%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818112051+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818112051+01'00') /Title (A People?s History of Environmentalism in the United States) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4382 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A People?s History of Environmentalism in the United States)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main theme of this book is American environmentalism and the development of the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental movement. Starting with the standard narrative for the development of this movement, Chad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montrie lays out in chronological order how it is incorrect, and how environmentalism developed through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the labour movement, and through the working-class moving into towns and cities at the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Industrial Revolution. The standard narrative asserts that after the Second World War, improvements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living standards and increased leisure time allowed people more time to care about environmental issues. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition Rachel Carson and her seminal work )] TJ ET BT 256.316 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silent Spring)] TJ ET BT 318.656 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(published 1962\) influenced the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental consciousness. Montrie maps an alternative narrative, focusing exclusively on the working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man and woman, and how their experiences in moving from the country to the city at the beginning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation resulted in the awakening of their environmental consciousness.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.640 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.640 143.625 m 435.632 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The story of modern environmentalism may once again be visited this year as )] TJ ET BT 409.628 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silent Spring)] TJ ET BT 471.968 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( celebrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50th anniversary of its publication. Following this and other events, the world?s first Earth Day was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated in 1970. A growing environmental lobby pressured Congress to establish regulatory controls, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which lessened air and water pollution. Then in the late 1970s and early 1980s, two events ? one at Love )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canal in Niagara Falls, New York State and the other in Warren County, North Carolina ? pioneered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1241)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 26 April, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chad Montrie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781441198686)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Wilson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.6397 143.9395 435.6317 155.8195 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7023 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grassroots environmentalism which led to the environmental justice movement, tackling toxins and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental racism. \(pp. 3-4\). This is the narrative that you will hear everywhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, Montrie admits he is writing a revisionist account of environmentalism and whilst he does discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carson, it is only after he has framed her book?s arrival in the context of earlier events, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation, to national parks, sanitation reform and New Deal conservation, before he enters the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war period and looking at pollution and environmental justice. )] TJ ET BT 336.656 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silent Spring)] TJ ET BT 398.996 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he states, makes a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bookend but if the worker is to be included in the history of environmentalism, the story must be moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back. Whilst they did not call themselves environmentalists, early industrial workers did argue and speak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about environmental problems. Montrie says that to peg most or all of the responsibility for the rise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of environmentalism in the United States on one author, senator or official is a gross mistake. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomplete picture is created which lacks the story of the worker?s involvement \(p. 6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montrie adopts a Marxist approach in his study of environmentalism. However it is not always industrialists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong, workers right. He shows the often complex relationship between the labour force and nature. In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section on the national parks and forests, he describes hostility from working people towards government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservation officials, although gradually the working people were won round to support them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book begins in Lowell, Massachusetts, the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution in America, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area with many canals, dams, mills and factories. This period, in the early to mid 19th century, was one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergent ideas about nature. As society shifted towards industrialisation, the natural world was increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploited. At the same time, there was a migration from rural to urban centres, which increased people?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental awareness. Having spent their lives in the countryside living alongside nature, workers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factories living close to one another in cramped conditions yearned for the outside world, away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pollution and grim conditions. They saw the natural world as a place to escape to. After the Civil War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental problems only increased. In 1878 a group of radical public health activists managed to get the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massachusetts General Court to pass a law prohibiting industrial and municipal discharge of refuse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pollution into any stream or public pond in the state. The lower Concord and Connecticut and Merrimack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rivers were exempted however; five years later Lowell?s city physician described the lower Concord as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sewer basin. In the following years, the working class neighbourhoods along the rivers were deemed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deadliest places to live in the city. Nevertheless a precedent had been set in getting legislation passed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect the environment and people?s health from industry. Conservation became polarised along class lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the working classes were often blamed as environmental outlaws when in fact the causes of most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental problems were fishing and recreational hunting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea of class conflict in conservation areas is described and analysed by focusing on national parks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forests. Before the Civil War, there had been common understanding that farmers, fishermen and others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could regulate their own use of nature \(p. 37\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the later 19th century there was a shift from local to state and regional bodies as the best people to decide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on regulating nature. The forest-conservation movement, which was born out of popular concern, focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(big logging businesses, and paper mills, and their associated problems such as soil erosion, flooding and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of smaller logging companies and farms. Although local people were hostile to wilderness protection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conservation, this was not absolute and as industrialisation increased, and labour migrated into towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cities, their relationship with nature changed. ?It became less a thing to know and engage through labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more of a thing to escape to or dream about? \(p. 38\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anger began to be directed at wealthy absentee landowners who bought large areas of land and restricted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access of working people. Local people also began to rely on state conservation measures in place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community-based practices. They came to be seen as allies in the fight against outsiders. They were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universally welcomed, and did discriminate on class grounds; nevertheless Montrie shows that over time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local workers began to become aware of environmental problems and fought to reduce them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His focus then shifts from the industrialised east coast to the Midwest and particularly Chicago. It looks at )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7283 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sanitation \(public health\) reforms in this city in the late 19th century and the battles of working people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with city and state legislators to improve sanitation. The worst areas in the city to live were, unsurprisingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those areas inhabited by the poorest workers. By the beginning of the 20th century public health issues had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to an industrial hygiene \(worker health and safety\) campaign. Working-class urban residents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised labour played key roles in these efforts, and that had a sizable impact on their environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness, which in turn built upon the modern environmentalism that emerged in the following decades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montrie tells of the 20-plus year struggle in the city to get their rubbish disposed of properly, rather than just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dumped, and shows that those people who co-ordinated these struggles were women. Milwaukee, Wisconsin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also studied; here it was rubbish collection that was the point of activism, although, like in Chicago, wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues relating to industrial pollution \(such as the siting of a glue factory in a working-class Chicago area\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also campaigned on. The chapter also looks at the new field of occupational medicine, and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension environmental health and health and safety in workplaces, and the struggles working people had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improve their working conditions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth chapter is perhaps more familiar to historians, given that it studies Franklin Roosevelt?s New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deal policies, especially focusing on the Civilian Conservation Corps. Looking at the reasons for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of the Corps, Montrie tells of their successes, of young men who went to work on various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects and who learned about nature and the natural world in the process. This, he shows, further increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their environmental consciousness. Even when it was stopped in 1941, the programme continued to shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people?s thinking and values. The millions who ventured into national parks could make use of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amenities put in place by the corps. They established camp sites, footpaths, picnic tables, toilet facilities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built ponds. By the end of the 1930s there was a huge increase in working-class Americans seeking escape to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural settings, and car ownership increased, meaning natural areas were more accessible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on post-war environmentalism tells a common story, insofar as most histories of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmentalism in the United States begin here. The main focus of this chapter is on trade union activism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and especially those of automobile worker unions, which were very environmentally aware. The UAW )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(United Auto Workers\) was led by Walter Reuther from 1946 to 1970, and during his presidency the union?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns reflected his passionate interest in pollution control and resource conservation, an interest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was informed by a high level of class consciousness. In 1963, when Carson was too sick to speak at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Wildlife Federation?s annual meeting in Detroit, it was Reuther who took her place. Those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were advocating the greatest environmental protection were those who worked for the industry responsible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a large part of environmental damage. Reuther, Montrie states, was a genuine nature lover \(p. 98\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montrie again explains this environmentalism in terms of a shift from rural to urban ? workers no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew nature. They experienced the ugliness and dangers of city life, which gave them a reason to escape to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outdoors. This relied on their being an outdoors left, of course, and so their environmentalism emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from protecting what was left in nature as a contrast to the industrialised city they lived in. He also shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book, and here more often, that environmentalism did have a certain political dimension to it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not always clear, but Reuther was an old-style socialist committed to a type of unionism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended beyond merely concern with wages and hours and embraced a host of social issues. This led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union supporting worker education and recreation which itself helped established the autoworkers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental consciousness. Similarly the Oil Chemical and Atomic Workers Union \(OCAW\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing many workers in the energy industry, another polluting industry, were also at the forefront of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the environmental movement. Relations were such that in the 1970s when OCAW went on strike against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shell, environmentalists supported them. However from the 1970s, after Reuther?s death, relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat soured between unions and environmentalists. There was still some support ? by the early 1990s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(OCAW was realising that they could lobby for environmental issues even without having jobs on the line, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even when there was no labour dispute. Union membership has also declined steadily from the 1970s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has reduced their influence in this as in other areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter looks at recent activism, especially in the 1970s and 1980s. It focuses on opposition to strip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mining in Appalachia in the 1960s by anti-mining groups, which included the United Mine Workers )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7667 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(UMW\). Opposition to strip mining and similar struggles have been absent largely from the standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative about the origins and development of environmentalism. Even the mainstream environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice movement generally fails in this respect. Scholars point to two areas that define the emergence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental justice movement ? the toxic waste incidents at Love Canal and Warren County. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved local residents organising themselves at grassroots level to deal with toxic waste, and employed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-violent direct action. In Warren County there was also the ?discovery? of environmental racism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In relation to Carson, Montrie notes that she ignored farm workers in her criticism of pesticides. In switching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from chlorinated hydrocarbons \(something Carson argued for\) which often left a chemical residue to less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistent but acutely poisonous organophosphates, this put workers at greater risk. Again a union ? United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farm Workers \(UFW\) ? had been trying to get migrant workers protected. This lead to the educating of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrant labourers about environmental protection for their own good, if nothing else. Middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental leaders were unsure whether defending the natural world and human health demanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with campaigns for social justice, which represents a class issue again. After 1972 UFW began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(losing ground and whilst they ultimately failed in their aims they still provided a legacy in that the union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made explicit reference to and connections between class exploitation, racial discrimination \(many migrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers came from Mexico\) and environmental harm.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book concludes with a retrospective look but also a view to the future. Montrie reflects on certain issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the wane of a unionised labour force since the 1970s. Much of the research and sources used in the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters come from the Walter P. Reuther Library of Labour and Urban Affairs at Wayne State University. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montrie states he is the first person to use these archives to study environmentalism, looking at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection between people?s experience with work and their relationship to the natural world. He may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right. His bibliographical essay at the end reveals more revisionist accounts; none however take the narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and focus exclusively on workers. For the industrial world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the mill girls? experiences Montrie uses local periodical, )] TJ ET BT 329.300 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lowell Offering)] TJ ET BT 405.644 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which provided poetry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prose not only from a working-class point of view but also from a female perspective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much here to be commendable; Montrie successfully weaves a narrative and connection between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers and the environmental movement \(and a developing environmental consciousness\) from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation onwards. He shows how working-class people have often experienced the worst of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental problems, but at the same time, have been at the forefront in dealing with them. He has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown the link between unions and the environment and, perhaps most importantly, shows that whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carson was important in terms of a new way of looking at the environment and enhancing environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness, it is difficult to say )] TJ ET BT 201.680 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silent Spring)] TJ ET BT 264.020 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was the reason the modern environmental movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed in America. Rather, Montrie has shown that an environmental consciousness was present since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the beginning of the 19th century. There are many parallels to Britain, with environmental groups in one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form or another existing since industrialisation. What this book does most convincingly is argue that workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be at the heart of any narrative on environmentalism. From a British perspective, this has not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done and what little work has been done on modern environmentalism in Britain tends to focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental organisations, rather than working people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the biggest problems with the book is the fact Montrie does not state what he understands by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?environmentalism? and ?environmental movement?. It would be nice to have some clarity as to exactly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he means by both terms ? after all, at the beginning of his period, people viewed the environment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently to the way they did at the end of it. His book is as much a history of working men?s struggle with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the idea of environmentalism as it is a history of environmental activism itself, and knowing what he means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by both those terms would help this further. Chad Montrie?s argument that it was primarily the movement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour from rural to urban environmentalism is heavily discussed, yet it seems to be a somewhat dubious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(link ? people moved into factories and their unhappiness led to their re-evaluation of the natural world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through his sources from the early industrial period he does provide evidence of this in some cases, but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a tenuous argument. Montrie also shows he is not the first person to tackle the working class and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment. As he shows, however, these were about specific issues, such as Elizabeth Blum?s )] TJ ET BT 499.268 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love Canal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revisited)] TJ ET BT 78.008 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which concerned the toxic waste incident at Love Canal in Niagara Falls, New York state; or Neil )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 2275 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maher?s )] TJ ET BT 78.332 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature?s New Deal)] TJ ET BT 173.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which looked at the Civilian Conservation Corps and the New Deal. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montrie does is use these histories and widen the scope, borrowing from works looking at the 19th?century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and writing a detailed narrative of the relationship between environmentalism and labour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But these are only minor issues with an otherwise good book, which is a useful revisionist account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American environmentalism, and also of labour history. This book not only reveals working-class attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to nature but the reasons this attitude develops \(the conditions they work and live in\) and offers something to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the labour as well as the environmental historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Rome, ??Give Earth a Chance?: the environmental movement and the sixties?, )] TJ ET BT 476.612 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American History)] TJ ET BT 149.672 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 90, 2 \(2003\), 525?54.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.992 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.992 617.763 m 312.980 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has declined to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 576.175 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 558.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 558.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1241)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 557.001 m 328.316 557.001 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 532.024 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 517.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/14618)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.9917 618.0775 312.9797 629.9575 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 557.3155 328.3157 569.1955 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1241) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005092 00000 n 0000005201 00000 n 0000005311 00000 n 0000005420 00000 n 0000008981 00000 n 0000009109 00000 n 0000009193 00000 n 0000009222 00000 n 0000009350 00000 n 0000009386 00000 n 0000009451 00000 n 0000016527 00000 n 0000016592 00000 n 0000023928 00000 n 0000023993 00000 n 0000031713 00000 n 0000031804 00000 n 0000034132 00000 n 0000034260 00000 n 0000034315 00000 n 0000034443 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34539 %%EOF