%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417164445+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417164445+01'00') /Title (The City-State in Europe, 1000-1600 Hinterland, Territory, Region) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4330 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The City-State in Europe, 1000-1600 Hinterland, Territory, Region)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitherto, the historiography of ?city-states? has in general not been comparative, preferring to focus on one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city, or one region, rather than taking a European perspective. However, the book under review intends to fill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this gap and provide a basis for further discussion as to the nature of the city-state in Europe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.276 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.276 243.417 m 493.268 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 493.268 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city-states were to be found mainly in a belt stretching from northern Italy, through the Alps and southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, to the Low Countries, and these regions are accordingly the focus of this study, although there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also some discussion of outliers such as Barcelona, Dubrovnik, and Novgorod. City-states in Italy and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts north of the Alps had different origins, and also divergent forms of political and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation. The Italian city-states initially arose in ancient cities, most of which were also the seats of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishoprics, which administered spiritually, even if in no other way, some of the surrounding countryside. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The city-state in Italy grew out of a need to control the sources of food supply in the hinterlands, and most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian cities and city-states became wealthy because of trade. In the north, in contrast, most city-states were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively new foundations, and generally not coterminous with ecclesiastical boundaries; while northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities were also concerned with ensuring supplies of subsistence items, many northern cities? wealth was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based rather more on trade in locally produced goods, as well as textiles produced in their hinterlands, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than on long-distance trade and banking, as was the case in Italy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1252)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 17 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Scott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199274604)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shami Ghosh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 479.2757 243.7315 493.2677 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8333 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Italian city-states came into being earlier than their northern counterparts, with communes starting to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed in the 11th century; these were also much larger in population than contemporary northern cities. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the initial expansion, the extent of the cities? territories tended to coincide with the areas where they got their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food supplies from, though Scott points out that this was not the case with Venice, Genoa, Milan, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence ? surely rather significant exceptions. Cities also invested in the countryside to increase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity and improve the flow of goods, not just from the countryside to the city, but also on routes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-distance trade. Inevitably, cities tended to come into conflict with rural landlords, but in Italy, the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often themselves became citizens and moved into the cities and entered their politics, something that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened rarely in Germany and the Low Countries \(though the largest northern city-state, Bern, long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained dominated by landed aristocrats and agrarian in its economic base\). The defining aspect in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external political life of the cities \(at least in Italy\) between )] TJ ET BT 320.960 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 326.288 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1150 and )] TJ ET BT 376.616 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 381.944 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1300 was the conflict between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor and pope, in which the cities became embroiled not least because of their efforts to retain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence from both; this larger struggle was generally inextricable from the clashes between cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. The reasons for desiring expansion in this period are not examined in much detail by Scott, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have to do not least with the growing populations of the cities, as well as their need to secure trade routes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and supplies, which often necessitated either taking over the competition, or entering into a federation or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(league of some sort \(more common north of the Alps than in Italy\). Italian cities also often freed the serfs in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their hinterlands; Scott rightly stresses that this was not because of any democratic instinct, but simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because serfs did not pay taxes, and the cities wished to increase their tax base. This is another \(unexplained\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference between north and south: German cities did not tend to free serfs in their hinterlands, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains unclear why in some instances feudal levies, and elsewhere taxes, were seen as more beneficial. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differing means of control might have been one factor; the prior history of landholding and serfdom in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside must surely also play a part, though that is something that takes us far beyond town?country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the Italian city-states expanded, they also lost their quasi-democratic character, succumbing to dynastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule ? something that never happened in the long term in northern cities, which remained controlled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(admittedly limited and often inbred\) oligarchies. Between )] TJ ET BT 318.644 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 323.972 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1200 and )] TJ ET BT 374.300 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 379.628 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1300, city-states of a different sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from those in Italy came into being in the Low Countries and in Germany. Here domination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterlands often tended to take the form of granting citizenship rights \(which also meant acquiring some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdictional rights over them\) to )] TJ ET BT 198.344 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ausbrger)] TJ ET BT 249.008 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 265.004 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(buitenpoorter)] TJ ET BT 