%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930064753+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930064753+01'00') /Title (Liberal Epic: The Victorian Practice of History from Gibbon to Churchill) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4254 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Liberal Epic: The Victorian Practice of History from Gibbon to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Churchill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The liberal enlightenment idea of progress has promised many benefits over the past 300 years. Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress, we have been told, would provide cures for diseases, remedies for ignorance, alternatives to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superstition, and antidotes to poverty. Nothing however has raised higher expectations than liberalism?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim that it could put an end to war. According to Kant, Condorcet, Godwin, and a host of others, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread of knowledge and the accumulation of wealth would reinforce rational thinking, and promote an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding that gain need not be achieved at the expense of someone else. With the resultant conquest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear and hate, it seemed only reasonable to anticipate that violence would cease as the means of self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion, whether by groups, individuals, or organized states.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.308 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.308 165.009 m 344.300 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as with so many of liberalism?s promises, the vision of a peaceful future has proven impossible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain. The French Revolution, which was supposed to put enlightenment ideals into practice, eventuated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1792, in a gruelling, 25-year-long transcontinental struggle that left approximately five million soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and civilians in their graves. Some decades later, when the world had recovered from this bloodletting, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(champion of English liberalism, Richard Cobden, formulated a concrete political program in which open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets, free thought and representative government would guarantee that such a dbcle could not recur. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as these institutions were gradually established, the spectre of war continued to darken the horizons. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1247)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 3 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Adams)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780813931456)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Virginia Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlottesville, VA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodore Koditschek)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.3077 165.3235 344.2997 177.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8785 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Open trade was ringed with tariffs, free thought spawned propaganda, while the industrial techniques )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneered by peaceful commerce were turned into dynamite detonators and machines of death. Armed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these tools of industrial destruction, enlightened men began to hurl them at one another during the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War \(1914-18\), which left ten million fatalities in its wake. To the American President, Woodrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson, this horrid ?war to end all wars? might actually have been redeemed, had it resulted in a mutually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable peace settlement, based on open covenants, national self-determination and an international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy of free trade. Alas, 20 years later, almost to the date, the curtain rose on an even bloodier world-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide holocaust that generated another 60 million corpses.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.640 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.640 695.283 m 324.632 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This proliferation of mass murder, amidst paeans to pacifism, represents one of the most striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions of the modern epoch. But where there is contradiction, there is also the seed for great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. The ways that literature has navigated the relationship between war and liberalism provides the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme for Edward Adams?s sometimes brilliant, but occasionally maddening, book. Surely, we are told by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our inner enlightenment philosopher, ?war cannot be liberal, and liberalism cannot be warlike?. Yet, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adams explains in )] TJ ET BT 126.344 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Epic)] TJ ET BT 186.680 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the way in which the two have co-existed is much more painful, convoluted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and complex. Since the days of Homer, as everyone knows, the war epic has reigned in the artistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmament as a literary genre of enormous prestige. To compose an epic of Homeric proportions had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the goal of nearly every major poet throughout antiquity, the Middle Ages, and early modern times. And yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the turn of the 18th century, Franois Fnelon attempted to invert this classical Homeric pattern with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clever sequel, )] TJ ET BT 102.992 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Aventures de Tlmaque)] TJ ET BT 240.632 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Picking up the travels of Telemachus from the point when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homer left them, Fnelon revises the bard with a story of Mentor?s further instruction: conducting his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(odyssey in search of his father, the young prince is taught to renounce the war epic, to become a just ruler, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to abandon violence and corruption as instruments of political policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the