%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826060620+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826060620+01'00') /Title (Oliver Cromwell: God's Warrior and the English Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4206 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell: God's Warrior and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Gentles? book \(a welcome addition to the )] TJ ET BT 255.308 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British History in Perspective Series)] TJ ET BT 430.628 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( edited by Jeremy Black\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the first new biography of Oliver Cromwell in many years. The book contains significant new research, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Professor Gentles presents us with a far more in-depth picture of the private and public life of Cromwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than have previous biographers. It does not break much new ground from a historiographical perspective, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his credit the author does try to infuse his new biography with the work of previous scholars. The book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal for students and the general public and should be used as a good introduction to the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That we now know more about Cromwell than we did even ten years ago is down not only to a renewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in the man, but to the tremendous hard work of a growing number of historians. The work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Barclay has given us a far clearer picture of Cromwell?s early political life, while John Morrill and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his team of historians and researchers are working on new critical editions of Cromwell?s collected works.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recently I asked Professor Gentles what motivated him to do this biography. He replied: ?I am fascinated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell, and believe that I understand the ?inner man? better than most historians, especially his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, which is of such key importance in understanding him. Finally, I believe I had some original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information and insights to impart. Through my research in the Close Rolls \(NA, C 54\) I turned up material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on his personal finances of which no one else was aware. I am also the first person to draw public attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1254)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 17 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Gentles)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780333688960)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Livesey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6869 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the ?Fleetwood Chest?, his wedding gift to his daughter Bridget, now held in the Collins Barracks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum in Dublin. I believe also that I have successfully interwoven his political and military careers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown how they were interconnected, and influenced each other?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite this, Gentles still feels the need to justify the need for a new biography in his foreword, arguing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new evidence he alludes to above should throw up new interpretations and to a certain degree this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a slightly new interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gentles is a skilled and thoughtful historian. He is Professor of History at York University?s Glendon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(College and at Tyndale University College. Most of his academic career has concentrated on the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, on which he has written numerous articles as well as four books including this one.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.308 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.308 657.027 m 506.300 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This Cromwell biography manages to strike a balance between Cromwell?s public and private life, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to my mind Gentles concentrates too heavily on Cromwell?s military career to the detriment of spending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more time on his political activities. He does present a ?warts and all? picture of Cromwell, but also attaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance to recent research on Cromwell?s practice of lay preaching and his significant patronage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arts. To his credit he does attempt to counter the old picture of Cromwell as a dour and cultureless figure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gentles spends time on his new research into Cromwell's pay as a soldier, in chapter ten asking if Cromwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?was a greedy puritan?. Gentles is accurate in his assertion that many modern day historians have paid little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to Cromwell?s economic position or for that matter even his personal finances. Gentles is correct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he implies that Cromwell was not guided solely by money in his social and political actions. In fact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many occasions he cancelled debts and on more than one occasion financed military operations himself ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the occupation of Ireland. Cromwell was not alone in doing this as other major republican figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Henry Marten did the same.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has become part of modern revisionist historiography to play down the link between a person?s economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status and their political persuasions. I am not saying that their exists an umbilical cord between the two, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that historical figures like Cromwell were not motivated into action by their religious and ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions, but I do insist as Nick Beams eloquently put it ?that it is necessary to examine the motives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind the motives ? the real, underlying, driving forces of the historical process and to make clear the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests served by a given ideology ? a relationship that may or may not be consciously grasped by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual involved?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.016 350.163 m 150.008 350.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gentles is perceptive enough to grasp the importance of the work of historians such as Robert Brenner, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while being critical of Brenner?s ?social interpretation? he acknowledged that a study of mercantilism would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhance the theory that the there was a transition from feudalism to capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He goes on to make the key point that:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The new-merchant leaders and their radical allies among the City?s shopkeepers, mariners and artisans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were at the height of their power in the early years of the revolution, 1642 and 1643. Simultaneously they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued their anti-Spanish offensive in the Caribbean and launched a policy of imperial conquest against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. Indeed, in Brenner?s candid portrait of these men, nothing comes across so clearly as the brutal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buccaneering character of early-modern mercantile capitalism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.908 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.908 185.859 m 353.900 185.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gentles does spend a large amount of time on military matters. He acknowledges that Cromwell had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal military training. Gentles, it seems, does not rate him highly as a military figure which is a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange because if you read Royalist supporting military historians like Peter Young you get a much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurate picture of Cromwell?s military prowess.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three aspects of Gentles? historiographical proclivities come to the fore in this biography. He does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribe to a ?Three Kingdoms? approach to the English civil war ? as Jasmin L. Johnson wrote, contained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within this approach ?is a tendency to bounce back and forth from country to country and from campaign to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign, causing confusion and obscuring the effects that developments in one theatre of operations might )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.3077 657.3415 506.2997 669.2215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.0157 350.4775 150.0077 362.3575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.9077 186.1735 353.8997 198.0535 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 6883 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have had on the others?