%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R 43 0 R 59 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728011607+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728011607+01'00') /Title (Medieval Market Morality: Life, Law and Ethics in the English Marketplace, 1200?1500) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4206 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Medieval Market Morality: Life, Law and Ethics in the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Marketplace, 1200?1500)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At its most basic level, a market is a locus of exchange, which enables people who need or desire certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things that they themselves do not produce to acquire these goods from others. The moral issues involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with markets begin to become complex, and the question as to what a market is for may become acute, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situations where value cannot be readily ascertained, particularly when the sellers are not producers but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middlemen, but also in the case of producers, in particular where there is a marked difference between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(price of the raw materials and that of the finished product. Exchange through the medium of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermediaries between the primary producer and the final consumer inevitably raises the issue of the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which such people may profit from the needs of others, and indeed even the extent to which it might or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might not be just for them to enjoy a better living than those who buy from them, at the cost of the latter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to acquire, cheaply or at reasonable cost, things they need in order to live. If the function of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market is considered to be the enabling of the population to have access to things it needs, the perception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the morality of the market might well be different from a situation in which the function of the market is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen, at least in part, as enabling those who trade in it to make a profit; the very concept of profit is itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morally fraught, since it is not always clear whether it is the same as making a living, or whether it may also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a moral point of view, permit making a good deal more than just a living. Such a divergence between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1246)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 3 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Davis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107003439)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(532pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shami Ghosh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7849 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of market morality might be particularly exacerbated in times of dearth, when those with wares )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sell might easily be able to make a higher level of profit by charging higher prices, to the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantage of those in need but without sufficient funds. A further complication with moral implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arises with the matter of credit, since many transactions, in pre-modern as in modern markets, were not paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for immediately; how much may the creditor reasonably gain from the risk he or she takes on, and to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent is profiting from extending credit to those who need the goods for which they require credit, and are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too impoverished to pay upfront, a moral problem?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, consumer- and the trader-oriented views of market function and morality are not necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutually exclusive; one might be able to envisage a system by which all may have access to what they need, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while still enabling sellers to make a good living from their trade. There is no )] TJ ET BT 408.644 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(necessary)] TJ ET BT 455.960 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( conflict between a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market in which sellers make \(some\) profits, and a ?moral economy?, in which goods are available for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affordable price. The problem, however, is how to ensure that this sort of equilibrium arises and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained. This problem exercised much medieval theorising about the market; much of the more explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral literature, however, started from the view that profit-making traders are intrinsically immoral, without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the possibility of a reconciliation between the needs \(or desires\) or traders and the needs \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desires\) of consumers. Nevertheless, even moralists were aware of the need for market exchange, however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicious they might have been about it. The medieval market was thus not just a place ?where the forces of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply and demand converged?, but also ? perhaps rather more than its modern counterpart ? a place ?where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such economic factors were circumscribed by contemporary regulations, morals, attitudes and prejudices? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 4\). The task James Davis has set himself in this excellent book is to describe those regulations, morals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes and prejudices, and then to examine through case studies of individual markets precisely how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumscribed the interaction of forces of supply and demand. In this painstakingly researched volume, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author provides, first, a very detailed examination of moral perspectives on the market as evidenced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary and philosophical or theological texts, and including discourses about oaths, bargaining, usury, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repentance, and punishment; second, an equally thorough analysis of legislation on markets, its explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral framework, and how it relates to the literary and philosophical/theological evidence, examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national legislation, seigneurial markets, chartered boroughs, guilds, and the regulation of a whole range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market activities from sanitation and quality, through coinage, to the role of women; and finally, case studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the actual functioning of three markets in late-medieval Suffolk, in which he seeks to show the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the prescriptive sources ? literature, philosophy, theology, and legislation ? have any bearing on what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually happened. What emerges from his exposition is a nuanced perspective on what people thought of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets, which ranged from the almost exclusively negative perspective of literary moralists, through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more balanced views of philosophers and legislators, to the actions of those themselves involved in and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living off the market every day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis?s first chapter shows cogently that for most producers of ?sources of morality?, those who sold their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wares on the market were normally at the very least inherently suspicious, and often explicitly condemned. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Traders were seen to be caring for profit more than anything else, and endangering their souls by such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avarice; many were condemned for the ways in which they cheated their customers, as well as for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general lack of integrity, and the fact that, for some commentators, they went against the natural or divine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinances by making wealth without actually making any )] TJ ET BT 317.984 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thing)] TJ ET BT 342.656 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Another concern was that the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of merchants and traders upset the divinely ordained structure of society, since these rich individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not, and could not, really fit within one of the three classes of the religious, the aristocracy, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants. Merchants and traders became, in much of the popular literature of the period, symbols for certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vices. They were, however, also increasingly necessary for the functioning of a commercialised economy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, equally, they occupied important, even controlling positions in the social hierarchies of most towns. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least for this reason, perhaps, many commentators on the market began to provide more positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciations of traders \(Aquinas is an important example cited by Davis\): they performed a valuable service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by providing people things that those people did not themselves produce, and by bringing into the land or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region commodities from afar. They were therefore useful members of society, deserving of a reward for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate social function that they fulfilled, and no moral opprobrium need stick to them. The condition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, however, that they be content with earning justly, for the sake of a living rather than because of avarice )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7947 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(intention, as much as effect, was the key to how their actions were to be judged\), and that they charge prices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their wares that were just. The just price itself was not something wholly or even primarily determined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by extra-market factors, but many medieval commentators \(unlike many of their more recent counterparts\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear to have been aware that the market, left to itself, would not create justice in allowing everyone to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have access to their needs; some regulation \(or at least self-restraint on the part of the traders\) was required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ensure that the poorest could also buy what they needed on the market. Thus while supply and demand, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the efforts of the trader to provide for supply, played a crucial role in determining price, the needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and abilities of people to purchase had also to be taken into account. Much of the discourse, as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual regulation of the market, focused on subsistence items, primarily grain, bread, ale, and meat, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dairy products and textiles. Retailers, forestallers and regraters were the butt of much of the opprobrium, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those ?at the most humble end of the marketing scale [...] were portrayed in a uniformly negative way? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100\); these were the figures in the petty victualling trades, dealers in small trinkets and consumables, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often in fact sold the cheapest items, but also earned the least profits, and thus would often have needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cut corners in order to make a living. Since these figures were, however, the main point of contact for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(average consumer with the world of trade, and since they were also never in positions of influence, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also inevitably the focus of most criticism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The regulation of the market derived, at one level, from national, royal, legislation, of which the driving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest was explicitly to ensure the prosperity of the people, but also \(less explicitly\) to ensure that the royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coffers were kept full with income derived from the markets. In effect, markets were actually governed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interests of their seigneurial lords, and increasingly ? probably even in the case of seigneurial markets ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the interests of the wealthy townsfolk who controlled urban and market regulations. Urban markets had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow those who were effectively in legal control of the city, the wealthy merchants, to profit; they also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, had to allow those who consumed on the market to live, and \(perhaps more importantly, from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective of the oligarchies\) regulation had to be such that the poor would not protest violently against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived injustices. These were not, however, necessarily opposing goals: for a market to flourish, it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need, among other things, to have a reputation for fairness. Davis shows that during his period, there was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing amount of effort at centralised control, stemming largely from a desire to maintain social order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hierarchies. Nevertheless, royal writ rarely challenged or altered market customs, but rather codified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rules that had already long been present on the ground. What is interesting is that the regulations did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to emphasise a need for merchants to maximise their opportunities at the cost of the consumers; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral economy seems, to some extent at least, to have been internalised. Nevertheless, much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation was concerned at least as much with protecting the interests of the upper echelons of the trading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and artisanal hierarchy as the consumers? interests. There appears to have been some differentiation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to the size of towns: in smaller towns with no real mercantile presence, retailers and craftsmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often had the charge of regulating markets, whereas in larger towns, the wealthy mercantile class tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelm other interests. Nevertheless, everywhere there were regulations allowing consumers to buy for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own consumption before those buying for re-selling could enter the market; regulations to ensure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality and fair prices; and further ordinances concerning sanitation, weights and measures, coins, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bargaining, and the procedures governing credit, among other things. The most important and wide-ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations were the assizes of bread and ale, which determined the prices of these two primary sources of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutrition; the efforts of the legislators were directed to ensuring that their communities could retain access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basic subsistence goods that they needed. It is clear, however, that insofar as any form of morality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operated on the legislation regarding the market, it was concerned primarily with ensuring the availability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and quality of necessary goods, rather than with restricting the profits of merchants \(though it is obvious that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two goals could, though did not need to be, opposed to each other; witness the failure of price-fixing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation in the aftermath of the Great Famine\). While there was clearly a great deal of effort in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation of the market aimed at protecting the consumer, the ?moral economy? operated not by postulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something immoral in making money from trading, but by asserting that consumers had a right to purchase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods they needed at prices that they could afford. Thus medieval legislators would appear to have taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into account something that later classical economists quite remarkably missed: a perfect, self-regulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market allows for prices to be reached that are satisfactory to both buyer and seller, based on both supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and demand ? but this takes into account only those persons who have sufficient resources to be able to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8138 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise demand on the market. Given a sufficient number of people able to pay high prices, even if there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a great deal of demand for a good at a lower price and a large number of people unable to pay the higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(price, the market price will not fall, unless regulations cause it to. Dearth in the pre-modern as in the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world was often less a matter of insufficient supply than of lacking entitlements, an insight we owe to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amartya Sen, that has been applied to medieval markets by, among others, Meghnad Desai and Stephan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Epstein.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.016 723.795 m 87.008 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 87.008 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is precisely this form of deprivation caused by inability to access the market because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insufficient finances ? a lack of entitlement, in Sen?s terms ? that medieval legislators attempted to address, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 78.356 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by setting specific times when resellers were allowed to buy, and the sorts of prices that could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charged of local consumers, and forbidding hoarding to sell at higher prices as a practice that could both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause and also take unfair advantage of scarcity \(effects of modern free markets that many third-world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations feel all too often in our own time\). The way medieval market morality was supposed to function )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in times of dearth, and how it actually did, is one aspect of this subject that I feel could have been addressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more fully, particularly given Davis has relatively more to say on dearth with regard to the early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, medieval markets did not really work according to the ideologies and laws that Davis so carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets out in his first two chapters ? or at any rate, the three markets that he examines in his case studies did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not quite do so. Davis examines the markets of Newmarket, Clare, and Ipswich, all in Suffolk, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most highly commercialised and market-dependent regions of England in this period. The first two were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small towns, whereas Ipswich was one of the major towns of the kingdom. In all three, it is clear that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governors of the markets allowed for some level of infringement of the assizes with low or no penalties ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed, those who regulated the markets were very often the ones who offended the most against its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations. In effect, the assizes became something like a licensing fee, which raised revenues, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed for minor infringements to pass without further penalties. However, major offences, and deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as opposed to inadvertent or unavoidable transgressions, do seem to have been punished ? though often not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as heavily as the moralising literature and the legislation would have led us to expect; the actual regulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the market seems to have been governed by a mix of morality and pragmatism, in which the latter, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not necessarily gaining the upper hand, was certainly not the servant of morality. In 15th-century small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns, Davis suggests, the authorities ?preferred a lightly regulated, but efficient and competitive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketplace, to the heavily controlled one which medieval writers like Langland and Gower demanded? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(348\). However, as Davis himself shows, the markets were regulated and controlled ? insofar as this did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happen ? by the elites of the towns, who were for the most part themselves very active in the market, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants, innkeepers, brewers, and sometimes butchers. If actual market regulation was relatively lenient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the traders and did it best to allow them to make a living without too many constraints, does this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really mean that ?medieval market morality? was flexible and recognised the needs of traders? One cannot, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely, posit some sort of absolute morality \(and Davis does not do so\), divorced from the professions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who subscribe to and enforce it; and it would be no surprise if the market morality of those who profit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is different from the market morality of those who need to buy cheaply. Thus the fact that merchants allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to profit without too much regulation actually says relatively little, I would suggest, about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality: it was not the arbiters or preachers of morality who regulated the markets, but rather their targets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis?s analysis is framed within a broader consideration of the relationship of market morality to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialisation of society, to the question of transition to capitalism and the mentality shifts that might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imply, and to the problem of how, if at all, the morality of the market changed in the period from the 16th to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 18th centuries \(on which period there is also a brief, primary source-based discussion in the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter\) in the context of a transition to capitalism. It is hardly surprising that the ghost of E. P. Thompson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looms large. Thompson argued that one of the fundamental shifts in social and economic behaviour during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early modern centuries was the gradual discrediting of the ?moral economy?: by the end of the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, it was no longer widely held, at least among those who regulated, legislated on, and wrote about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets, that the market?s primary function was to enable all ? the poor included ? to have access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsistence goods at price they could afford. Rather \(Thompson argued\), the market ought to be left alone to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine its own price, and to allow the actors on the market to gain the most benefit that they possibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 63.680 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 63.680 58.275 m 77.672 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.672 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thompson?s thesis, that there was a ?moral economy? in pre-modern England which was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0157 724.1095 87.0077 735.9895 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 63.6797 58.5895 77.6717 70.4695 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradually eroded by the end of the 18th century, has been hotly debated; recent studies have made it clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough that whatever morality there was, it was no necessary inhibitor of profit-making, and did not even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily intend to function in such a way \(something Thompson himself was happy to accept )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.624 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.624 766.563 m 511.616 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 511.616 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). One of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great virtues of Davis?s book is that it demonstrates on solid empirical grounds that, firstly, medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories of the market were entirely compatible with profit-making, while still conforming to Thompson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of a ?moral economy? \(it was thought possible to make a profit while charging a just price\); and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondly, that markets might in fact have been less regulated, and there might have been less of a perception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an urgent need to regulate them, in the middle ages than in the early modern centuries ? which is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion that makes intuitive sense, but would perhaps still seem surprising if viewed from a perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that sees an unrelenting drive towards a modern political economy and modern economic, rational, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour and attitudes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis?s final chapter, examining in much less detail than the foregoing sections the market morality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th and 17th centuries, suggests that in these years, concerns about the immorality of the market seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been heightened, and particularly in times of dearth, market traders were the targets of extremely heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism. The medieval moral economy survived, but seemed to become more stringent. The explanations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for this might be found in, among other things, increasing social stratification and the growth of a population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was completely dependent on the market for survival, as Keith Wrightson has recently suggested in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis of this period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.016 540.723 m 162.008 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 162.008 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, As Wrightson also shows ? and he is here in accord with Thompson ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the changes can also be explained by the fact that morality began to recede at the top: those who regulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets were increasingly abandoning even the rhetoric of morality, and turning instead to the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profits and productivity. Such a transformation of attitude may be understood in the context of a realignment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what the economy and economic activities were understood as: no longer simply means of living in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner appropriate to one?s station, economic activity was, it has been suggested, now seen as a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earning profits and increasing the prosperity of the land, as well as of oneself; increasing consumption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-essential items was a key aspect of this change. Thus there emerged now a rhetoric of industriousness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inextricably linked with the dogma of productivity and profit, and eclipsing the old morality.