aftermath of Fnelon, as Adams demonstrates, aspiring bards, such as Alexander Pope and Voltaire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt obliged to remodel the classical epic. As his bloody deeds were exposed by the early rays of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightenment, the war hero was demoted from his epi-centric place. Thus, when Pope produced his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated translation of the )] TJ ET BT 170.648 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iliad)] TJ ET BT 193.316 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he engaged in a program of linguistic sanitization that greatly diminished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ubiquitous blood and gore of the Greek original. When the historian, Edward Gibbon, aspired to write a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great prose epic, he found that a comparable strategy was required. Although )] TJ ET BT 406.592 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Decline and Fall of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roman Empire)] TJ ET BT 106.340 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was filled with fighting and battles, Gibbon abridged his coverage and downplayed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance, hinging his declension narrative on the )] TJ ET BT 287.312 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(teloi)] TJ ET BT 308.648 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of corruption and religion, rather than on the tides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fortune or the vicissitudes of arms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Walter Scott?s novels, the hero is turned into a passive protagonist, while his )] TJ ET BT 419.312 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Napoleon)] TJ ET BT 499.988 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true epic that Scott actually produced, continues the sanitization of military history that Gibbon had begun. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The romantic poets further destabilized the war epic, starting with Southey, whose )] TJ ET BT 432.620 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Joan of Arc)] TJ ET BT 488.612 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( refigured the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warrior as a female saint \(not to mention, a revolutionary enemy\). Two decades later, he felt obliged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compensate for these youthful indiscretions with his )] TJ ET BT 287.660 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lives of Nelson)] TJ ET BT 361.664 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 384.992 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wellington)] TJ ET BT 437.660 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and his )] TJ ET BT 480.992 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peninsular War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Purveyed from the opposite end of the political spectrum, these were little more than reactionary tirades ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which ?every rhetorical opportunity to diminish the French enemy and aggrandize the English is taken? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 119\). By contrast, Byron?s )] TJ ET BT 182.000 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Childe Harold)] TJ ET BT 251.672 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was an anti-war manifesto that was scarcely redeemed by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent )] TJ ET BT 90.344 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Don Juan)] TJ ET BT 137.336 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which begins with a list of soldiers, only to settle on a conqueror of a different kind.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.620 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.620 203.091 m 560.612 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the aftermath of Britain?s own heroic, anti-Napoleonic crusade, it was left to a liberal general, Sir )] TJ ET BT 518.576 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Napier, to provide the multi-volume prose epic of these recent events. As a military man with ardent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathies for radical reformers, Napier refigured the war in Spain as a campaign against native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrogression, in which the original French liberators had turned into tyrants, necessitating a second, British, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion to institute regime change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Adams shows, it was during the high Victorian period that the war epic came under full frontal attack. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For John Stuart Mill, the progress of society could be measured by the degree to which people were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protected from violence, and the extent to which they felt free to express their individuality in peaceful ways. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To Herbert Spencer the entire history of mankind could be encapsulated in a shift from primitive, static )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?militant? societies, organized for competition in war, to progressive, dynamic ?industrial? societies, which )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.6397 695.5975 324.6317 707.4775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.6197 203.4055 560.6117 215.2855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8375 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifted competition from the battlefield to the marketplace and the higher realms of invention and thought. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable historicist scheme was offered by Henry Buckle, who argued that climate governed human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress during the early stages of civilization, but that advanced peoples had created their own pacific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment, in which the pace of progress was determined by mental laws of scientific discovery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation. Under these circumstances, Edward Creasy dared to publish his popular )] TJ ET BT 439.616 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fifteen Decisive Battles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the World)] TJ ET BT 94.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1851\) only by offering a disclaimer that the battles \(from Marathon to Waterloo\) had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen because each had contributed to advancing the cause of civilization and peaceable progress.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, even under these circumstances, Adams shows, the war epic would not entirely go away. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crimean War alerted Britons to the dangers of military unpreparedness, while the Indian Revolt of 1857 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminded them that their empire must ultimately be sustained by force of arms. Even Mill discovered ?just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars? of liberation in Europe and America that rendered his later writings a good deal more bellicose than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the theoretical pacifism which had marked his earlier work. While Dickens wrested the novel away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ghost of Scott, Thackeray attempted to re-inscribe the older epic forms. Carlyle, meanwhile, celebrated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return of the hero, and spent 15 years writing a 22-volume )] TJ ET BT 316.628 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Frederick the Great)] TJ ET BT 463.940 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Most notably, T. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Macaulay, arguably the most popular writer of the age, capped his essayistic celebrations of progress with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bestselling five-volume )] TJ ET BT 158.336 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of England)] TJ ET BT 250.340 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which battles and wars found a significant place. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resurgence of the war epic continued to accelerate throughout the medieval revival of the 1860s, 1870s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880s. Adams traces it in William Morris?s )] TJ ET BT 246.668 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sigurd the Volsung )] TJ ET BT 341.672 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1868\) and )] TJ ET BT 396.992 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The House of Wolflings)] TJ ET BT 509.996 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1889\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even though his subsequent conversion to Marxism enabled him to dream of a future entirely free of warfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his utopian novel )] TJ ET BT 132.020 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(News from Nowhere)] TJ ET BT 230.024 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1890\). Moving on to the last years, before the end of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the journalist Alexander Kinglake, the poet/novelist Thomas Hardy, and the historian G. M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan each found in the ?progressive? wars of the 19th century ? Crimean, Napoleonic, and Garibaldian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively ? material for a new kind of war epic, in tune with the )] TJ ET BT 356.276 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(telos)] TJ ET BT 378.944 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of liberalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Needless to say, the carnage of the First World War put an end to this fledgling genre, although Adams?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last chapter offers a telling contrast. On the one side we are given C. V. Wedgwood?s )] TJ ET BT 448.256 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Thirty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Years? War)] TJ ET BT 91.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which reflected on the futility of state violence. On the other side, we are accosted by Winston )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s early war reportage, and his post-Gallipoli biography of his ancestor, Marlborough, which revels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the blood and gore of battlefield violence in a disturbingly anachronistic Homeric way. If Churchill rose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the occasion, when the fate of freedom hung in balance, during the ultimate conflagration of 1940?5, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was his sadism, not his liberalism, that fitted him for the job. ?To be blunt, Churchill saw war coming before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others and rose to its challenge, because Churchill wanted to see that challenge, welcomed the exhilarating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence of war in life and art, and clutched at such heroism and such domination as a leader and a historian? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 256\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adams?s book is filled with shrewd and sharp observations like the one just quoted, but in the end it does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not entirely live up to its promise. In part, it suffers from poor organization ? a 57-page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prologue/introduction, which does not so much introduce, as prefigure, the argument of the chapters, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual chapters that are constantly signalling ahead, looking backward, and turning in on themselves. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 280-page book \(plus 13 pages of notes\) Adams is trying to cover so much ground that he is constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jumping from one argument to another \(usually based on contrasts between two or more literary/historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works\). This leaves little space for the kind of exegesis and meta-commentary on specific poems or prose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epics at which he clearly excels, and that his argument requires.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adams has clearly made the right decision to define the modern epic extremely capaciously, so as to include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only poetry but also prose histories and novels, \(although he hints that the novels would require a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate treatment\). But to treat books like J. M. Keynes' )] TJ ET BT 309.800 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic Consequences of the Peac)] TJ ET BT 486.428 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(e, or William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris?s )] TJ ET BT 79.676 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(News from Nowhere)] TJ ET BT 177.680 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as in any sense epic, is to stretch the genre beyond all meaning. Here again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this extravagance is a product of Adams?s restless intelligence and great erudition. There appears to be little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he has not thought about, and even less that he has not read. His chapter sub-titles indicate the range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures on whom he is writing: Franois Fnelon, Alexander Pope, Edward Gibbon, Walter Scott, Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southey, William F. Napier, W. M. Thackeray, T. B. Macaulay, Thomas Carlyle, J. S. Mill, Edward Creasy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. H. Buckle, William Morris, Alexander Kinglake, Thomas Hardy, G. M. Trevelyan, Leo Tolstoy, J. M. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8231 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keynes, Winston Churchill and C. V. Wedgwood. Yet in addition to this epic cast of characters, Adams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives almost equally starring roles to many of the most important intellectuals of the modern age. According )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to my running count, John Milton, Hugo Grotius, Samuel Pufendorf, John Locke, Bishop Bossuet, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dryden, Voltaire, Giambatisto Vico, David Hume, Adam Smith, Edmund Burke, J. J. Rousseau, Immanuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kant, William Blake, Leigh Hunt, S. T. Coleridge, William Godwin, Percy Shelley, Charles Dickens, Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hallam, Alfred Tennyson, John Ruskin, W. E. H. Lecky, George Eliot, Herbert Spencer, Lord Acton, Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adams, Francis Parkman, H. G. Wells, Mikhail Bakhtin, Fernand Braudel, Isaiah Berlin, Hugh Trevor-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roper, John Keegan, S. L. A. Marshall, Elaine Scarry, and Martha Nussbaum all make more than walk-on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearances in Adams?s pages. This is not mere name dropping, since Adams has interesting and original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things to say about many of these figures, but their appearance on so crowded a stage creates frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusion, dialogue that is rushed, and lines that are cut off almost before they have begun.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When we do step back to distinguish Adams?s forest from his trees, we must question his concluding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paragraph, which contends that ?epic survived or persisted or flourished in the modern liberal world and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of liberalism?s profound ethical and intellectual objections, because liberalism still needed and still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs its horrific or sublime, offensive or beautiful drama of domination? \(p. 290\). On the contrary, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adams shows \(at least to this reader\) is that liberals have slowly but steadily striven to put ever increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance between themselves and the Homeric war epic?s blood and gore. If this process has taken an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconscionably lengthy period of time, it is because of 1\) the lingering literary prestige of the classical epic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2\) the repeated appearance of post-liberal critics who have been motivated by disillusionment with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(betrayed ideals and 3\) the ever renewed supply of sanguinary politicians eager to stoke up war fever, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill, or the \(thankfully unnamed\) architects of the 2004 Iraq War, who have clearly served as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muses for Adams?s book. Indeed, to understand why anyone genuinely committed to liberalism can no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer find in the war epic ?the one literary genre supremely dedicated to convincingly representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency??, we need do no more than to turn to Churchill?s insight that ?war, which used to be cruel and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnificent, has now become cruel and squalid: It is all the fault of democracy and science. Instead of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small number of well trained professionals championing their country?s cause with ancient weapons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beautiful intricacy of archaic maneuver ... we now have entire populations, including even women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, pitted against one another in brutish mutual extermination, and only a set of blear-eyed clerks left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to add up the butcher?s bill?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.664 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.664 383.907 m 186.656 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 186.656 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does this mean that the modern liberal world no longer offers any literary genres ?supremely dedicated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly representing agency?? Of course, it does not. However, to find an epic genre that is dedicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to representing agency in organically liberal terms, we need to look beyond the confines of Adams?s book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the authentic liberal epic is the epic of peaceful conquest, of entrepreneurial capitalism, of modernization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and technological development, indeed \(as Churchill might have it\) of scientific discovery and the search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth. Like the classical war epic, this epic of the marketplace ? in goods, in projects, in knowledge and ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? has its own distinctive forms of tragedy and inner contradiction. Yet, to tell the story of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholeheartedly modern epic requires an itinerary rather different from the one that Adams has traced. To be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure, in his capaciousness, he does momentarily glance in this alternate direction, in the context of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Buckle \(chapter four\), who replaces the epic of war heroes with an epic of heroes of intellect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and production, ?scientists, inventors, economists, scientific historians and the like? \(p. 185\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckle?s epic of liberal entrepreneurship/improvement \(in which he assigns himself an implicit part\) does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed represent a full-blown ?liberal? alternative to the war epic, possessing its own