331.004 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? ?outburghers? ? and controlling rural craft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production \(and often trade as well\). While crafts were restricted in the Italian countryside too, the symbiosis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of town and country in the putting-out system was much stronger in the north than in Italy, and outburghers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the non-nobility were hardly known in the south. In Italy, city-states often founded new, free cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? )] TJ ET BT 42.344 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(borghi nuovi )] TJ ET BT 107.012 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 120.008 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(borghi franchi)] TJ ET BT 189.680 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? in which new settlers from the countryside would be granted freedom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(rural settlers in established cities did not enjoy this privilege\); in the north, city-states were not only not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for new urban foundations, they also normally ruled over no subordinate towns of significance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their hinterlands. In the north, particularly in Germany, there was an early tendency ? much stronger and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often longer lasting than in Italy ? for towns to form self-help leagues, ranging from the Wendish League or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Rhenish Town League to the Hansa, though only one such association eventually evolved into a coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overarching polity itself, namely Switzerland. While the motivation to form leagues was something that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived, the leagues themselves were often short-lived, and were intended to be so. Nevertheless, this seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to indicate either less competition between city-states, or at least a greater ability to overcome such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition, than was the case in Italy; Scott does not provide any explanation for this difference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central sections of this book are two long chapters on the south and the north in the later Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1300?1450\), a period which might be \(and has been\) seen as the apogee of the city-state in Europe. Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities continued to expand, which often resulted in the consolidation of several city-states into one larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entity; this in turn tended to be characterised by dynastic rule, and by a complete and often heavy-handed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance of the rural hinterlands. In the same period there arose a system of public finance based on public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt, again a peculiarity of the Italian cities \(at least in this period\). There were differences between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian cities too: Genoa, for example, was more interested in ensuring the viability of trading outposts than )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7795 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in acquiring a very large hinterland, in contrast to, say, Florence; Florence and Milan were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domineering over the cities they conquered than was Venice; in general, Tuscany, although later falling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely under Florentine control, was characterised by fewer challenges posed to each other by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various city-states than was the case in Lombardy ? a difference Scott believes probably has to do primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with topography. In all cases, this was a period of aggressive expansion, often by means of war; in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method of expansion, the Italian city-states are similar to those of the Swiss confederation, but differ from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their German and Flemish counterparts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the north, the chronology of expansion was, to use Scott?s term, ?compacted?, with little taking place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before )] TJ ET BT 67.664 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 72.992 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1300 and after )] TJ ET BT 148.304 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 153.632 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1500, whereas in Italy it was a much longer process. The importance of leagues did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not diminish, culminating in the rise of the Swiss Confederation. Some cities in the north \(Cologne; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augsburg\) never formally acquired territories, but were nevertheless, because of their economic clout and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence, their size, and their considerable economic dominance over their hinterlands, ?indubitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city-states? \(p. 130\), a judgement that might lead some to wonder what exactly it is that makes a place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserve to be called a city-state; for Scott, dominance over a rural hinterland, even if neither jurisdictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor political, seems to be sufficient. Northern cities also continued to extend citizens? rights to rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dwellers, though as Scott points out, this has little to do with anything like an end to feudalism: there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blanket extension of citizenship and abolition of serfdom. There are significant differences between northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions: in the Low Countries, the major cities were relatively close to each other, and did not have to deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the sort of overwhelming aristocratic power in the countryside that most German cities faced; they also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never developed the kind of aggressive military policies of the Swiss cities. They tended to expand by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquisition of outburghers and jurisdictional rights, including the rights to control markets and control trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their hinterlands. While the German cities also acquired outburghers, in northern Germany many cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired hinterlands through mortgages, and later also by individual purchases of citizens. In southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, individual purchase tended to be combined with large-scale corporate acquisitions, generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat disguised, as lands were acquired by urban hospitals under the control of town council. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern German cities tended to be more interested in their immediate victualling needs and their trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(routes; the Flemish, and particularly the south German cities, in contrast, were increasingly dominating their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterlands through the putting-out industries that rose to prominence from the 14th century. Many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German cities, particularly in the south, were advantaged by their ?free imperial? status; they had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overweening noble lords to contend with, though in their expansion into the countryside they came into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent conflict with the nobility, particularly with regard to the contested jurisdictions arising from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchase of land but not necessarily personal jurisdiction, and the freedoms granted to outburghers that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermined the claims over them of their personal lords \(Scott believes, however, that the extent of conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been exaggerated by earlier scholarship\). All over Germany, urban patricians also bought land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individually, and there was a trend of such persons rising into the ranks of the country nobility or at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retiring into a )] TJ ET BT 102.344 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rentier )] TJ ET BT 138.008 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifestyle \(this might have merited further attention that it receives\); many purchases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had been individual holdings were ?silently absorbed into the council?s collective overlordship? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150\), a development Scott does not examine, nor indeed explain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, there seems to be no way to bracket German cities under one common denominator with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their policies ? something which is, however, roughly true of Italy as well. One thing the German cities had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in common that differentiates them from Italian cities was the defensive nature of their policies: they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely aggressively expansionist, but rather more concerned with securing trade routes and market rights, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as controlling the growth of rural industry to their advantage. Partly for this reason, Scott believes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they, unlike Italian city-states, should be seen less as areal territories than as associations of a more personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or corporate nature. The divergence from this northern pattern was provided by the Swiss cities, which did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue an aggressively expansionist policy, for reasons that are not entirely clear; in many cases, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion was largely brought about by military means. The Swiss cities also, rather like their Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts if in different ways, but unlike the German and Flemish cities, pursued policies of ?maximizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenue while hobbling the rural economy? \(p. 173\), largely through heavy taxation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the late 15th and 16th centuries, the Swiss cities survived ?by attraction?, in Scott?s phrase, coming )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7769 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together to ensure their survival; while many southern German cities might have wanted to join the party, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most could not, and the causes for this might merit further analysis \(the Reformation is surely not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient cause, despite Scott?s suggestion at p. 197\). Other cities ? notably Antwerp ? survived by working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out power-sharing arrangements with rural lords. In Italy, many city-states adopted a more monarchical form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of rule, which is one reason why many feel that they might no longer merit the term ?city-state?, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott is surely right to point out that this is hardly a sufficient criterion by which to decide whether or not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term is legitimate. Scott makes the important point that apart that from a few isolated cases ?no European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city-state ?disappeared? in the sense that it was stripped of its territory? in the 16th century, or indeed until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much later in many cases \(p. 193\). This may be true, but it is also a matter of definitions: were the ?city-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states? of the Swiss confederation still city-states by 1600? Clearly, they retained a great deal of autonomy; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly also, they were subordinate to a larger polity. Similarly, the city-state of Florence became the Duchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Tuscany; Scott is of course right that viewed from one perspective, the Duchy of Tuscany was still in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways the city-state of Florence. But what, precisely, is the difference between a city-state ruling its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterland, and a principality dominated by a capital city?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott concludes that it is not possible to propose any ?overarching template of the city-state in medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe which would embrace both north and south? \(p. 234\); from his exposition, it is clear that no ideal-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type of a city-state can find a reflection in the realities of this period. Scott believes, correctly I think, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best means of understanding and comparing city-states is to examine them within the framework of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions with hinterland, territory, and region, and in this framework he finds four kinds of city-states: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those that dominated hinterlands, but acquired no territory; those that used jurisdictional as well as economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to dominate their hinterlands; those that had territories in often distant places \(city-empires like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Genoa\); and those that acquired territories in their hinterlands. Scott concedes that those city-states that came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under dynastic rule might have pursued a more aggressive territorial policy, though he correctly points out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Swiss cities were very aggressive while remaining non-dynastic. This makes it rather hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalise about the form of the city-state on the basis of internal politics, and is an issue that might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthy of more detailed study. In both instances, however, primarily commercial concerns ?came to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlaid and relegated by fiscal, military, and administrative considerations? \(p. 239\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At a broader level, there are four areas in which north and south differed: the role of the Church; the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landownership; rural citizenship; and jurisdiction. In the north, there was no congruity between the diocese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the city-state: bishops tended to be expelled in the north, and where they were not and remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful, cities tended not to become city-states. \(This assumes that control over the countryside exercised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a bishop whose seat is in a city ? Salzburg, for example ? disqualifies that city from being called a city-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state; this is an ecclesiastical lordship, which cannot, in Scott?s terms, be coterminous with a city-state. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some might find this view in need of further justification than this book provides. Of course Salzburg was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not ruled by a town council; nor was the Duchy of Tuscany or even the early city-state of Florence.