%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 44 0 R 55 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141025210850+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141025210850+01'00') /Title (Frank Ankersmit's Lost Historical Cause: A Journey from Language to Experience) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4448 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Frank Ankersmit's Lost Historical Cause: A Journey from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Language to Experience)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A book-length examination of the work of Frank Ankersmit has been long overdue. Ankersmit occupies a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curious position in regards to the various skirmishes taking place over the philosophy of history in the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30 years or so. Theorists inclined towards postmodernism ? one thinks of Keith Jenkins and Alun Munslow ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been keen to co-opt Ankersmit into their camp.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.304 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.304 207.777 m 300.296 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 300.296 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet Ankersmit himself resists such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterisation, and indeed, Icke?s central thesis in this book is to argue that Ankersmit?s best work was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact his first published effort: 1983?s )] TJ ET BT 213.992 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 290.996 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Ankersmit got it spot on in this work; since then, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, he has moved away from this position. This is where the ?lost historical cause? element of the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes in ? Icke \(and presumably Jenkins, who supervised Icke?s PhD, from which this book came\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disapproves of the turn Ankersmit?s work has taken towards the concept of historical experience. As Icke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains, it is ?this ironic turn of events ? precisely his ?Lost ?Historical? Cause? of my title to this book ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that can be construed as, troped as, or simply )] TJ ET BT 252.980 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 260.984 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the tragedy of Frank Ankersmit?s move from language to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(sublime\) experience? \(p 3\). A severe conclusion indeed and one I am not entirely happy with. But let us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first examine the threads of Icke?s argument in more detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Ankersmit who began his career with )] TJ ET BT 238.304 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 315.308 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is termed ?The good Ankersmit? in chapter one. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1245)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 3 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Icke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415808033)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(198pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Timmins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.3037 208.0915 300.2957 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8709 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 124.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ankersmit dealt with the actual writing of history, an approach which had been kick-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(started by Hayden White some ten years earlier. Icke argues \(and I agree\) that the book can be taking as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing some of the themes broached in )] TJ ET BT 245.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 303.644 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but ?it would be a mistake to imagine Ankersmit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have found in White a model for his own theorising? \(p. 9\). To briefly summarise the thesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 111.020 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: like White, Ankersmit argues that narratives are not ?found? in the past, or inherently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained within events. Rather, ?evidence? is configured into a kind of historical order through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposition of a narrative structure. Said structure is informed by what Ankersmit calls a ?narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substance?. A narrative substance is a product of the present, a product of the historians? enculturation in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own time ? it cannot be found within the past itself. The idea of referentiality goes out of the window; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?past is ordered, beaten into shape and suitably appropriated in order to fit what is, in the end, an arbitrary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative form which is retrospectively imposed on it whence to serve some human purpose to which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past itself is indifferent? \(p. 35\). Unfortunately for the ?good Ankersmit?, )] TJ ET BT 393.620 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 470.624 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( received scant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention upon its publication, garnering only four reviews, including a notorious thrashing in )] TJ ET BT 484.988 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theory)] TJ ET BT 68.012 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from C. Behan McCullagh. Bizarrely, Icke tries to rectify this wrong some 25 years later by devoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five pages at the end of this first chapter to exposing the various misrepresentations, misunderstandings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various other liberties he feels McCullagh took in said review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next chapter, appropriately entitled ?A moment of hesitation?, we find out that the ?good? Ankersmit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was perhaps not so good after all. While Icke wholehearted supports the conclusions that Ankersmit reached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the book, he states \(using standard postmodernist verbiage\) that he cannot extend this point of view to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proofs by which he used to validate these conclusions. Furthermore, the ?convoluted? style of proof that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ankersmit uses in this and indeed many of his works is strictly unnecessary. Here of course, one of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernist historians? shibboleths raises its head. Ankersmit must be taken to task for having the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temerity to believe that ?his arguments can be privileged with some form of logically assembled proof of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute and irrefutable kind? \(p. 38\). The usual suspects are wheeled out ? Richard Rorty, Donald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson, and Mary Hesse ? to make the rather well-worn point that although there is indeed a ?world-in-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself? out there, the ?truth? of it ? whatever that is ? can never be wholly captured through language. