%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140831003808+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140831003808+01'00') /Title (Revolution and World Politics: the Rise and Fall of the Sixth Great Power) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5066 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Revolution and World Politics: the Rise and Fall of the Sixth Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Power)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution is a phenomenon that has haunted the pages of history, whether as reality or as a Spectre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conjured up by Karl Marx. Of late it has traveled far and wide, and Fred Halliday has followed it to far-off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places - Cuba, southern Arabia, Iran - in the quest of history in the making. Among the many revealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points he takes note of are the names that men have given to it \(pp. 29 ff\). Greeks spoke of )] TJ ET BT 471.932 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stasis)] TJ ET BT 498.608 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 'standing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up', or )] TJ ET BT 67.172 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(neoterismos)] TJ ET BT 125.168 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 'innovation'. India's patriots, with no native term of their own, borrowed an Arabic word, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquilab, 'a turning'. We even learn the Quechua term employed of late by Peruvian Indians for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sendero Luminoso)] TJ ET BT 123.680 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 'Shining Path', - )] TJ ET BT 208.676 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(q'eqikuy)] TJ ET BT 248.564 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. There is little point in hunting for a general theory to explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions at large, Halliday feels \(184-5\). What is called for is the study of particular cases: each has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of its own, though features common to a number of them are often to be found. His leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern is with international factors. Insurgent leaders have often hugged hopes of world-wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflagrations to be kindled from their own bonfires; at times exaggeratedly, but it remains true that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('revolutions are always in some degree international events' \(6\). Both they and their opponents, the 'status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quo powers', have found arguments to justify intervention as well as propaganda \(14-15\). They have sought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a famous phrase of the 1790s, to 'export revolutions' - or counter-revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halliday sets the boundaries of successful modern revolution at 1789 and 1989, when Soviet power )] TJ ET BT 514.616 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abdicated \(130\). True revolutions have been 'relatively rare events' \(310\). They have taken place in countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already embarked on social-economic advances, but still at an early sage \(326\). For Halliday their era ended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in effect as early as the defeats of 1848-49, even though the greatest of all revolutions was yet to take place. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History had not come to an end, but the day of the barricade was over. As a veteran of 1849, and a student of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military history, Engels had an inkling of this before his death in 1895, and was groping for a substitute. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Marxism that did most, as Halliday writes, from the 1840s, to give modern concepts of revolution a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(125)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fred Halliday)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victor Kiernan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7201 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct shape \(40\); it 'recognized the centrality of revolutions in the formation of the modern world' \(321\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their function was to clear away the dominant classes now out of date, and open the way for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors, along with new 'modes of production'. Halliday does not forget Sorel's eight-volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration of how much litter of the Ancient Regime had survived the whirlwind of the 1790s, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visibly in foreign policies and diplomatics, and in the officer corps. Still, the essential work had been done.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the American War of Independence valuable and perhaps decisive aid was given to the rebels by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France. There had been many earlier attempts by France or Spain to stir up or support Irish or Highland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellions against England. Now was the grand success, France's revenge on England for its gains and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France's losses in the Seven Years' War of 1756-63. For this satisfaction the monarchy was to pay a heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(price. It was the cost of the war, and its subversive effect on French public opinion, that in 1789 compelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the government to hold the first general election since 1614, and thereby inaugurate the Revolution. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of time such moves on the chessboard as the French aid to General Washington became familiar, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might come to look perilous to those who made them, as well as to their opponents. Halliday has much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say about all this, and the 30,000 French muskets shipped across the Atlantic before the battle of Saratoga )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(184\); he couples with it a much later gamble, the German government's sending Lenin back to Russia in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917 in the famous 'sealed train'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1789 and its sequel have been hailed by many historians as the archetype of 'bourgeois revolution', fitting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the Marxian classification as one that transfers power from a landed aristocracy to industrial capitalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which in turn, by calling into existence a large working-class, will prepare the way for proletarian revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and