%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930103035+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930103035+01'00') /Title (Twentieth-Century Spain: Politics and Society in Spain, 1898-1998) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4670 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Twentieth-Century Spain: Politics and Society in Spain, 1898-1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume - the latest addition to Jeremy Black's edited series )] TJ ET BT 343.148 344.603 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European History in Perspective)] TJ ET BT 500.792 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laudable attempt by Francisco Romero to produce a synthetic account of Spain's tortuous twentieth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history for an undergraduate readership. The complexity of the subject matter is quite apparent, as is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty involved in rendering Spanish history accessible to English-speaking undergraduates more familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the gentler story of constitutional developments in Britain or the United States. Spain, for so long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed as 'different', is often unfamiliar to students, except as a holiday destination. The longevity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franco regime did, of course, mark Spain out from Atlantic Europe and, while there are striking parallels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the twentieth-century development of Portugal and Greece, these histories too are seldom part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate repertoire and receive scant attention even in research circles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The very recent history of Spain, however, belies any sustained comparison with its smaller and poorer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern European neighbours. While all three countries are now in the European Union, only Spain is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major player. Since the 1980s Spain has completed a profound economic and social transformation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complement the political transition to democracy begun in the aftermath of General Franco's death in 1975. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remarkable success of this process - which can lead commentators to underplay how fragile and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertain its early stages were - is a starting point for all contemporary histories of Spain. How could a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country which had torn itself apart in the 1930s and subsequently suffered the obscurity and obscurantism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Franco years have emerged in such a short space of time to take its rightful place on the European stage? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Explanatory analyses of this process are many and various. Some see capitalist development as the essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prerequisite and even the cause of democratic pluralism and so date the beginnings of Spain's transformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the 'opening-up' of the economy under Franco's technocratic ministers in the 1960s. Very recently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(124)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 April, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco J. Romero Salvad)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(219pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Vincent)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7158 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper commentators have claimed that only with the election of a centre-right government with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute majority on 12 March 2000 can the transition finally be said to be over.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Couched in these - its most familiar - terms, the story of twentieth-century Spain is one of modernisation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following Raymond Carr's magisterial )] TJ ET BT 223.508 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Spain, 1875-1975)] TJ ET BT 349.832 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1980\), the corresponding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political story is usually seen as the failure of liberalism. The lack of a liberal hegemony or even a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus among Spain's political elites and the corresponding failure to reform or invigorate central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and the apparatus of the state led to the convulsive crises of the early twentieth century which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminated in civil war. As the author of a monograph on Spain between 1914 and 1918, Dr Romero is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expert in the crisis of liberal Spain and it is here where he begins his story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's starting point is the deep and abiding trauma of 1898, of military defeat by the United States and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the consequent loss of the remnants of Spain's colonial empire. In an age when international status was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measured by colonial possessions this was, as Romero makes plain, a mutilating blow, made worse by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America's parvenu status. Immediately, the weaknesses inherent in the system under which Spain had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed since the restoration of the monarchy in 1875 - and which are outlined in the introduction - were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made plain. This governmental system, dominated by landed elites, was reliant for the production of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary majorities on clientelism and patronage, and dedicated to the exclusion of other interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups or political creeds. Already threatened by internal migration, urbanisation and the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass politics, the Restoration system found itself under systematic attack from Catalan and Basque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationalists as well as Republicans and so more vulnerable to assault from the organised working class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements of socialists and, after 1910, anarcho-syndicalists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Current historiography in Spanish is much concerned with these questions, particularly those to do with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central and peripheral nationalisms. Indeed, production of essays and scholarly monographs on 'the nation' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatens to approach industrial proportions. Although such eminent historians as Juan Pablo Fusi, Jos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alvarez Junco and Borja de Riquer i Permaner play key roles in the concomitant historiographical debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their work finds little echo here. Dr Romero's focus is throughout on political actors and the deeds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events which make up a conventional high political narrative. Structural or causal explanations go largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unexplored. Yet, a prime concern of current research on nationalism is the failure of the Spanish state to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promulgate a centralising nationalism in the nineteenth century. Unlike France, for example, there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proselytising of agreed or invented national symbols - even the flag and the anthem arrived late.