\) In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south, while bishops lost their power to rule cities, the territories were initially established within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of, and using many of the jurisdictional rights vested in, existing dioceses. The second difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is more difficult, as bourgeois landownership in the countryside was ubiquitous across Europe. In the north, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities took different routes to dominating the countryside, and the landownership of individuals often had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little to do with the eventual dominance of the city-state; there is, however, no consistent pattern to this. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy, bourgeois landownership seems to have been more closely related to urban policies of expansion, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had also the overall effect of destroying economic independence and prosperity; this is something that relates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely to the rise of sharecropping on large farms \(the )] TJ ET BT 299.288 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mezzadria poderale)] TJ ET BT 394.280 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), which was generally unknown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the north, and thus not discussed by Scott. As we have seen, the third divergence emerges quite clearly, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that commoners in Italy almost never achieved citizenship, whereas they did so quite often in many northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions. Finally, Italian city-states achieved complete jurisdictional dominance over their hinterlands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that did not happen north of the Alps ? but, as Scott stresses, did indeed happen )] TJ ET BT 470.984 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 480.320 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the Alps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely in the Swiss city-states.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is an excellent survey of an important topic in medieval European history, and will prove very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful for both scholars and students who wish to look at the city-state in comparative perspective. Its )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8343 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conciseness \(there are just 240 pages of text; though the bibliography of almost 700 items is another very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful aspect of this book\) is in many respects a great virtue. If it was the author?s purpose both to present a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey and, in doing so, to provoke some questions, he has done so very effectively. Some of the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arising have already been posed above, but I should like to conclude by raising a few more questions. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not, however, intended as criticisms of this book: it is clear enough that Scott did not intend to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answers to these questions, though given his expertise and past publications \(these are certainly issues he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed with a great deal of insight earlier, albeit with regard to a single region\), one might wish that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had tackled them at some length. We have already seen that the form of internal political organisation does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not directly correlate with the emergence of a \(particular sort of\) city-state. But how do extrinsic political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors affect the nature of the city-state? In fact, is it not legitimate to ask if this might be a key to whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or not one can define a polity as a city-state? If a city-state is simply a city that dominates its hinterland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should we not find that \(southern\) England was \(and is\) part of the city-state of London? London clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised \(and exercises\) both economic and political dominance over a large region, and had \(and continues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have\) a massive influence on lifestyles, economies, prices, supply-lines, demographic and settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns ? and is also the centre of governance. And that last is perhaps why London is not a city-state: it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital instead. But then why cannot Florence by the late 16th century be similarly called the capital of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuscany, rather than calling Tuscany all a part of the Florentine city-state? \(It might be an unfair remark, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I cannot help wishing that in a book about the ?city-state?, there had been some discussion of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes a ?state?; without understanding this, how can we understand what sets a city apart from a city-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state?\) Scott believes that city-states emerged from ?an existential need to harness the resources of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterlands? \(p. 236\); there existed, however, other ?cities as poles of demographic concentration? \(p. 236\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that did not seem to have any such existential need, or at any rate, not to such an extent that they became city-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states: this is something that requires some further explanation. What is it that made some regions more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prone to this form of urban control over food supply than others? I suspect that the wider political context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had an important role to play in this. It seems to me that the forms of external political organisation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergent effects of these need a good deal of further analysis, as they surely relate to the success, size, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the city-state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A related and even broader issue, and one that Scott has cogently addressed in earlier publications )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.584 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.584 398.163 m 521.576 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 521.576 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do with the place of the European city-state \(however broadly or narrowly defined\) within the larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives of state formation and the transition to capitalism. These are aspects of the city-state that have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been variously addressed for individual regions, and Italian city-states have figured prominently in narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the rise of early commercial capitalism or \(more recently\) the ?undevelopment? of capitalism; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly, the city-states of the Low Countries have also been claimed as motors of transition, and a recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph has called Bruges the ?cradle of capitalism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.288 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.288 312.627 m 319.280 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 319.280 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet in the longer term, the earliest places where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism seems to have emerged are generally thought to have been England and the Netherlands \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is a consensus that might also need some questioning\), and England seems to have been most successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in establishing, earlier than elsewhere in Europe, a strong and centralised state. Did the differing forms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city-state have anything to do with these diverging outcomes? How much does England?s precocity ? if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed England was as precocious as is normally assumed ? relate to the ?city-state-ness? of London, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exerted a huge influence on its hinterland in many respects?