counter-logic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle and triumph, hubris and nemesis. It is an epic tradition whose grounding ur-text is not Homer, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Faust legend, haltingly formulated by Marlowe, classicized by Shelley?s )] TJ ET BT 403.304 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prometheus Unbound)] TJ ET BT 508.292 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnificently elaborated in the second part of Goethe?s )] TJ ET BT 305.288 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Faust)] TJ ET BT 332.624 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.624 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.624 131.811 m 349.616 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.616 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Being, at heart, a modern epic, it rises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the 19th century from a work like Samuel Smiles?s )] TJ ET BT 323.324 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lives of the Engineers)] TJ ET BT 430.316 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the American stories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Edison, and John D. Rockefeller, whose heroic feats \(and failures\) have never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properly yet been told. Taking a mythological turn in the operas of Wagner, it is ushered into the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century by the Fabian critiques \(and dramas\) of Shaw. Since then, it has headed in many directions, my own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favorite being Robert Rhodes?s magnificent trilogy on modern physicists and the birth of the atomic age: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Atomic Bomb)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 172.6637 384.2215 186.6557 396.1015 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.6237 132.1255 349.6157 144.0055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 6285 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 40.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb)] TJ ET BT 262.316 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 288.644 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twilight of the Bombs)] TJ ET BT 394.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.328 795.075 m 411.320 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Must we conclude then that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern epic of scientific \(or capitalist\) development necessarily terminates \(like the war epic\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s ?cruel and squalid exercise? in ?brutish mutual extermination?? Does it have sufficient stores of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energy and optimism to accelerate mankind forward to frontiers yet unknown? Adams?s framework provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no basis for answering this question, but it would be churlish to end on a critical note. His rich brew of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry, prose and historical argumentation gives us much food for thought, and inspires us to rewrite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recipe book with a different set of ingredients.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 676.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Immanuel Kant, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perpetual Peace and Other Essays)] TJ ET BT 312.308 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Indianapolis, IN, [1795], 1983\), pp. 107?43; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Condorcet, Selected Writings)] TJ ET BT 205.004 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Keith Baker \(Indianapolis, IN, [1793], 1976\), pp. 209?82; William )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Godwin, )] TJ ET BT 108.680 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enquiry Concerning Political Justice)] TJ ET BT 287.672 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, [1798], 1976\), pp. 506?23.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.316 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.316 615.507 m 523.304 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles J. Esdaile,)] TJ ET BT 152.672 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Napoleon?s Wars: An International History, 1803-1815)] TJ ET BT 425.000 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY 2007\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6?14, 561; David Gates, )] TJ ET BT 183.332 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Napoleonic Wars, 1803?1815)] TJ ET BT 347.996 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1997\), 272; Niall Ferguson, )] TJ ET BT 534.320 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pity of War)] TJ ET BT 119.348 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New York, NY, 1999\), p. 295; Gerhard Weinberg, )] TJ ET BT 374.948 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A World at Arms)] TJ ET BT 455.948 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1999\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 894.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.016 558.483 m 151.004 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Byron, )] TJ ET BT 126.344 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Don Juan)] TJ ET BT 173.336 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. T. G. Steffan, E. Steffan, and W.W. Pratt \(Harmondsworth, 1973\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(46?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 529.971 m 144.332 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winston Churchill, )] TJ ET BT 159.020 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(My Early Life, A Roving Commission)] TJ ET BT 338.348 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New York, NY 1930\), p. 65.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.984 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.984 515.715 m 539.972 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Marlowe, )] TJ ET BT 173.000 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus)] TJ ET BT 364.676 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Northbrook, IL, 1950\); Johan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolfgang Goethe, )] TJ ET BT 155.660 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Faust)] TJ ET BT 182.996 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New York, NY, 1976\), pp. 118?308.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.960 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.960 487.203 m 422.948 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Rhodes, )] TJ ET BT 141.680 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Atomic Bomb)] TJ ET BT 297.332 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New York, NY, 1986\); 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