%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140920085833+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140920085833+01'00') /Title (The Sugar Barons: Family, Corruption, Empire and War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4215 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Sugar Barons: Family, Corruption, Empire and War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A brief survey of the recent academic literature on global history reveals an academy that is still trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(define a historiographical movement. Definitions abound, ranging from the vague ? connecting world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, international history, transnational history under one ?global history? umbrella ? to the extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific ? narrowing its study down to the structural changes that have affected world history, for instance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While in academic circles the debate about what global history ?is? or ?isn?t? continue, in popular history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is little question. The commodity histories that swept the popular market a few years ago have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced by increasingly complex social histories, intertwined with imperial politics, commodity exchange, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the movement of peoples. Matthew Parker?s )] TJ ET BT 271.304 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sugar Barons)] TJ ET BT 358.640 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is in some ways a classic, old-fashioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic history: imperial politics; British, North Atlantic, and creole elites; and military battles all feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily. But in other ways, this book shows how popular global history can incorporate the diverse elements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a number of different historical styles and source-bases to create a compelling narrative which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicates a picture of ?progress? or ?ascendancy? in European history and demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interconnectedness of global phenomena.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book concentrates on the English ?barons? of the title and their descendants: the Drax family, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Codrington family, and the Beckfords, with other characters playing prominent roles as they emerge in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s 200-year focus. These families are interconnected with one another, with the development of sugar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1243)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 26 April, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Parker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780091925833)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(464pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windmill Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bronwen Everill)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5015 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantations on these islands, and with the local and imperial politics that defined the region during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. The book is divided into three sections: the pioneers, the grandees, and the inheritors. It also has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpful maps, family trees, and a chronology at the beginning of the book, as well as two sections of images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that help to illustrate the narrative. Although the sections are roughly chronological, individual chapters shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from narrating the course of events ? particularly when discussing a war or a particular family?s fortunes ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more thematic approaches when discussing the development of the sugar plantation economy, or the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slave system, or describing an island?s society at a particular time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section covers the period from the first British settlements in the West Indies in the beginning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 17th century through the English Civil War to the 1660s. In this period, the Drax family is dominant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting up the first sugar plantation in Barbados and manipulating island politics during the Civil War. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole British West Indian enterprise was unstable, however, with a precarious balance of power between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribs, the various European colonists, and the free and indentured populations regularly descending into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence. Although there were European empires involved in the region, there is little sense that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all-powerful, or even interested in these fragile settlements. Communication between the metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres and the colonists reveals the gaps in their expectations of one another.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These chapters also cover the development of the sugar industry in the Caribbean, the emergence of slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society in Barbados, and very detailed accounts of the localized raiding, regional military campaigns, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial wars that saw islands passed back and forth between the Spanish, Dutch, French and English in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century. Chapter six, ?The English Civil War in Barbados?, encapsulates the major weaknesses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, but also its ability to redeem itself. Some of the military and political back-and-forth ? described in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excruciating detail ? seems to exist for its own sake without too much attention to, or analysis of, )] TJ ET BT 502.640 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why )] TJ ET BT 524.972 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters or what in the description is important for later understandings of the family fortunes of these actors. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the chapter then ends with a well-written and compelling analysis of the Navigation Acts \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(74?5\) that emerged from the Civil War, explaining why they were important, and how the Civil War ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably something the average British reader would have some basic knowledge about ? fits into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section covers the period from the restoration of the monarchy through to the Seven Years? War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the largest section of the book, and covers the most time and variety of history. In this section, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes clear that, while there are still significant communication gaps between metropole and colony \(gaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that allow for an incredible range of corrupt and authoritarian behaviour on the part of the colonists\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of the wealthiest planter elite and the British establishment are beginning to converge. The growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British planter societies in Jamaica and Antigua in this period also poses a significant challenge to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older elites of Barbados and changes the demographics of the British West Indies again.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7462 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the chapters in this section seem less cohesive than others as they try to cover large amounts of time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or broader themes. Chapter 20 \(?Piracy and rum?\), for instance, does little justice to either topic. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongest chapter in this section is that focused on Thomas Thistlewood, an overseer in Jamaica \(chapter 23\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parker has an incredible source here for investigating the life of a non-?baron? in a slave society and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Thistlewood has been studied before \(and Parker relies on monographs on his life as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thistlewood diary itself\), Parker skilfully uses this individual to explore the larger questions and themes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pervade the book. Thistlewood?s relationship with Phibbah, his enslaved ?mistress?, is examined both as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual relationship, with moving descriptions of Thistlewood?s feelings about her from his diary, and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a potential source for understanding the role of black mistresses who ?blurred the rigid distinctions of race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and slavery? \(p. 282\). However, Parker is careful to present a complex picture in which individual power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships are negotiated, but still dominated by societal expectations and norms. Thistlewood was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable, for instance, to immediately ?lease? Phibbah from her masters after he left their employment for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another plantation, leaving them both bereft. And of course, during their 30-year relationship, he continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rape other slave women and inflict horrendous punishments