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.320 795.075 m 164.312 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, while taking on board some aspects of revisionist and post-revisionist historiography, Gentles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres Cromwell?s life as part of a ?people's revolution?, indicating that the influence of Marxist historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Christopher Hill and Brian Manning is not entirely dead. Professor Gentles is one of the few modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day historians who does not downplay the influence that groups such as the Levellers had. Gentles does offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fresh insight into the complex relationship between Cromwell and Leveller leaders such as John Lilburne. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact contrary to modern historiography Gentles offers a description of Cromwell being a far more radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure than has previously been thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, and perhaps more controversially, where Gentles does subscribe to one aspect of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography is when he describes Cromwell belonging to a ?Junto?. The definition of junto is ?a group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men united together for some secret intrigue?, with the champion of this new historiography being John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adamson. The main theoretical premise of his book, )] TJ ET BT 289.316 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Noble Revolt)] TJ ET BT 372.644 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is to put forward a view of the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War as basically a coup d?tat by a group of nobles or aristocrats who no longer supported the King. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Diane Purkiss these nobles were ?driven by their code of honour, they acted to protect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves and the nation. Names such as Saye, Bedford, Essex and Warwick move from the side-lines to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupy centre stage, as do their counterparts among Scottish peers. It was they and not the rude masses who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plucked a king from his throne. Oliver Cromwell, for Adamson, was merely one of their lesser lackeys?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The more you get to know Gentles? work the clearer it becomes that he is attempting to take a middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground between the modern-day revisionist historians and an older more left-wing historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While not rejecting the idea that Cromwell was part of a ?Junto?, I think far more work is needed to either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove or disprove this thesis. After all Cromwell had a series of alliances throughout his career. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paraphrase Lord Palmerston he had no permanent alliances but only permanent interests. Gentles' biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not go into too much detail on this, but maybe in the future he will.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Martyn Bennett in his review I have a major disagreement with Gentles last sentence, in which he sums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up Cromwell?s life by concluding \(to quote Bennett\): ?after an incredibly perceptive journey through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s life, Gentles concludes that Cromwell?s ?achievements were chiefly destructive?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.920 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.920 378.675 m 500.912 378.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutions by their nature are destructive but out of that destruction hopefully something new and better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arises. In the case of the English revolution we witnessed allbeit slowly the transition from feudalism to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism. Cromwell whatever his faults played an extremely important role in that process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I will leave it to others to decide whether Cromwell?s adventures in Ireland are a blot on his record as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gentles suggests, but he does make some interesting points, arguing that Cromwell's overriding concern in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland was the neutralisation of Royalist threat, and that the attack on, and massacre of, Catholics was a by-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of that action. Cromwell?s hatred for Catholicism was prevalent amongst the rising bourgeoisie of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 17th century. He further suggests that Cromwell played a key part in the development of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, I would recommend this book to general readers and more academically minded students, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an intelligent and well researched introduction to Oliver Cromwell. It has extensive footnotes and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lengthy bibliography, a good list of abbreviations, a detailed index, good maps and battlefield plans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is only inevitable that Gentles revisits similar areas to other historians such as Christopher Hill, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morrill and Barry Coward, but whether or not this biography transcends those written previously, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly a valuable addition to the literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 64.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 64.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Model Army in England, Ireland and Scotland, 1645?1653)] TJ ET BT 392.336 64.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1992\); )] TJ ET BT 476.996 64.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldiers, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 50.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writers and Statesmen of the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 297.344 50.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1998\); and )] TJ ET BT 418.328 50.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Revolution and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 36.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Wars in the Three Kingdoms, 1638?1652)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.3197 795.3895 164.3117 807.2695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.9197 378.9895 500.9117 390.8695 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 2911 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 795.075 m 196.328 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nick Beams, ?Imperialism and the political economy of the Holocaust?, lecture delivered 12 May )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 766.563 m 145.004 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Gentles, ?A new social interpretation ? review of Robert Brenner, )] TJ ET BT 400.928 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Merchants and Revolution)] TJ ET BT 528.248 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Left Review)] TJ ET BT 144.680 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 207 \(1994\), 103.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.672 738.051 m 284.660 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jasmin L. Johnson, ?Review of Ian Gentles, )] TJ ET BT 277.988 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Revolution and the Wars of the Three )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingdoms, 1638-1652)] TJ ET BT 170.684 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET BT 182.012 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(H-War)] TJ ET BT 215.336 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(February 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.648 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.648 709.539 m 353.636 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martyn Bennett, ?Review of Ian Gentles, )] TJ ET BT 264.644 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell: God?s Warrior and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET BT 75.344 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 111.344 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 97, 326 \(April 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.668 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.668 681.027 m 273.656 681.027 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 665.695 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 647.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 647.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1254)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 646.521 m 328.316 646.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 621.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/17259)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 795.3895 196.3277 807.2695 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 766.8775 145.0037 778.7575 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.6717 738.3655 284.6597 750.2455 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.6477 709.8535 353.6357 721.7335 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.6677 681.3415 273.6557 693.2215 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 646.8355 328.3157 658.7155 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1254) >> endobj xref 0 47 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000560 00000 n 0000000642 00000 n 0000004900 00000 n 0000005009 00000 n 0000005119 00000 n 0000005228 00000 n 0000008789 00000 n 0000008917 00000 n 0000009001 00000 n 0000009099 00000 n 0000016021 00000 n 0000016051 00000 n 0000016179 00000 n 0000016215 00000 n 0000016245 00000 n 0000016373 00000 n 0000016409 00000 n 0000016439 00000 n 0000016567 00000 n 0000016603 00000 n 0000016694 00000 n 0000023630 00000 n 0000023660 00000 n 0000023788 00000 n 0000023824 00000 n 0000023854 00000 n 0000023982 00000 n 0000024018 00000 n 0000024137 00000 n 0000027101 00000 n 0000027229 00000 n 0000027284 00000 n 0000027411 00000 n 0000027466 00000 n 0000027594 00000 n 0000027649 00000 n 0000027777 00000 n 0000027832 00000 n 0000027960 00000 n 0000028015 00000 n 0000028143 00000 n trailer << /Size 47 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28239 %%EOF