosophies are carefully lined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up behind the dramatis personae of public debate. Thus we hear what poets, politicians and policymakers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think, but the unchannelled voice of the people scarcely emerges. It is one thing to consider endangered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaelic-speaking natives, but what about the integration of non-Gaels and other Highlanders? There is much )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3426 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning white papers and the white heat of modernity, but what about ?white settlers?? Was all as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corpach? Lived experience filters through from some of the opinions, observations and encounters we read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of. The )] TJ ET BT 71.672 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glasgow Herald)] TJ ET BT 151.340 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( claimed, for example, that ?the reaction of the Outer Isles to the prospect of losing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their isolation betrays neither regret nor resistance? \(p. 162\) and that ?paradoxically, the measures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced to tackle the ?Highland problem? actually contributed to out-migration? because they ?facilitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a desire to move to those places where the trappings of modernity were more widely available? \(pp. 258-9\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence the further paradox of most Gaelic speakers living outside their home region. Yet the analysis might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been enriched by a smattering of quotations from oral recollection, and, indeed, visual material from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various )] TJ ET BT 72.344 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(comuinn eachdraidh)] TJ ET BT 171.332 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the local history societies established in the Western Isles during the 1970s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now online. In fairness, this could descend into an infinite regress of confusing micro-histories, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyway more the stuff of latter-day revisionism. As Burnett notes, ?the discourse of race ... lingers on ... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged by the elevation of culture as an economic driver in local community development, or the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which heritage and culture tourism are promoted? \(pp. 281?2\). Since 1965 much has changed, and oil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly in the Northern Isles\), the European Union, BBC Alba and the rest have made more or less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact. Several communities have benefitted greatly from crofters? buy-outs, but in line with those theorists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1970s, the economic future still depends largely upon decisions made outside the area. And as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with other regions where language and culture are fundamental to the maintenance of a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belonging would surely reveal, securing the culture always meant more than just securing the land.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 537.391 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 519.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 519.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1238)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 518.217 m 328.316 518.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 493.240 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/13726)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 518.5315 328.3157 530.4115 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1238) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000618 00000 n 0000000700 00000 n 0000002636 00000 n 0000002745 00000 n 0000002855 00000 n 0000002964 00000 n 0000006525 00000 n 0000006653 00000 n 0000006737 00000 n 0000006802 00000 n 0000014397 00000 n 0000014462 00000 n 0000022225 00000 n 0000022290 00000 n 0000030088 00000 n 0000030172 00000 n 0000033651 00000 n 0000033779 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33875 %%EOF