socialism. But 'bourgeois revolution', it has become necessary to recognize, is a far from adequate title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by itself, and needs many refinements. Revolt by the better-off peasants, or rural middle class, compelled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new government to abolish - with no great alacrity - the old feudal dues. It is doing too much credit even to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jacobins, the extremists of the 'official' Left, to say that they were trying to 'turn French society upside-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down' \(261\); they did indeed want to give it a good shaking up, and some were genuine idealists, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common run of them were middle-class property - owners and hunters of government jobs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where the men of that time were true iconoclasts was chiefly in wanting to sweep away customs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions which had long been out of date, but which the supposedly all-powerful monarchy had failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolish. Free of these encumbrances, the way would be open for capitalism to expand and flourish, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was not how contemporaries expressed it: they talked abstractedly of Liberty, like Congressmen at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington today. They aimed at a complete reshuffling of the infrastructure, as well as of ideas; their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horizons were those of intellectuals. Weights and measure were standardized for the whole country, under a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decimal system which Britain was to adopt a couple of centuries later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France's new politicians overflowed with colourful rhetoric, alarming to the comfortable classes )] TJ ET BT 497.756 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everywhere. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attacks on Church and monarchy were painful shocks to conservative feeling, not among Catholics only. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1792 France was attacked by an ill-framed alliance of Continental states, joined next year by Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others. In September 1792 the French won an unexpected success at Valmy. France was being pushed into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most extreme phase of the Revolution, under the Convention and the 'Terror', and the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructed its generals to catty out sweeping anti-feudal reforms in all occupied territories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France remained a republic of sorts until the end of the century, and continued to proclaim its liberating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals abroad. It failed, as Halliday says, to live up to its fraternal idealism in practice; it was only in much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later days, when other countries in or outside Europe were ready for revolutions of their own, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of France could become a true inspiration \(103\). Under Napoleon's sway French conquests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to carry the doctrines of modernism far and wide. One of them was the duty of all men within his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach to submit to conscription. Joseph II of Austria, who died in 1790, has been called the 'Revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor'; he closed monasteries, granted religious toleration, and plunged into a long, useless war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon may deserve the same title; and Halliday sees the French Revolution as coming to an end only at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waterloo \(224, etc.\). Yet on his last battlefield Napoleon seems to have suffered from as many misgivings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the Jacobins lurking in Paris as about Wellington. Clearly 'revolution' can have many meanings.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7148 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In any case, as Halliday observes, currents of counter-revolution, national or international, have bee 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal accompaniment' of revolution \(207\). That great game of musical chairs, the Congress of Vienna of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1814-15, restored much of the old order as it could. But much was beyond restoration, and after 1815 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary thinking, and sometimes shooting, continued to circulate, in spite of all efforts by the 'Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alliance' of reactionary regimes and their police. Everywhere there were parties or movements ready to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them up, and individuals like Mazzini to idealize them and give them a more Romantic colouring. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hobsbawm has spoken of a loose 'Liberal International' at work. A Socialist International would be ready )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before long to supplant it. In Paris in 1848, besides a pallid imitation of 1789 there was a rising of hungry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers; it was crushed without delay by the army, but prophetic of a long future. Halliday points out that an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original concept of 'revolution' as circular repetition was giving way to thought of continuous progress, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its 'ever unresolved combination of deterministic and voluntaristic elements' \(36\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1789 had been a shift of class power, and a bringing up to date of machinery of government; 1917 was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first attempt, in the wake of a disastrous war, at fundamental social change, a leveling of all classes. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik leaders were dreaming of an upheaval spreading, as Halliday emphasizes, to the whole world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(103\). They needed this in Europe, at least, to rescue them from isolation; but Europe after three years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senseless destruction was unequal to the effort. It was morally exhausted, and many of those who might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joined in were dead. When in 1920 a Polish attack instigated by the Allies was thrown back, an attempt was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made to carry the struggle into Poland, and the revolution with it. Polish peasants might be expected to hail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this as a liberation, but they did not, and any thought of further such attempts had to be abandoned. One may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recall a scene in Moliere of a man beating his wife, a stranger intervening, the wife making common cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with her husband.