%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818123251+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818123251+01'00') /Title (Contemporary America: Power, Dependency, and Globalization since 1980) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3813 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Contemporary America: Power, Dependency, and Globalization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(since 1980)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The beginning of the 21st century has, perhaps, been one of the most unsettling in the history of the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States of America. When William Jefferson Clinton left office as president in 2001 he passed on to George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Bush a country at relative peace with the world, with a foreign policy based on co-operation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multilateralism, whilst domestically the federal budget was in surplus for the first time since 1969. America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared to have entered what Charles Krauthammer called America?s ?unipolar moment?, standing astride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world in the wake of its Cold War victory, dominating economically, politically and culturally as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently benign hegemon. It was a period when America?s soft power, as defined by Joseph Nye, was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ascendancy, and most Americans, particularly in the middle, prospered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This would change dramatically during the Bush presidency. The dramatic events of 9/11 shattered that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment; Americans suddenly felt vulnerable to attack on their home soil. The administration responded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launching a prolonged war against terror, which included invading Iraq and Afghanistan. After the initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes, criticisms of the Bush Doctrine would mount. Amongst these would be Joseph Nye, who would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that the Administration?s over-reliance on hard power had resulted in a dramatic decline in America?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soft power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1248)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 10 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Heale)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405136402)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(62.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(326pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Moran)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6987 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Americans began to question their country?s role in the world )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.300 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.300 783.075 m 364.292 783.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 364.292 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the economy would collapse at home, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly caused by the expense of America?s overseas commitments, but more because of the deregulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets and the largest tax cuts in history, enacted by Bush and weighted to benefit the rich to the detriment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the poor. By the time Bush left office, the federal budget had plummeted to deficit levels unseen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America?s history, the gap between rich and poor had widened significantly, and the country?s international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing had fallen such that commentators began to speak of a country in decline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This feeling reflected a National Intelligence Council report issued in 2004 which described a future in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which America would no longer be the dominant power in the world, but rather a strong power amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many, with a shift in global power and influence away from the United States and the West towards the Asia-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pacific region.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.000 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.000 642.771 m 117.992 642.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.992 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This would be a theme picked up by a wide range of commentators, most notably Fareed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zakaria, Niall Ferguson and Nye.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.648 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.648 628.515 m 208.640 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many analysts suggest that China poses the most significant challenge to the USA. It has an economy that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been growing at an average of 9 to 10 per cent for the last three decades, is the world?s leading exporter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its biggest manufacturer, and also holds $2.5 trillion of foreign reserves. Not only is this threatening in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic terms, it is also creating concerns in other ways for American foreign policy makers, not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because China and other emerging powers often have foreign policy preferences at odds with the USA. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brazil and India have sided with China on climate change talks, whilst Turkey and Brazil voted against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America on sanctions against Iran. Furthermore, Fukuyama?s rush to judgement that liberal capitalism had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumphed at the end of the Cold War seems even less likely now, as these emerging powers have political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and cultural views which are not reflected in the USA. China, for example, does not consider the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion of democracy to be a necessary part of its economic or foreign policy agenda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question Heale attempts to answer is: why has this happened? How has the United States of America ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps the most powerful country in history ? found itself in a period of apparent decline? The answers he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives in this wonderfully comprehensive text are both illuminating and challenging.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He begins by exploring the notion that the end of the Second World War ushered in a so-called ?golden age? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of economic prosperity in which the majority of America?s citizens enjoyed the benefits of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth, full employment, and a society structured on consumption. These benefits spread across a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of socio-economic groups, allowing even blue-collar workers to aspire to owning a house, a car, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funding children through college.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This growth, however, hid a structural problem that existed in the American economy, which was that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially insular in nature. Even in 1970, exports accounted for only 8 per cent of GDP. It was effectively a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-sufficient economy. By 2000, exports would make up over 30 per cent of GDP.