on people in Phibbah?s exact situation even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he bemoaned her ?miserable slavery? \(p. 281\). Parker handles these themes and subjects deftly, using a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed case to paint a nuanced and well-researched picture of individuals behaving in contradictory, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very human, ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section looks at the period from the end of the Seven Years? War through the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution and the Haitian Revolution to the abolition of slavery. This section takes a strong line on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?decline? thesis, arguing that not only were the West Indian colonies beginning to be eclipsed economically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? by the increasingly important East India Company ? but they were declining morally and politically as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well. The ?inheritors? of the title are the newest generation of the sugar barons, most of whom were by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point resident in England and had little connection to their West Indian plantations. Chapters focus on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissipation, the increasing British distaste for their gaudy expenditures, and the rise of the abolition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. In the arc of the narrative, the sugar barons? interests and the interests of Britain as a whole have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decoupled, and the result is the loss of power for the West India sugar lobby. The bibliography is lighter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of abolition and this is revealed in the somewhat cursory handling it receives. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book, Parker revealed sources of visitors arriving in the islands and deploring the situation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the enslaved \(and proposing ameliorative measures\). Therefore, his implicit argument in support of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams? thesis is that, while there had been distaste for slavery all along in the British imagination, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not until the dissipation and decline of the West Indian sugar barons sets in that Britain was willing to ignore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their needs in favour of the slaves?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sugar Barons)] TJ ET BT 121.352 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes a strong case for the role of popular history in communicating academic history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the academy. Boasting an extensive and up-to-date bibliography, this book provides a strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis of the major recent historiography. It also reflects the variety of historical approaches necessary for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composing a popular history of this period and location: military history, economic and social history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodity history, and elements of microhistory are all at work here, creating a well-rounded picture of life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and politics in the Atlantic world. In order to tell an interconnected history of movement, trade, and power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?global? world system, command of a variety of types of sources is needed. Parker is also skilful in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining that a lot is unknown, or unknowable. The variety of primary sources and the shifting historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches reveal this; so does his use of phrases such as ?seems to have been? \(p. 39 for instance\), which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals the particularly patchy primary evidence about individuals or individual families in the Caribbean in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very early 17th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book also reveals that a global history that deals with the role of an empire in producing mobility and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange, and that ? most importantly for the historian ? depends on that empire for sources, can still reveal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the limitations, weaknesses, and gaps in imperial power. The innumerable wars fought over the Caribbean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(islands in the 200-year period show that so many of the outcomes relied on circumstance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miscommunication, timing, and illness. In the chapter on the War of Jenkins? Ear \(beginning in 1739\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parker makes an important point about the nature of empire in the Americas: he writes that it was different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from what had come before because ?this was not about European balance of power or dynastic squabbles, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7232 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but about imperial trade, empire ? it was also started in the West Indies? \(p. 252\). In other words, Parker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes the line that ?imperial? did not necessarily mean ?directed from the metropole?, and it could also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompass a number of different motivations, from economic to territorial. But, equally importantly, Parker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes that, in the Caribbean itself, ?it followed the depressing course of previous conflicts? \(p. 252\). Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or local motivation aside, war in the West Indies was war, and in the West Indies, war was practically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endemic. This was a result of the weakness of empires, rather than their strength, as they were unable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusively conquer and defend their territories, even when economies began to rely on colonial sugar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exchange, too, is just as often limited as facilitated by empire; and sometimes imperial power seems not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter at all. During the same War of Jenkins? Ear, the North American colonies were infamous for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing to trade illegally with the French \(pp. 256?7\). Similarly, the colourful characters that emerge are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes made mobile \(often against their will\) by imperial networks. The shifting demographics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(islands reveal the changing policies and practices of migration from the 17th to the 19th centuries, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixed group of Carib slaves and poor English indentured servants were replaced by African slaves; as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish and Irish migrants moved into the islands; and as disease and natural disasters took their toll on new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrivals. Parker?s emphasis on mortality statistics and the more qualitative descriptions of death in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean show that even when movement and investment were facilitated by empires, disease could prevail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This narrative also goes against a current trend in popular history of this scale to return, in some sense, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Protestant Work Ethic? argument for European, and particularly Anglo-American growth. What becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very clear as the story progresses is that families who enriched themselves in the West Indies did so through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption, theft, murder, enslavement, and cronyism. They frequently broke the law. When they returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, they bought themselves political power. Although Catherine Hall and Nick Draper?s recent work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legacies of the British slave trade is not cited in the bibliography, Parker makes a similar argument, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building on the social history of Caribbean slavery and the diaries and family wills of the ?sugar barons? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves: the wealth that they created through smuggling and corruption, and through enslaving a huge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workforce, built modern Britain, just as much as the anti-slavery campaign did. This is not a picture of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradually democratizing Britain, opening itself up to free trade and promoting liberalism. This is a Britain of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family politics, mercantilism, and authoritarianism, and, as the book?s epilogue makes clear, it is one that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has had a lasting legacy in colonial and postcolonial societies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If global history is attempting to make connections, this book is the very definition of popular global history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It successfully demonstrates the interrelated development of the Atlantic system, and reveals how regional, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local, familial, and even individual history is connected to a wider world of politics, economic changes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural forces, ideological developments, and migrations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 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