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be an understatement that Icke takes a few liberties with some of the philosophers he quotes in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to leap to the conclusion that ?because our so-called knowledge of the world has no ultimate reach beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the metaphors that we use to describe it, it must follow that this presumed knowledge is of a rhetorical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not of an empirical kind ? )] TJ ET BT 160.664 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all of it)] TJ ET BT 195.344 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Rhetoric is thus the bottom line?? \(p. 42\). One would never guess for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, that both Hesse and Davidson both espoused a form of realism in the philosophy of science from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way they are selectively quoted here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.628 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.628 341.139 m 243.620 341.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.620 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Just when one thinks it cannot get any worse, up pops Derrida to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that imposing meanings on the world is an act of violence. Finally, Icke rounds all this off by stating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that as a good Rortyian, the position he takes in this book is to be his ?final vocabulary?, which of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must always be seen as provisional, pending better metaphors to come. Such is the tangle that postmodernist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists of history get into because they are theoretically forbidden to say things like ?I believe this it be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true?, and must therefore constantly hedge when trying to express convictions?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Icke gets back on track by pointing out that in )] TJ ET BT 257.324 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 334.328 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ankersmit used an Anglo-Saxon philosophy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of language to demonstrate continental conclusions, with predictably confusing results. The former is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual and foundationalist; the latter rhetorical and anti-foundationalist. Therefore, ?there exist lingering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residues of ?certaintism? in Ankersmit?s writings which could never be taken seriously by any anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundationalist? \(p. 44\). So far so good. But unfortunately Icke immediately goes back on the trail of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy of science ? arguing against Ankersmit?s claim that philosophy should follow the same course as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science ? and he comes a cropper once again. Hesse?s metaphors argument is trotted out again, closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by the tired argument that because there can be no stable link between word and world, there can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be no knowledge of the world in itself. Strange ? Donald Davidson argued that while rejecting a strong form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of epistemic realism, equally a strong constructivism is undesirable either. Icke?s argument implies that as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we have no Archimedean viewpoint with which to test our theories against, there appears to be no criteria to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefer one theory over another. Yet the fact that we can only study the world through a conceptual scheme is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old news; and many philosophers of science ? Kuhn most notably ? have argued for something like an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antirepresentationalist theory of objectivity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.992 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.992 58.275 m 257.984 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.984 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, the effect of postmodernist theories of language )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.6277 341.4535 243.6197 353.3335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.9917 58.5895 257.9837 70.4695 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 9175 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the philosophy of science has been virtually zero. The lesson here for all philosophers of history is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one has to do due diligence when entering the realm of the philosophy of science ? more often than not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cherry picking will come back to haunt one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point of all this is to debunk Ankersmit?s argument that he can supply definitive proof of his concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative substances. In )] TJ ET BT 149.984 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 226.988 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ankersmit ?attempted to use an outmoded language of proof ? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is to say he brought with him into his proof a worn out, died-into-literalness, old language of outmoded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(styles of generally positivist philosophies, the character of which provoked a form of narrative contradiction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that undermined the books coherence a matter which went pretty much unnoticed by its [four] critics? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(48\). We then get more metaphysical speculation: ?can any theory be really proved in an absolute sense?? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(48\). No ? but then most scientists/ historians will quite happily settle for a standard of proof less severe than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute proof. The remainder of the chapter is fortunately upon much firmer ground, as Icke details some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other contradictions in )] TJ ET BT 162.668 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 239.672 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, such as Ankersmit?s interpretations of Hayden White, and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of the ?experimental garden?. Indeed, Icke returns to Ankersmit?s theoretical relationship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White on several occasions, concluding that if we take out all of the ?bad? bits from Narrative Logic, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially we are left with an ?abridged description? of )] TJ ET BT 304.952 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 362.948 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 63\). Although Ankersmit wants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance himself from White?s position, Icke is not convinced that he managed to achieve it. Indeed, could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Ankersmit?s misreadings, the irregularities in his arguments and so on, be symptomatic of a kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paranoia, an all-consuming desire to separate himself from White or, perhaps one might even say, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectre of White??? \(pp 64?5\). The implication here is clear ? Ankersmit is being upbraiding for trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep historical writing on some sort of epistemological footing, instead of letting go and following White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the path of formalist literary theory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When postmodernists try to co-opt Ankersmit into their camp, they tend to quote approvingly Ankersmit?