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Traditional arguments suggest that America?s post-war long boom was shattered by the Great Stagflation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1970s, in part fuelled by excessive overseas commitments and oil price hikes that would produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiralling inflation at a time of high unemployment. In turn this would create the economic malaise of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s typified by the much-maligned presidency of Jimmy Carter, and the conservative backlash of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reagan years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heale instead offers a story of a country out of step with the forces of globalisation, struggling to keep up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the increasing complexities and challenges of a rapidly changing world. Central to this is the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that since the 1970s Americans themselves have struggled to come to terms with the fact that they are no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer masters of their own destiny, Heale suggesting that the USA as a nation has struggled to move from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being largely self-sufficient economically, to one which has been subject to intense foreign competition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both economically and politically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heale sees an early example of this in the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980. Americans, he suggests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned to Reagan ?no so much in a rejection of the 1960s as in an attempt to restore the feeling of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 350.2997 783.3895 364.2917 795.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 103.9997 643.0855 117.9917 654.9655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 194.6477 628.8295 208.6397 640.7095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 6901 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowerment that the 1960s had offered? \(p. 13\), due to ?an unhappy coincidence of a number of domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and foreign crises [rather] than to a resurgent conservatism? \(p. 21\). There was no conservative majority, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather a hankering for security and a sense of purpose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By skilfully combining political and socio-economic history, Heale highlights how since the Reagan years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America has become an increasingly fragmented society, with the divide between rich and poor widening. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, in turn has produced an increasingly polarised electorate, with battle lines drawn between Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Democrat, conservative and liberal. In economic terms, wages have stagnated for many, millions of blue-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collar jobs have moved abroad \(especially in the traditional heavy industries upon which American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosperity was built\), whilst tax cuts have been increasingly tailored to the demands of the wealthy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simultaneously, fault lines have opened over the revival of large-scale immigration which has radically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altered the demographic mix of America, bringing, in turn, a diverse series of challenges. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reagan would claim in his autobiography that his greatest achievements were the tax cuts of 1981 and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tax Reform Act of 1986 which would see the top marginal rate drop from 70 per cent to 28 per cent. But, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heale notes, the trickle-down that he promised did not happen. Tax cuts did not produce increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity, as supply-siders promised, nor did it boost economic growth to increase tax revenues to reduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the budget deficit. Reagan may have promised to balance the budget, but, in fact, during his presidency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America moved from being the world?s largest creditor nation to be the world?s largest debtor, due to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of tax cuts and increased defence spending. All in the space of four years. This would see the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the ?twin deficit? ? the foreign deficit caused by America importing more than it exported, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the federal budget deficit, where expenditures began to outstrip revenues. In turn, this would rapidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase America?s reliance on overseas money, as the government increasingly borrowed from foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is during the Reagan years that we see America attempting to keep up with the challenges globalisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought whilst failing to understand the dangers. Capital was effectively moved out of manufacturing into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service industries and finance with little understanding of the long-term difficulties that this might pose to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the overall economy. His excellent analysis of the Reagan years skilfully demonstrates Heale?s belief that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America?s contemporary history has been shaped by the country?s interaction and relationships with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Heale suggests that the first president to effectively harness the opportunities, and difficulties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalisation presented was Bill Clinton, who pursued an agenda of democratisation abroad to help create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets for American goods, whilst promoting highly-skilled, highly-paid jobs at home. In doing so, Clinton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to move away from traditional politics, arguing for a more progressive ?third way?. This would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involve increased fiscal responsibility, including welfare reform and a failed attempt at healthcare reform. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heale suggests that this progressive agenda was only partially successful because, as Robert Reich observed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the greatest weakness of Clinton?s ?third way? was that it had ?no preexisting constituencies ? no grass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots?. Or, as Heale more frustratedly comments, ?A highly polarized political system was not conducive to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructive outcomes? \(p. 239\). It is perhaps this more than any other observation that highlights the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties the American political system faces today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This polarisation was evident in the initial days of the presidency of George W. Bush, not least because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the controversy surrounding his election in 2000 and his rebranding of Republican policies as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?compassionate conservatism?. The attacks of 9/11 did create a brief unity behind the war on terror, but this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would evaporate as events unfolded in Afghanistan and Iraq. In economic terms, Bush would pass the third-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largest tax cut in history \(in 2003\) whilst ?hollowing out? federal government by increasingly contracting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out many of its duties to private companies ? the latter begun by Clinton but more aggressively pursued by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bush administration. As Heale observes, Republican attempts to tackle big government and to carry on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the agenda Reagan had sought to pursue, seemed to rely on nothing more than handing out federal money to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private businesses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a sense, Heale suggests little has changed in the last 30 years. A March 2010 Gallup poll found 79 per )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 6209 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of Americans were dissatisfied with ?the way things are going?, a figure which was similar to the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s and the early 1990s. The Pew Research Centre also reported that the public?s trust in government was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?among the lowest measures in half a century?, reaching similar levels to those found in the days of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Watergate. In addition, approval ratings for Congress have regularly bumped below 20 per cent during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last five years. Globalisation has undoubtedly been a factor in this, highlighting the limitations of a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system unable to control its borders, struggling to protect its citizens from foreign competition, and polarised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the glare of the 24-hour news cycle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What does this mean for the future? Heale concludes that ?power tends to follow money? and the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model may no longer be as attractive to others because leadership ?seeps away when the wealth goes?. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is unsure whether America is facing an ?end of influence? \(p. 262\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, as Fareed Zakaria has argued, the decline may be relative, and may not necessarily be about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of the United States, and the Western powers, but about the rise of everyone else. In this new world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he suggests, it will be difficult for the West or the United States to assert its preponderance, and it may not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even be desirable given the experience of the Bush Administration. Optimistically, John Ikenberry suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?In this new age of international order, the United States will not be able to rule. But it can still lead?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.624 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.624 571.491 m 556.616 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is clear is that whilst the 20th century lived up to Henry Luce?s claim in 1941 that it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?America?s century?, the 21st is up for grabs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 466.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Nye, ?The future of American power: dominance and decline in perspective?, )] TJ ET BT 450.908 466.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET BT 525.248 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 89, 6 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(November/December 2010\), 12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 223.304 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.304 451.203 m 277.292 451.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 438.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Intelligence Council, ?Mapping the global future?, December 2004, [accessed 1 June 2011]; and National Intelligence Council, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Global trends 2025: a world transformed?, November 2008 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_2025/_2025_Global_Trends_Final_Report.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 394.179 m 431.024 394.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.024 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 448.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 1 June )] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 379.923 m 149.000 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 367.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Ferguson, )] TJ ET BT 129.344 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilization: The West and the Rest )] TJ ET BT 302.012 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2011\);Nye, ?The future of American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power?; and F. Zakaria, )] TJ ET BT 181.316 352.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Post-America World)] TJ ET BT 301.304 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.940 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.940 351.411 m 472.928 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Ikenberry, ?The future of the liberal world order: internationalism after America?, )] TJ ET BT 471.572 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET BT 545.912 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(90, 3 \(May/June 2011\), 56?68.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.664 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.664 322.899 m 265.652 322.899 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 307.567 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 289.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 289.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1248)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 288.393 m 328.316 288.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 263.416 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/16368)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.foia.cia.gov/2020/2020/pdf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.216 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_2025/_2025_Global_Trends_Final_Report.pdf)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.6237 571.8055 556.6157 583.6855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.3037 451.5175 277.2917 463.3975 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 423.0055 223.6637 434.8855 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foia.cia.gov/2020/2020/pdf) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 394.4935 431.0237 406.3735 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_2025/_2025_Global_Trends_Final_Report.pdf) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 380.2375 148.9997 392.1175 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.9397 351.7255 472.9277 363.6055 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.6637 323.2135 265.6517 335.0935 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 288.7075 328.3157 300.5875 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1248) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000004519 00000 n 0000004628 00000 n 0000004738 00000 n 0000004847 00000 n 0000008408 00000 n 0000008536 00000 n 0000008620 00000 n 0000008718 00000 n 0000015758 00000 n 0000015788 00000 n 0000015916 00000 n 0000015952 00000 n 0000015982 00000 n 0000016110 00000 n 0000016146 00000 n 0000016176 00000 n 0000016304 00000 n 0000016340 00000 n 0000016405 00000 n 0000023359 00000 n 0000023492 00000 n 0000029754 00000 n 0000029784 00000 n 0000029912 00000 n 0000029948 00000 n 0000030076 00000 n 0000030131 00000 n 0000030258 00000 n 0000030347 00000 n 0000030474 00000 n 0000030594 00000 n 0000030721 00000 n 0000030776 00000 n 0000030904 00000 n 0000030959 00000 n 0000031087 00000 n 0000031142 00000 n 0000031270 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31366 %%EOF