%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416184530+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416184530+01'00') /Title (House of Lords Reform Since 1911: Must the Lords Go?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3862 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(House of Lords Reform Since 1911: Must the Lords Go?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011 saw the centenary of the passing of the 1911 Parliament Act; the first step, it was thought, in a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughgoing reform of the powers and composition of the House of Lords. As Peter Dorey and Alexandra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kelso show in this admirable new study marking the centenary, that programme of reform was still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomplete a century later. Rather than sweeping reform based on a consensus of right-thinking people, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create a parliamentary system fit for the age of universal suffrage, the period in fact saw piecemeal reform, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amidst division of opinion both between and within the main political parties. If all were agreed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Something Should Be Done about the House of Lords, there was precious little clarity of vision as to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be put in its place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this new study in their hands, readers interested in the circumstances of the sequence of legislation will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find all the detail they could want for. While each of the major steps ? the 1911 Act itself, those of 1949, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999 and the abortive Parliament \(No. 2 \) Bill of 1969 ? has been examined by scholars before, treatments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period as a whole are rare, and this study provides a sound foundation for further detailed primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on the topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it would be invidious to attempt to summarise a work such as this, there are some themes that recur. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1240)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 26 April, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Dorey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Kelso)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230271661)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Webster)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7390 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the principal of these is the consistent lack of consensus within either Labour or Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties on what exactly to do about the Lords, and what \(if anything\) to put in their place. The Labour party, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciously founded to represent a class interest, was united in its conviction throughout the period that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary peers had no place in the legislature; but this was where the consensus ended. There were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly Labour voices that called for the outright abolition of the House and the institution of a unicameral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament, which became party policy briefly in the 1980s under the leadership of the convinced abolitionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Foot. Viewed in the context of the whole century, however, this appears as an aberration. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour figures found themselves content with the effect of the 1949 Act; since the powers of the Lords had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been reduced, it mattered less how it was composed. Others still lacked the appetite for the additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workload that thoroughgoing reform entailed. However, it was Labour administrations which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for most of the major reforms: the 1949 Act under the Attlee government; the Blair reforms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999; and the Bill of 1969, the work of Dick Crossman, cabinet minister in the Wilson administration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1964?70.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part of the motivation for Crossman?s championing of the cause, sustained over several years, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic one. As the electoral politics of the class struggle changed with growing levels of affluence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention became more focussed on the changing nature of the business of government. The Lords in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s lacked self-confidence, due in large part to the lack of expertise in the House. As the state had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radically extended its reach in health, education and economic policy in the post-war years, the weight of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business grew such that a revivified second chamber became more and more necessary to take some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burden from the Commons. The sense of urgency was heightened by a widespread consciousness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic decline relative to other nations; a decline attributed in part to the sclerotic nature of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and the unfitness of the system for new circumstances. It was in part due to this shared sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need that the Conservative administration of Harold Macmillan brought forward the Life Peerages Act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1958.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Only in part, however, as the Conservatives brought their own particular preoccupations to the question. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1958 Act was very clearly presented as a means of improving the conduct of government. It was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended that it should increase the number of Labour peers in the Lords; an increase which over time was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed its effect, even if initially Hugh Gaitskell struggled to find Labour MPs willing to move. Dorey and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kelso, however, convincingly present the Act as an adroit manoeuvre to defuse Labour criticism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary principle. By implementing measured reform, the pressure for more radical reform \(which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damage Tory interests most\) was relieved. This Burkean impulse, carefully to reform institutions in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve them, emerges as a hallmark of Conservative policy on the Lords throughout the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One striking aspect of the book is how little enthusiasm has ever been evident for a wholly elected second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chamber, apart from within the Liberal party, which was rarely in a position to effect the change \(at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 2010\). Most schemes of reform that involved altering the composition of the House \(rather than simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limiting its powers\) involved some element of election, either directly or by other peers. This was usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however only one component of a proposed settlement involving a transitional group of hereditary peers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(always shrinking in number\); and a permanent contingent of life peers after the Act of 1958, and appointees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from each of the main parties \(the appointment process being overseen by some form of commission\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1969 Bill envisaged a two-tier House of ?voting? and ?non-voting? peers; and the Commons in 2003 were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked to vote on no fewer than eight different permutations of election and appointment. It is possible whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading Dorey and Kelso?s study to become lost in the thick forest of commissions, committees and reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the issue. What does show through is the marked lack in any party of a clear picture, drawn in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political philosophy, of what the second house ought to look like. There was little sense of a philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationale for the introduction of appointed life peers, or by means of which to determine the degree and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of election; and so, as with so much else in British public life, the best solution was always that which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked. The only fixed points were the sovereignty of the Commons and the undesirability of heredity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One surprising omission \(for this reviewer\) is any extended consideration of the position of the Lords )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spiritual: that subset of the bishops of the Church of England who sat in the House as of right. Had this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared in 1981 or 1991, the neglect of the issue would have been of a piece with a general sense of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6346 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevance of religious history more generally. However, the last few years have seen an upsurge in debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the place of the religious in public life, including the House of Lords, which featured in debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding the 2010 election )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 169.988 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 169.988 766.563 m 183.980 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 183.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and the issue therefore probably merited more than the single paragraph that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it receives here. It is perhaps an opportunity missed, as the development of the various arguments either in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of or opposed to the presence of the Lords Spiritual mirror wider issues regarding the Lords in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general. In the earlier part of the century, the bishops were viewed in much the same way as the hereditary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peers: representatives of the immutable order of society; the establishment of the Church was seen as just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable and right as the class system. Over time, and particularly in the 1960s, as the moral law was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformed in such a way as to emphasise the widening gap between state and church, the bishops? own view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their position shifted, as did that of those observing them. Mirroring the advent of the life peers, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishops became, as it were, Life Peers Spiritual: in the House not simply, or even mostly, by virtue of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historic office but also now on grounds of religious expertise. The bishops came to view themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing a religious mode of viewing public affairs; it is striking that there has been no consistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure from either the other Christian denominations or from other faith groups for parallel representation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst a number of non-Anglican Christian leaders did become life peers, Donald Soper \(Methodist, 1965\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and George Macleod \(Church of Scotland, 1967\) among them \(both Wilson nominees, and both reputed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be on the left\), the bishops came to be seen as playing the role of defenders of all faiths, rather than simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Church of England alone.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.988 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.988 552.723 m 201.980 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More generally, there are parts of the wider historical context that might have been sketched more fully. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, whilst there is material on the trajectory of Labour thinking between 1969 and the Blair years, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not matched by a parallel narrative of Conservative policy development; Mrs Thatcher merits not a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention. Whilst there may have been little enthusiasm within Tory ranks to reopen the question, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of that intellectual stasis and its implications would have been useful and welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is most unfortunate that the authors have been badly let down by their proof-readers, with a great many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typographical errors, missing words and the like throughout the book. That aside, the authors are to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congratulated for their surefooted and clear exposition of this ?constant constitutional conundrum? \(p. 217\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will now be the starting point for future work by others on the topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.power2010.org.uk/blog/entry/join-our-call-for-the-bishops-to-back-reform-of-the-lords/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 334.899 m 550.364 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 78.008 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [Accessed 4 April 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.412 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.412 320.643 m 262.400 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Ferguson, )] TJ ET BT 152.348 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George Macleod. Founder of the Iona Community)] TJ ET BT 393.980 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1990\), pp.351?4; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Purcell, )] TJ ET BT 146.348 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Portrait of Soper)] TJ ET BT 228.356 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1972\), pp.162?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.008 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.008 292.131 m 413.996 292.131 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 276.799 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 259.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 259.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1240)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 257.625 m 328.316 257.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/14604)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.power2010.org.uk/blog/entry/join-our-call-for-the-bishops-to-back-reform-of-the-lords/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 169.9877 766.8775 183.9797 778.7575 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.9877 553.0375 201.9797 564.9175 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.7837 335.2135 550.3637 347.0935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.power2010.org.uk/blog/entry/join-our-call-for-the-bishops-to-back-reform-of-the-lords/) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.4117 320.9575 262.3997 332.8375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.0077 292.4455 413.9957 304.3255 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 257.9395 328.3157 269.8195 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1240) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000004544 00000 n 0000004653 00000 n 0000004763 00000 n 0000004872 00000 n 0000008433 00000 n 0000008561 00000 n 0000008645 00000 n 0000008710 00000 n 0000016153 00000 n 0000016272 00000 n 0000022671 00000 n 0000022701 00000 n 0000022829 00000 n 0000022865 00000 n 0000022895 00000 n 0000023023 00000 n 0000023059 00000 n 0000023186 00000 n 0000023335 00000 n 0000023463 00000 n 0000023518 00000 n 0000023646 00000 n 0000023701 00000 n 0000023829 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23925 %%EOF