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some moves on the world scene - Khruschev's foray into Cuba the boldest, or most reckless - may have )] TJ ET BT 534.764 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to compensate for the shortcomings at home. Halliday remarks that it was the sluggish Brezhnev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who proved the readiest to challenge the hostile West \(109, 139\), by building up the navy and taking sides in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign feuds. He was happiest, it appears, when driving in the fast cars presented to him; it may have given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him a pleasing illusion of the Soviet Union still moving at full speed, when in reality it was stagnating. Yet it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be said - Halliday does not say it clearly enough - that wherever Russia showed itself in the outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, it was still consistently on the side of progress, while Communist China was sometimes, and the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost invariably, on the wrong side. This was so even near the end, in Afghanistan, where feudal reaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fanaticism, sustained by opium-growing and smuggling, were backed by arms from America, passed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with additions by Pakistan. A pathetic glimpse in a news-reel, as the Taleban closed in on Kabul, was of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls in a high school, to whom education was opening the door to a better life, lamenting that soon their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school would be closed and they would be sent back to the kitchen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halliday gives way too much at times to the temptation to make the most of the 'terrible crimes' of Marxism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in power \(41\). He does not notice nearly as much as he might have been expected to the blemishes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism realm, where so many dozen governments have made torture a routine item of their methods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruling. Hitler and Franco and Pinochet are only very briefly mentioned. Westerners manage to forget what a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ghoulish age they have been living in, by getting a Jinn to transport its crimes eastward and dump them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inside the Soviet frontier. A time may come, nevertheless, when the Soviet Union is looked back on as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanity's greatest effort to build a world fit for human beings to live in.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halliday questions whether the collapse of Communism constituted a 'revolution' \(51ff.\). He thinks not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because its opponents wanted nothing more than to ape the West. They brought about only chaos, ruled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vultures in search of pickings. There was no rebellion against communism, only an example of how a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society may simply run down, peter out from inanition, lack of defenders, in a new era where the soil it grew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from, the air it breathed, no longer exist. Such a fading-out overtook, much more quickly, the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth, and may today be overtaking another Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renewed Soviet interest in revolutionary movements abroad, and readiness to assist them, accompanied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flaring up of resistance to Western imperialism in the Third World. Khruschev at great risk saved Cuba from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7084 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further direct efforts at invasion, and then from the effects of economic blockade. Washington soon found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another target in Vietnam: again Moscow played an important play in foiling it. Cuba did not shrink from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing its call to other fettered peoples to rebel, or from giving them active help. Halliday makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realistic appraisal of how much Fidel Castro was able to achieve abroad; it was not negligible, and stretched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over thirty years \( 118 ff, 141\). When Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as President in 1994, Castro was 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly honoured guest' \(123\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With Iran we come on another minor country that has dared to defy the wrath of Washington. Halliday is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(unlike his present reviewer\) an expert on the Iran of our time. His very favourable estimate of its progress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the fall of the monarchy in 1979, is likely to surprise most readers, who will have heard little about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iran except for the Salman Rushdie affair \(50-1\). After all, very few regimes anywhere, which have made a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion their chief plank, have deserved to be called progressive, from any common-sense point of view. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halliday might have given more detail \(he has done so elsewhere\) about the Khomeini movement, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance about how the clergy are recruited, and the social differences within their ranks. They are described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here as well organized, through the 'mosque network', with funds from the merchantry, and with a strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist spirit \(188-9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist China's appearance on the scene, under Mao's erratic guidance, brought in a new force. In its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first three decades it showed, in Halliday's view, a real wish to promote revolutionism outside \(113\). It must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be said on the other hand, though it was seldom recognized by Maoists at the time, that the new China's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy was always thoroughly self-regarding and opportunist. This fact ought to have been made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear quite early by the close entente with Pakistan's series of right-wing military dictators \(Communism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banned