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchanges with Perez Zagorin in the pages of )] TJ ET BT 255.296 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Theory)] TJ ET BT 340.628 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the turn of the 1990s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.616 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.616 457.443 m 471.608 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 471.608 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet as Icke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly notes, Ankersmit was never fully at ease with having been cast as the champion of postmodernism/ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textualism. Indeed, Ankersmit?s trajectory in the 20 years after )] TJ ET BT 339.620 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 416.624 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would be away from history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and towards the area of memory studies addressed in his 2005 work )] TJ ET BT 362.624 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sublime Historical Experience)] TJ ET BT 509.936 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift of course, ?precipitates his fall from the )] TJ ET BT 252.308 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(good)] TJ ET BT 276.308 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the )] TJ ET BT 309.308 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lost)] TJ ET BT 326.648 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ankersmit that constitutes this books central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme? \(p. 68\). The link between the two Ankersmit?s is his 1994 collection of essays )] TJ ET BT 450.296 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Tropology)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Once again, the figure of Hayden White is bought to the forefront, specifically Ankersmit?s misreading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him. In the introduction to )] TJ ET BT 163.352 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Tropology)] TJ ET BT 273.356 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ankersmit characterises White as taking upon himself in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 92.012 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the task of ?educating historians to the extent that they might perceive the difference between, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on one hand, a reality which is in principle actually )] TJ ET BT 282.980 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(accessible)] TJ ET BT 332.300 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to historians, and on the other, their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?intellectual constructions? which constituted within the discourse of history itself and form a barrier to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of an otherwise )] TJ ET BT 164.648 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(accessible)] TJ ET BT 213.968 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reality? \(p. 71\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On Icke?s reading of White however, the point of )] TJ ET BT 275.288 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 333.284 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was to highlight ?the hopelessness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernist historian?s evident task ? to find some sort of meaning, direction, purpose and so on, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanished past ? a past which can no longer be directly perceived?? \(p. 73\). Icke reiterates the argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ankersmit?s work is fuelled by an obsession with White ? apparently, it was ?Ankersmit?s misfortune \(one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of timing\) that he arrived on the field of historical theory only to find that it had already been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensively ?staked out? by White?? \(p. 76\). The point of working through Ankersmit?s misreading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White is to illustrate that the latter?s arguments ?are problematic because they are handicapped by a lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal coherence which arises out of contradictions, misreading?s misunderstandings, category errors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so on? \(p. 81\). To sum up then, Ankersmit argued that White?s thought had evolved between the publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Metahistory and 1987?s )] TJ ET BT 165.332 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Content of the Form)] TJ ET BT 284.000 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an evolution that mirrored his own changing views. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Specifically, both had moved from language to the sublime, via a rejection of tropology. However, White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained trapped in a Kantian, transcendentalist mode of thought, which Ankersmit had been able to avoid. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what changed in Ankersmit?s own philosophy after )] TJ ET BT 299.984 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 376.988 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Icke argues that in )] TJ ET BT 476.624 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a tension between relativist position and a foundationalist position. Ankersmit could not bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself to relinquish this foundationalism like a good postmodernist, and so in )] TJ ET BT 414.356 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Tropology)] TJ ET BT 515.696 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for ?a rejection of tropology and Kantian transcendentalism in exchange for his own idiosyncratic quasi-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.6157 457.7575 471.6077 469.6375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 9252 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romantic perception of the sublime? \(p. 98\). Ankersmit wanted to grasp the past-in-itself and to do so, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that Kantian transcendentalism was primarily a theory of how experience is transformed into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge ? ergo, historical experience must be the historian?s point of departure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remainder of the book deals with Ankersmit?s 2005 work )] TJ ET BT 335.300 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sublime Historical Experience)] TJ ET BT 482.612 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. On Icke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading, Ankersmit attempts to ?develop an alternative theory of history capable of providing an unmediated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thus )] TJ ET BT 77.348 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(direct)] TJ ET BT 105.344 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( entry into a real and authentic experiential relationship with the past? \(p. 135\). For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ankersmit, the French Revolution bought about a profound change in Western civilisation, and this is his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigm case for his theory of sublime historical experience. Ultimately, the revolution was a painful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, a pain which lingered on after the event as a constant presence ? and this is the essence ?which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians are presumed to connect with when experiencing the historical sublime; an experience which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ankersmit insists, can only come out of the trauma of loss? \(p. 136\). Furthermore, in order to obtain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical consciousness in the first place, a civilisation/ culture needs to go through a traumatic cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience. Only when a civilisation?s past has been ripped away from its present, causing it to lose its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bearings and face an uncertain collective future, does the process of historical change become apparent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.200 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.200 597.747 m 545.192 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One needs to think of such civilisations as a ?hybrid creature?, a bundle of sensations, moods and feelings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking a ?self? to tie them together. The presence of these pains and sensations articulate themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the minds of historians living within the various civilisations, thus providing the link between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective sublime historical experience and individual historical experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Icke, the writing of )] TJ ET BT 148.664 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sublime Historical Experience)] TJ ET BT 295.976 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?could never have been anything but a doomed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project?, and unsurprisingly, the chapter is devoted to debunking the work \(p. 104\). There is a fairly ironic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment at one point when Icke chides Ankersmit for not addressing work by several postmodernist thinkers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that tells against his thesis, when Icke himself might be accused of playing fast and loose with the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Davidson in the current work. No doubt )] TJ ET BT 266.984 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sublime Historical Experience)] TJ ET BT 414.296 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a highly flawed work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(hybrid creatures indeed\); but it nonetheless represents a valiant attempt to move on from sterile debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about being unable to break out of the ?prison-house? of language. And in a sense there is an air of futility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Icke?s exegesis of Ankersmit?s failure to achieve what he sets out to do in )] TJ ET BT 423.608 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sublime Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience)] TJ ET BT 87.992 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? as a committed postmodernist, presumably there is nothing that any author could say that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would convince him that the project of history is a valid enterprise. It is the classic postmodernist tactic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carping from the side-lines that the historical enterprise is doomed from the start due to )] TJ ET BT 455.624 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 492.632 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reasons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of undertaking task of trying to make a )] TJ ET BT 260.984 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(positive)] TJ ET BT 298.316 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contribution to historical epistemology.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.652 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.652 357.651 m 504.644 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I want to engage for a moment with the notion that we cannot gain access to an unmediated past from my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own experience in the philosophy of science. Icke quotes Martin Davies/ George Steiner to the effect that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past is thinkable and knowable only through the current semiotic or symbolic system ? history in the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense is a language net cast backwards. \(p. 139\) The inference seems to be that language provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inescapable conceptual scheme which must inevitably circumscribe how we view historical evidence, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains of the-past-in-itself. Therefore, unmediated access to the past itself is impossible. But the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we cannot gain )] TJ ET BT 109.664 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(unmediated)] TJ ET BT 165.656 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( access to the past does not mean that we cannot find out anything about it )] TJ ET BT 524.948 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(at all)] TJ ET BT 549.956 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Thomas Kuhn has argued that the study of science is impossible without resort to some kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual scheme, which narrows the scientists? field of vision in order that he/she may examine a specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area in a level of detail which would otherwise be impossible.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.968 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.968 203.091 m 344.960 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.960 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, as noted earlier, many philosophers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of science are now arguing for something like anti-representationalist theory of objectivity, or at the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, a modest form of realism. Herein lies one of the problems with postmodernist historical theorists ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pendulum swings from one extreme to the other. Historians are attributed with striving for a hard version of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemic realism; a position which is then rejected, and the conclusion is drawn that all that is left is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally extreme constructivism. As William Child, writing about Davidson?s moderate realism points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the realists? claim that some [conceptual] classifications are more natural than others need not appeal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archimedean points or the imagined comparisons between them?