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part, this failure derived from a lack of consensus as to the national identity and the nation's past - a theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminated in recent work by Carolyn Boyd. The increasingly vociferous Catholic identity of the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right also ensured that, for the 'men of order', national symbols and identities were simply religious - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross as Spain's standard, the 'Reconquest' as her historical past. For the more secular-minded, both within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Liberal parties of the Restoration system and, particularly, the Republican parties excluded from it, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an identity was simply impossible. Yet, at least until the abortive Second Republic \(1931-6\), successive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimes failed to find the economic resources and political will to implement a national education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme on the French model which could have provided Spanish children with the foundations of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common language and culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The loss of the colonies after 1898 clearly meant that an imperialising popular nationalism on the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model was impossible for Spain. Rather the trauma of 1898 saw different sections of the political nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrench within established positions. Hostility towards a governmental system increasingly seen as biased to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the centre meant that conservative Catalan nationalism moved from a vision of 'a great Catalunya in a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain' to an idea of the nation defined against Castile. These tensions inherent in the Spanish system were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played out in the years during and after World War I. Spain's neutrality in this conflict did, perhaps, mark the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country out from other countries in western Europe. Spain's historical development has not been so different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its European neighbours, but the neutrality of such a large and once great power did mean that, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least in cultural terms, Spain in the wake of 1918 was 'different'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as Dr Romero puts it, 'Spain did not enter the war but the war entered Spain' \(p. 30\) effectively )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7400 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroying any possibility of maintaining the already crumbling pre-war consensus. Italy and Portugal had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same experience, but as the result of the trauma and exhaustion of fighting. Neutral Spain, Romero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, experienced not only ideological polarisation over the outcome of the war but also profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and social changes that rendered obsolete the old ways of governing. As Spain experienced - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though not of course for the last time - an unfamiliar economic cycle of boom-bust, the working class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered strength, now in the towns as well as the countryside. News of the Russian revolution swept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Europe, and so the Spanish social elites came to see political problems increasingly in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public order. While anarchist sections of the working class had long advocated violence, only between 1917 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1923 did Spain truly experience a revolutionary situation. Yet, in prophetic fashion, the moribund )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions of the Restoration monarchy were endangered only during the brief period of military discontent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1917.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The temporary solution to the crisis of the Restoration system was a military coup. The Primo de Rivera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorship of 1923 to 1930 is the subject of a chapter which devotes eight pages to the regime and fourteen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to its disintegration. Yet, as Dr Romero briefly points out \(pp. 52-3\), the Primo years were a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation in Spanish politics, particularly at local level. The 'old men' of the Restoration, irrevocably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tainted by the charge of caciquismo, were moved aside by a new generation of professional Catholic men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who would become the backbone of the parliamentary right under the Republic. This process may be seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of social and political modernisation, albeit incomplete. Primo's failure to consolidate his regime left it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerable, as was glaringly apparent after the crash of 1929. The brevity of the regime in part explains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of the chapter, but this also reflects the tempo of a book in which the remorseless march of events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to dictate the structure. Events, actions and the speed of governmental change are explored in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail leaving little room for analysis outside the political narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 'perspective' promised by the title of the series in which this volume is published is provided not by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with the internal development of other European countries nor by any systematic application of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the metanarratives associated with European modernisation but by an attention to international history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain's situation on the diplomatic stage. The author returns to the international arena at various intervals: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most notably, perhaps at the start of the chapters on the civil war and the Franco regime, but the foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy pursued between 1914 and 1918 also receives some attention. The roots of the Second Republic, la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nia bonita, on the other hand are seen as entirely Spanish. The Republic was 'the culmination of a process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of mass mobilisation and opposition to the old politics of notables' which had been 'halted but not crushed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917' \(p. 69\). This account of the politics of the Republic focuses on the rapid polarisation of politics after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1931 and the concomitant failure - at least before July 1936 - to construct a sufficiently broad consensus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the Republican project of reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This narrowing of the Republic's political base between 1931 and 1936, the mobilisation of an efficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary right which was never reconciled to the regime, and the alienation of sectors on the left may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be seen as the new regime's failure to construct the 'Republican nation'. Yet the Republic was a reforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime with an explicit and self-conscious view of what modernising Spain should entail. A secular state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operating according to the rule of law with an admittedly ill-defined sense of social justice would open the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way for an educated body of citizens to enjoy 'European' prosperity and freedom. The desire to 'Europeanise' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain had been apparent among Republicans since 1898 and now, it seemed, the opportunity had arisen. Of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, some of those who supported the Republic, most apparently in the socialist and anarcho-syndicalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions, had a different and often more ill-defined view of its goals. But, while the Second Republic may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been undermined by the left, it was destroyed by the right.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romero also suggests that the Republic was the precursor to 'the last and fiercest battle in a European civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war which had been underway since the Bolshevik triumph of 1917' \(p. 94\). Though this thesis clearly does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide an over-arching interpretation which ranges more widely than Spain, it goes unelaborated and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by the most fleeting of references. The author moves immediately to foreign responses to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military uprising of 18 July 1936 - conceived as a swift coup d'tat and, in these terms, an utter failure - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlining the international situation \(pp. 94-105\) and arguing that this determined the war's eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome. The scale of aid from the Axis powers, particularly Italy, and the effect of British non-intervention, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7325 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so appositely called 'malevolent neutrality' by Enrique Moradiellos, loaded the dice against the Republic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the discussion of Nationalist Spain is focused very heavily on Franco himself, Romero offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplary account of Republican resistance to his assault. In an admirably concise and lucid fourteen pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 112-25\), the author not only succeeds in making accessible the often bewildering complexities of left-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wing affiliations and politics during the war but also in synthesising the most recent and plausible research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the role played by the communist party. In this way, Romero's analysis of the war far outstrips that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered by George Esenwein a recent textbook on the Republic and War in Spain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While undergraduates will have good reason to be grateful to Dr Romero for this chapter on the civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly its final section\), the ensuing discussion of 'Franco, Regent for Life' may disappoint. As the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the chapter suggests, the focus once again becomes personal and, as the endnotes show, the analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt to Preston's definitive biography is very apparent. However, it is not so much the obsession with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal role of the dictator which is the problem. After all, it was essentially a personal rule. But the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once again moves his attention to the international arena, beginning his discussion of the dictatorship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the myth of neutrality' in World War II and paying a marked attention to foreign policy throughout. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that not only is the balance of the discussion skewed - over three pages on the Hendaye meeting with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler must, for instance, be excessive - but also that there is never any space for a concerted discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the regime itself, of its social base, political presence, and longevity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treating a regime that lasted for over forty years in a single chapter inevitably makes for a cursory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. But when twelve pages are taken to get the reader to 1945 and, later, a further ten pages devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the regime's disintegration, there can be almost no sustained analytical discussion of just what the regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was or why it survived for so long. Part of the answer, of course, lies in its repressive nature and the brutal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the Francoist repression is mentioned. But there is no attempt to discern the nature or extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for the dictatorship nor why many Spaniards acquiesced in it for so long. In this reviewer's opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this analysis is not simply the result of authorial choices as to the structure of his book. Rather, bifurcating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of international history and political narratives leaves the reader falling back on contingency as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the only apparent explanation for historical change. Franco was lucky not to become further embroiled in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Axis war effort and that may help to explain why Spain survived into the post-war but it does not and cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain why the dictator died in his bed at the age of eighty-two having ruled the country for thirty-six years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After Franco's death, the Spanish political system was democratised from within - a remarkable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiosyncratic process known to all as la transicin. The account given here joins many already published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, though Dr Romero rightly eschews any suggestion of inevitability and underlines the uncertainty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eventual outcome. It was, as he puts it, 'walking on a tightrope'. The roots of the transition are seen in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('more complex and plural civil society' \(p. 161\) emerging in Spain before Franco's death. Spain's rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence as a democratic, European and Atlantic power was undoubtedly helped by the international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the 1970s which, in such contrast to the 1930s, aided and abetted democracy in all its forms. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioning of Spanish democracy after 1982 - which saw the first socialist government elected since 1931 - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the subject of the book's final pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In commenting on the very recent and the unfinished, a different note creeps into the historian's voice. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tone here is both conjectural and speculative and even, on occasion, moralising. No historian is comfortable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the very recent past and we are not necessarily qualified to evaluate it in the way that we do more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remote periods. The verdict passed here on Felipe Gonzlez, for example, is harsh. Romero suggests that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will not go down in history as the great moderniser of Spanish politics as he left office so tainted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption scandals. There may be a suggestion here of the personal disappointment felt by many at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wave of scandals which swept over the PSOE in the 1990s. Yet, this piece was, presumably, written before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar scandals broke over the German Christian Democrats - scandals which, as in Spain and elsewhere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invariably concern party financing. They are not, in any respect, similar to the 'widespread political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption . of the notables in the first decades of the century' - a claim Romero wisely abandons in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent sentence \(p. 184\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even in the 1980s, Spain's fledgling democracy was remarkably stable, characterised by a high degree of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2838 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and popular consensus to the centre-left of the spectrum. Both the apparatus of the state and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political system were finally and thoroughly overhauled. The military ceased to be a threat, the bureaucracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was reformed. Indeed, in the 1990s, the problems afflicting Spanish democracy were those seen all over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. Apathy and corruption scandals currently appear to define political life in the west, not just in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romero concludes on a different note, looking to the future of a Spain governed by the right-wing Partido )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popular \(PP\) under Jos Mara Aznar in partnership with Catalan and Basque nationalists. This, he believes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been an opportunity for the centre to recognise the peripheral nations and so finally lay to rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the last remaining ghosts of the civil war' \(p. 185\). Yet, while Spain's political nation continues to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience problems which undoubtedly have historical roots they are not the convulsive and devisive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fractures of earlier in the century. Spain is now a modern state with a legally defined if contested vision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nation. Romero cites as an the anecdote the behaviour of some PP supporters who, on the night of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first election victory in 1996, taunted the Catalan president with the phrase 'Pujol, enano, que hables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(castellano' [Pujol, you dwarf, speak Castilian]. On the night of 12 March 2000 they chanted the same thing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither Pujol nor Aznar is likely to take any notice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 539.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 521.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 521.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/124)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 520.473 m 322.316 520.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 495.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/721)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 520.7875 322.3157 532.6675 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/124) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005379 00000 n 0000005488 00000 n 0000005598 00000 n 0000005707 00000 n 0000009268 00000 n 0000009396 00000 n 0000009480 00000 n 0000009545 00000 n 0000016756 00000 n 0000016821 00000 n 0000024274 00000 n 0000024339 00000 n 0000031717 00000 n 0000031801 00000 n 0000034692 00000 n 0000034820 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34915 %%EOF