from the start\), - and through them at times with America - , against a very much more progressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India. It was this that led Washington on by degrees to the happy thought of 'playing the China card against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had Russia and China held together, the world would now be a very different place. But China was soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging Russia for the leadership, while trying in the early 1960s to push Moscow into the post of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger by advocating a bold atomic confrontation with America: Halliday understates this \(113\). There was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unseemly competition in collecting satellites; China was in a hurry to become once more the 'Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom', the centre of civilization. Halliday is noticeably more lenient to China's faults than to Russia's; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though Roderick MacFarquhar's latest volume \(1997\) shows that the costs in human life of the Great Leap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forward, and then the chaos of the Cultural Revolution, were on a terrific scale. Of these catastrophes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first at least began with promises of prosperity; the second seemed to show Mao pledging his people to a life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of perfect equality, and holy poverty. It may be no wonder that the abandonment of socialism has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submitted to so meekly; or that Peking could soon feel free to launch an armed attack on, of all countries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam. There were of course centuries for both sides to look back on of Chinese attempts to subjugate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was a time, in the far-off 1920s, when capitalism, even in the United States, seemed to have lost its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansionist urge, as Communism was to do later. Halliday sees that it was jerked back into life by America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the early challenge of the Soviet Union and its Five Year Plans \(155\). He sees also that however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions turn out in the end, they can 'effect permanent change in societies'. Thus the French Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('transformed European and world politics', and the Soviet enterprise has left behind it at least a potent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory \(336\). Revolutionary communism was moreover a challenge to the Western empires, and 'helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bring about the end of colonialism' \(202\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally Halliday can say that capitalism, thus stimulated, has shown more ability than Marxism allowed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to remodel itself, or its disguises, both economic and political \(321-2\). But there are many more pitfalls for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today's glossy version to sink into. Halliday argues that economic failure in Russia and China was due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('endemic corruption and low morals' \(281\). This sounds almost laughable, when every day's news brings its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fresh budget of scandals high or low among our own financiers, businessmen, politicians, military men. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins to seem that the machinery of modern life simply cannot run without the lubricants we hear of, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more and more copious greasing of palms. When no one can trust anyone else, 'Things fall apart' indeed. It is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2907 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not hard to guess that the ultimate cause of capitalism's demise may be this gangrene of egotism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dishonesty. And this may leave any possible successors with an insoluble problem of rebuilding.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The French Republic was almost brought down by the Staviski scandal, the discovery of huge bribery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians by a foreign swindler, and the furious rioting it provoked in Paris. There could not be a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time to read and profit by this unusual book, covering or at least visiting so many far-apart places and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoints. Any reader, whatever he may agree or disagree with, will be able to find rich fare in it. Halliday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is interested in the role of guerrilla warfare in modern times, all the more because it may be waged by parties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of either Left or Right. He has many comments to make on other scholars who have worked in his field; one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is Theda Skocpol. He discusses the shallow thinking of a man like Kissinger , all the more dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because blind to 'any causation of revolutions by the social and economic structures of society' \(292\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A searchlight on the state of affairs in Halliday's world now has been the thunderous demonstrations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoked by police conduct into rioting, against the World Trade conference at Seattle in early December )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999. It was a revelation of the strength of feeling against 'globalizing', the new title for the rule of multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national corporations. Popular instinct is reacting against it as Hamlet did to the Denmark or world of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time - 'It is not nor it cannot come to good.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 527.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 509.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 509.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/125)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 508.473 m 322.316 508.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 483.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/725)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 508.7875 322.3157 520.6675 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/125) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000005783 00000 n 0000005892 00000 n 0000006002 00000 n 0000006111 00000 n 0000009672 00000 n 0000009800 00000 n 0000009884 00000 n 0000009949 00000 n 0000017203 00000 n 0000017268 00000 n 0000024469 00000 n 0000024534 00000 n 0000031671 00000 n 0000031755 00000 n 0000034715 00000 n 0000034843 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34938 %%EOF