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.296 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.296 103.299 m 365.288 103.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyone who has followed Frank Ankersmit?s work will also note that Icke performs a sleight of hand in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of Ankersmit?s work, moving straight from )] TJ ET BT 308.660 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Tropology)] TJ ET BT 410.000 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to )] TJ ET BT 425.336 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sublime Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience)] TJ ET BT 87.992 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Why does he avoid critiquing 2001?s )] TJ ET BT 275.972 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Representation? )] TJ ET BT 409.304 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps it centres around the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.1997 598.0615 545.1917 609.9415 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.6517 357.9655 504.6437 369.8455 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.9677 203.4055 344.9597 215.2855 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.2957 103.6135 365.2877 115.4935 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 8522 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that in the book Ankersmit is not so much critical of postmodernism as dismissive of it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deconstructivism, ?with its alleged fascination for subversion, irrationality and inconsistency ? is no real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 69.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 69.668 766.563 m 83.660 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 83.660 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, Ankersmit tries to assimilate the useful aspects of the linguistic turn to the current body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of historical theory, something which postmodernists generally loathe ? postmodernist theory is something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that cannot be assimilated, it must be adopted wholesale. As stated earlier, with its references to things like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hybrid creatures?, )] TJ ET BT 128.312 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sublime Historical Experience)] TJ ET BT 275.624 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a fairly easy target. But )] TJ ET BT 404.936 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Representation)] TJ ET BT 529.268 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much tougher nut to crack ? combining as it does various aspects of literary theory while still maintaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that historians do have some degree of access to the past they write about.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What are we to make then, of )] TJ ET BT 178.640 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frank Ankersmit?s Lost Historical Cause)] TJ ET BT 378.644 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? One?s initial reaction is that Icke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains firmly under the influence of his supervisor ? there is not much here that would look out of place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a work by Keith Jenkins. The pervading tone of the book seems to be one of disappointment; Ankersmit had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chance to join Hayden White as one of the heroes of postmodernist historians, but owing to his inability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to let go of such foolish notions about being able to access the ?past-in-itself?, failed to fulfil his early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential. We can only, it seems, look back at parts of )] TJ ET BT 294.644 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 371.648 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and wistfully wonder what might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been. It is the Jenkinsian view of history )] TJ ET BT 256.652 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(par excellence)] TJ ET BT 326.288 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is also a confusing book in terms of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure. At its heart there seems to be a journal article about the theoretical relationship between Hayden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White and Ankersmit struggling to get out ? or at least, one about how Ankersmit has misread White. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is a sin that cannot merely be tackled within the pages of )] TJ ET BT 329.648 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking History)] TJ ET BT 420.644 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, hence perhaps, the attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to expand it into a book length work. But as a 150 or so page book Icke seems to make awfully heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weather of what is on the face of it a fairly simple and straightforward thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, the problem with this work is not so much that Icke tries to critique Ankersmit?s work; but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he tries to do so in terms of all the tired old postmodernist clichs that the historical profession has by-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large decided should be consigned to history itself. It is not surprising that Icke takes issue with Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roth?s assessment that the ?massive tide? of language has now receded ? to admit so would signal the death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the postmodernist enterprise. Icke?s reference to memory studies also raises an eyebrow. To my mind, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be argued that the real revolution over the past 40 years or so in historical theory has not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernism, but rather the growth of memory studies. Interestingly, Icke tries to co-opt memory studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in to the postmodernist camp by arguing it is something that may replace history, and indeed, ?reflects a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing discontent with current academic history? \(p. 149\). It also interesting to note that when comparing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ankersmit?s ideas with those of White, White?s work is presented entirely uncritically ? but then, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gospel of postmodernist history this is perhaps no surprise. Icke?s mastery of the works of Ankersmit and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White is second to none, but the conclusions he draws from his readings let him down. The general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus in historical theory is that the linguistic turn is over. This tome, along with a couple of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent books, seems to me to signify the attempt to flog some semblance of life into a horse that has recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been pronounced as extinct. More than one historical theorist has remarked in the last few years that we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now in the post-postmodernist period of historical theory ? hadn?t someone better tell the postmodernists?