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.988 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.988 426.675 m 492.980 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 492.980 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone bought into the new economic ideas; the poor suffered, and protested, and, at least in the 16th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th centuries, as Thompson showed and Davis reiterates, preachers and philosophers continued to rail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the immorality of market practices. Thus, ?the moral economy may have actually gained in strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among consumers in the face of growing capitalist instincts? \(p. 448\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This conclusion fits well with the reassessment of medieval economic history of the past few decades, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has placed many of the changes earlier associated with the early modern centuries in the period Davis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines: widespread commercialisation, changes in land tenure and dependence on wage labour, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of peasant and lower-class consumerism are now all understood to have begun within the three centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before )] TJ ET BT 67.664 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 72.992 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1550.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.992 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.992 286.371 m 116.984 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 116.984 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Clearly, even if we accept that so much had already changed by this point, we still some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of explanatory framework to explain what happened in the next 300 years; early modernists like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wrightson have continued to explain the unrest of their period with reference to the transformations it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced when contrasted with a relatively un-commercialised middle ages with relatively little market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependence, a stance that can no longer really be tenable. What Davis?s book suggests is that in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages, despite all the changes, the conflicts between an emerging capitalistic economic organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and morality and the needs and moral attitudes of the poor had not yet led to a complete break ? possibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because relatively low levels of population, relatively high levels of productivity, and thus relatively little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dearth, allowed for an economy to function both profitably and ?morally?. As the population grew \(without, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it appears, significant gains in productivity until the middle of the 18th century )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.328 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.328 158.067 m 429.320 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.320 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and those in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middling classes increased in number and differentiated themselves ever more from the poor; as all classes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt determined to hang on to the increased levels of consumption they had become accustomed to in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later middle ages; as opportunities for greater profits from long-distance trade \(which deprived the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside of cheap subsistence items, but enriched merchants\) increased, with the rise to overwhelming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance of London as a place where grain \(and other things\) could be sold at far higher prices than in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside, and with the possibility even of exporting grain; and, crucially, as levels of structural poverty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rose while the intellectual ideals of economic morality themselves moved away from their Christian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.6237 766.8775 511.6157 778.7575 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.0157 541.0375 162.0077 552.9175 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.9877 426.9895 492.9797 438.8695 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.9917 286.6855 116.9837 298.5655 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.3277 158.3815 429.3197 170.2615 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 9368 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anchoring: tensions increased, and the ?moral economy? began to break down. And this in turn led to more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and more violent\) expressions of the importance of such an economy on the part of those who suffered as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of these changes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis has done us an important service by showing us another important way in which the long road to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern economy can be traced back to a period earlier than most historians in the past would have thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely. He also shows that ?the very morality that some historians have identified as a rigid constraint on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial development? might have helped the market to function more effectively by acting as a check )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on harmful practices and thus reducing risks and the need for expensive policing \(p. 454\). While his study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforces the view that the transition period goes back to the thirteenth century, it also shows that one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental changes was a shift in attitudes towards the economy that took rather a long time to come into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force \(he places the break, with Thompson, in the mid to late 18th century\) ? and that this shift in attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place first among the traders, then among the theorists, and only much later, if ever, caught on with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common people. Davis might, however, be a bit over-optimistic in his conclusion that ?the influences of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic moral economy endure? \(p. 458\). The moral concerns have not left us, but they do not affect most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of us in the developed world in any particularly discomfiting manner \(as Davis himself shows, the primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns of the medieval moral economy had to do with basic necessities\), and have been, to a large extent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exported elsewhere ? though we might well wonder: how different would the attitudes of those starving in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa towards one of the grain multinationals be from that of Thompson?s crowd towards an engrosser? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, amongst those who suffer greatly because of the modern market economy, the immorality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market must be a major concern, but such people tend, for us, normally to be in the minority, or comfortably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere. What is perhaps more important is that there really has been a great shift in terms of the way the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern theorists of the market \(economists\) see its relation to morality when compared to their medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts \(generally theologians, or at least people with some theological training; inevitably people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribing to a religious moral framework\). There is surely some significance in the fact that with very few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions \(Sen being the outstanding one\), economists are no longer moral philosophers, let alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amartya Sen, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty and Famines: an Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation)] TJ ET BT 445.640 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1981\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meghnad Desai, ?The agrarian crisis in medieval England: a Malthusian tragedy or a failure of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitlements??, )] TJ ET BT 139.340 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin of Economic Research)] TJ ET BT 288.320 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43 \(1991\), 223?58; S. R. Epstein, )] TJ ET BT 457.652 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freedom and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Growth: the Rise of States and Markets in Europe, 1300?1750)] TJ ET BT 364.004 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\), pp. 41?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.656 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.656 318.387 m 546.644 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. P. Thompson, ?The moral economy of the English crowd in the eighteenth century?, )] TJ ET BT 485.960 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Present)] TJ ET BT 100.676 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 50 \(1971\), 76?136; reprinted in his )] TJ ET BT 276.992 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customs in Common)] TJ ET BT 377.000 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1991\), pp. 185?258.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 275.619 m 118.004 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to his original paper, see also Thompson, ?The moral economy reviewed?, in )] TJ ET BT 492.284 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customs in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Common)] TJ ET BT 107.348 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 259?351.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.676 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.676 247.107 m 229.664 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Wrightson, )] TJ ET BT 150.344 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Earthly Necessities: Economic Lives in Early Modern Britain, 1470?1750)] TJ ET BT 505.988 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002\), e.g. pp. 145?8; 189?200.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 216.332 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 216.332 218.595 m 270.320 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wrightson, )] TJ ET BT 120.680 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Earthly Necessities)] TJ ET BT 213.008 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 202?15; Jan de Vries, )] TJ ET BT 343.988 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Industrious Revolution: Consumer )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Behavior and the Household Economy, 1650 to the Present)] TJ ET BT 348.980 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.300 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.300 190.083 m 500.288 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the principal milestones in this reassessment are Richard Britnell, )] TJ ET BT 420.320 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Commercialisation of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English society, 1000?1500)] TJ ET BT 197.012 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1993\); Christopher Dyer, )] TJ ET BT 387.320 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Standards of Living in the Later )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages: Social Change in England, c. 1200?1520)] TJ ET BT 329.000 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1989\); idem, )] TJ ET BT 459.656 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Age of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transition? Economy and society in England in the Later Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 403.340 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2005\); on land tenure )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and wage labour, see also Jane Whittle, )] TJ ET BT 256.304 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Development of Agrarian Capitalism: Land and Labour )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Norfolk, 1440?1580)] TJ ET BT 173.024 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.672 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.672 104.547 m 305.660 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 91.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce M. S. Campbell and Mark Overton, ?A new perspective on medieval and early modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture: six centuries of Norfolk farming )] TJ ET BT 280.640 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 285.968 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1250?)] TJ ET BT 318.296 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 323.624 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1850?, )] TJ ET BT 361.952 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 443.948 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 141 \(1993\), 38?105.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 61.779 m 118.004 61.779 l S endstream endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.6557 318.7015 546.6437 330.5815 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 275.9335 118.0037 287.8135 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.6757 247.4215 229.6637 259.3015 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 216.3317 218.9095 270.3197 230.7895 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.2997 190.3975 500.2877 202.2775 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.6717 104.8615 305.6597 116.7415 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 62.0935 118.0037 73.9735 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 61 0 R ] /Contents 60 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Length 568 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1246)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 328.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/15479)] TJ ET endstream endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 328.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1246) >> endobj xref 0 63 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000000690 00000 n 0000004948 00000 n 0000005057 00000 n 0000005167 00000 n 0000005276 00000 n 0000008837 00000 n 0000008965 00000 n 0000009049 00000 n 0000009114 00000 n 0000017016 00000 n 0000017081 00000 n 0000025081 00000 n 0000025172 00000 n 0000033363 00000 n 0000033393 00000 n 0000033519 00000 n 0000033555 00000 n 0000033585 00000 n 0000033709 00000 n 0000033745 00000 n 0000033857 00000 n 0000042622 00000 n 0000042652 00000 n 0000042780 00000 n 0000042816 00000 n 0000042846 00000 n 0000042974 00000 n 0000043010 00000 n 0000043040 00000 n 0000043168 00000 n 0000043204 00000 n 0000043234 00000 n 0000043362 00000 n 0000043398 00000 n 0000043428 00000 n 0000043556 00000 n 0000043592 00000 n 0000043718 00000 n 0000053139 00000 n 0000053267 00000 n 0000053322 00000 n 0000053449 00000 n 0000053504 00000 n 0000053632 00000 n 0000053687 00000 n 0000053815 00000 n 0000053870 00000 n 0000053998 00000 n 0000054053 00000 n 0000054181 00000 n 0000054236 00000 n 0000054361 00000 n 0000054416 00000 n 0000054500 00000 n 0000055120 00000 n 0000055248 00000 n trailer << /Size 63 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 55344 %%EOF