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.620 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.620 227.091 m 335.612 227.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 335.612 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Equally important is the issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharecropping and the nature of the rural economy in the hinterlands: sharecropping was rare in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterlands of the northern cities \(though it was by no means unknown in the north, albeit in less debilitating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms than in Italy\), which were characterised by putting-out, by intensive cash-cropping, and by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly commercialised agriculture that responded to demands arising from the cities, but was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly controlled by them, in the manner that the Italian countryside appears to have been. Where did these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences arise from, and what consequences did they have on long-term divergences between Italy on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one hand, and southern Germany and the Low Countries on the other? The form of the city-state and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectory is clearly one of the elements that must be brought to bear on any comparative analysis of long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term economic change. Although these issues are scarcely present in this book, Scott has given us an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent, very stimulating starting point, which any future effort to examine economic and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation from the Middle Ages to modernity will surely want to take account of.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.5837 398.4775 521.5757 410.3575 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.2877 312.9415 319.2797 324.8215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.6197 227.4055 335.6117 239.2855 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 4339 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers may also wish to read Scott?s article on the Italian city-states, which provides in very concise )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form some of the arguments contained in this book, as well as a detailed historiographical critique: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Scott, ?A historian of Germany looks at the Italian city-state?, )] TJ ET BT 390.308 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Storica)] TJ ET BT 424.976 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 47 \(2010\), 7?59.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.296 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.296 715.299 m 550.292 715.299 l S BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 701.043 m 78.008 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am thinking primarily of his second monograph: )] TJ ET BT 306.668 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regional Identity and Economic Change: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Upper Rhine, 1450?1600)] TJ ET BT 185.672 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1997\), but other works are also pertinent, including his first book: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freiburg and the Breisgau: Town ? Country Relations in the Age of Reformation and the Peasants? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War)] TJ ET BT 84.680 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1986\); and in particular two recent articles: ?The German Peasants? War and the ?crisis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of feudalism?: reflections on a neglected theme?, )] TJ ET BT 302.624 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Early Modern History)] TJ ET BT 461.948 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 \(2002\), 265?95; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?South-west German serfdom reconsidered?, in )] TJ ET BT 315.620 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forms of Servitude in Northern and Central )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe: Decline, Resistance, and Expansion)] TJ ET BT 278.648 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Paul Freedman and Monique Bourin \(Turnhout, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005\), pp. 115?28.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.340 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.340 586.995 m 208.328 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebecca Jean Emigh, )] TJ ET BT 169.988 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Undevelopment of Capitalism: Sectors and Markets in Fifteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tuscany)] TJ ET BT 104.012 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, PA, 2009\); James M. Murray, )] TJ ET BT 323.660 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bruges)] TJ ET BT 357.656 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(: Cradle of Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 466.004 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 544.227 m 149.000 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See e.g. Bruce M. S. Campbell et al, )] TJ ET BT 241.664 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Medieval Capital and Its Grain Supply)] TJ ET BT 438.992 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \([London], 1993\), for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an example of one way in which London influences its hinterland.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.632 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.632 515.715 m 435.620 515.715 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 500.383 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 482.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 482.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1252)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 481.209 m 328.316 481.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/17252)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.2957 715.6135 550.2917 727.4935 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 701.3575 78.0077 713.2375 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.3397 587.3095 208.3277 599.1895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 544.5415 148.9997 556.4215 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 381.6317 516.0295 435.6197 527.9095 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 481.5235 328.3157 493.4035 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1252) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000582 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000005053 00000 n 0000005162 00000 n 0000005272 00000 n 0000005381 00000 n 0000008942 00000 n 0000009070 00000 n 0000009154 00000 n 0000009183 00000 n 0000009311 00000 n 0000009347 00000 n 0000009412 00000 n 0000017798 00000 n 0000017863 00000 n 0000025711 00000 n 0000025776 00000 n 0000033598 00000 n 0000033696 00000 n 0000042092 00000 n 0000042122 00000 n 0000042250 00000 n 0000042286 00000 n 0000042316 00000 n 0000042444 00000 n 0000042480 00000 n 0000042510 00000 n 0000042638 00000 n 0000042674 00000 n 0000042793 00000 n 0000047185 00000 n 0000047313 00000 n 0000047368 00000 n 0000047494 00000 n 0000047549 00000 n 0000047677 00000 n 0000047732 00000 n 0000047859 00000 n 0000047914 00000 n 0000048042 00000 n 0000048097 00000 n 0000048225 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48321 %%EOF