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It should also be pointed out that what we might call ?traditional? historical theorist have also tended )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to lump Ankersmit in with postmodernists ? for example Richard Evans and C. B. McCullagh.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.664 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.664 192.339 m 557.660 192.339 l S BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 178.083 m 78.008 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With regards to Hesse, she actually argued that it is fairly straightforward to establish conditions for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realism ? it is always possible to translate a large number of the statements of an earlier theory into the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements of its successor, and this can also be done on a conceptual level. See Brendan Minogue, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Realism and intensional reference?, )] TJ ET BT 243.632 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophy of Science)] TJ ET BT 349.616 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 45 \(1978\), 446. We might also point out )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Ankersmit himself argued that although the idea of metaphor is essential in the philosophy of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, it actually helps us to obtain a correct picture of the past, as opposed to obfuscating it. See )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ankersmit, ?The dialectics of narrativist historism?, in )] TJ ET BT 328.988 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Representation)] TJ ET BT 453.320 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Palo Alto, 2001\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 138?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.344 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.344 64.035 m 168.332 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 51.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admittedly this is one thing that Davidson has argued against ? see his ?On the very idea of a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 69.6677 766.8775 83.6597 778.7575 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.6637 192.6535 557.6597 204.5335 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 178.3975 78.0077 190.2775 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.3437 64.3495 168.3317 76.2295 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 5156 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual scheme?. He does however, argue against the idea that we impose structure on an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrinsically structureless world ? which is the position of Hayden White, and one I assume Icke agrees )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with \(p. 50\). For Davidson?s idea son taxonomies and natural kinds, see William Child, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Triangulation: Davidson, realism and natural kinds?, )] TJ ET BT 325.316 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialectica)] TJ ET BT 375.308 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 55, \(2001\), 29?49. For a move )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards a non-representational theory of objectivity, see Joseph Bernardoni, )] TJ ET BT 432.944 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knowing Nature without )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mirrors: Thomas Kuhn's Antirepresentationalist Objectivity)] TJ ET BT 352.592 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Saarbrcken, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.560 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.560 723.795 m 510.548 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ankersmit, ?Historiography and postmodernism?, )] TJ ET BT 307.328 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Theory)] TJ ET BT 392.660 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28 \(1989\), 137?53; Perez )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zagorin, ?Historiography and postmodernism: reconsiderations?, )] TJ ET BT 379.640 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Theory)] TJ ET BT 464.972 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29 \(1990\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(263?74.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 681.027 m 156.332 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar argument was recently made by Zachary Schiffman ? the ?past? as a concept only originated )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Enlightenment with the birth of anachronism. See Schiffman, )] TJ ET BT 394.988 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Past)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 638.259 m 212.324 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Bernard Waites puts it, if Keith ?Jenkins wants to persuade a generally sceptical academy of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtues of the radical history he envisages, then his best strategy would be to write some?. Bernard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waites, ?In defence of historical realism; a further response to Keith Jenkins?, )] TJ ET BT 442.592 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking History)] TJ ET BT 533.588 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2011\), 332?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.336 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.336 581.235 m 188.324 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, I believe Kuhn and Davidson would both agree that although there are no algorithms for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choosing one conceptual scheme over another, once we do choose a scheme/ paradigm, then the world )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(itself)] TJ ET BT 87.356 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will determine how the theory works from hereon in.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.648 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.648 538.467 m 398.636 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Childs, p. 38.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.360 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.360 524.211 m 182.348 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Ankersmit, ?The linguistic turn?, in )] TJ ET BT 269.336 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Representation)] TJ ET BT 393.668 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p 70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.668 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.668 509.955 m 477.656 509.955 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 494.623 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 476.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 476.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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