%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150703020919+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150703020919+01'00') /Title (Poverty, Gender and Life-Cycle under the English Poor Law, 1760-1834) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4269 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Poverty, Gender and Life-Cycle under the English Poor Law, 1760-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1834)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In essence, Williams? monograph examines the poor relief given to individuals and families during the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the old poor law in one Bedfordshire parish, namely Campton. The book starts with a by-now-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar account of the origins and policy innovations of the old poor law, highlighting how the difficulties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its administration and the overall increase in poor relief expenditure during its final decades were used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Royal Commission to develop the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. While the story is familiar, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version draws out effectively three critical themes. The first is how ?generous? the old poor law was towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief claimants. In particular, this argument has hitherto been made through the comparative analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular monetary ?pensions?, or allowances, historians ? most notable Steve King ? noting that the south and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(east was, compared to the north and west of England, ?generous?. Second, Williams notes that there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered and ?life-cycle? dynamics to the receipt of poor relief too. For instance, it is now well known that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproportionate numbers of female widows, made up relief roles compared to other groups. Following from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowntree?s ?discovery? of life-cycle poverty, poor law historians, including myself, have been inspired to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigate the exact moments in peoples? lives when they received poor relief and what possible socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, demographic and policy-related factors could have prompted it. Williams? third theme is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?economy of makeshifts?, a concept which has now generated a substantial historiography, the concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informing many studies of poverty. Instead of dogmatically focusing on the assistance given by statutory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1255)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 17 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samantha Williams)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780861933143)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(204pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samantha Shave)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief, such histories of )] TJ ET BT 146.996 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the poor)] TJ ET BT 187.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have concerned themselves with the provisions of the church-based charity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pawnbroker, and the profits of the prostitute and tea leaf, amongst other avenues of support. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all themes, in addition to paying the poor rates, which Williams explores in forensic detail through the lens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of life in Campton.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although only one parish, Campton contained two distinct communities: one rural, Campton itself, the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?urban?, the market-town of Shefford. So distinct were these communities that parish officials administered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief to each one in differing ways and relief accounts were kept in separate books. It is thus understandable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why Campton was chosen. This was a complex and richly documented parish. Its archive allows for close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative analysis of poor relief levels and dynamics, as well as comparisons of the alternatives beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vestry pay table that were available to the poor. The different employment opportunities offered in each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campton community also offer interesting economic dynamics, whilst many women and children of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities would sell their own plaited straw goods at Shefford market. These points are made in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter of the book, alongside a detailed analysis of the populations of Campton and Shefford. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification used for focusing upon Bedfordshire is less effectively realised. Williams states that it is ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly appropriate county to study? because ?it was one of the counties in which both contemporaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians believe parish allowances to have been widespread?, which was thought to have been the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause of the increase in the poor rates prior to 1834. Indeed, it was an early innovator in Speenhamland-style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowance systems and was one of several ?Speenhamland counties? as identified by the 1824 Select )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee on Labourers? Wages. While it is now realised that such systems were commonly used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allocate relief by parish officials throughout the midlands and south of England, the 10 per cent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals so relieved in Bedfordshire in 1831 was actually rather low compared to most other counties in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the depressed south and east. Indeed, the proportion of the Bedfordshire population receiving any form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief was, compared to other southern and eastern counties, relatively low \(p. 21\). Such an analysis, being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on such government-commissioned snap-shots, is necessarily partial, and levels of relative poverty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between counties probably fluctuated markedly in the late-18th and early-19th centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main expense of Campton parish came not from the totemic un- and under-employed agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worker but instead from the payment of pensions. Williams discerns that while the scope of welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spending widened, and over the period the proportion of money spent on pensions declines, pensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(payments accounted for 70 per cent of relief costs. Useful graphs in chapter two \(p. 37\) illustrate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spending on poor relief increased between the late 1760s and 1830, this dynamic being especially dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the rural portion where expenditure increased ten-fold. There were, of course, peaks and troughs in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenditure that are explained by virtue of periods of particular hardship during the agricultural depression. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using parish reconstitution and poor relief records to create relief biographies, Williams links the poor relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receipt to over one thousand families and individuals residing in the parish of Campton as a whole. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outline details of this linking process are provided in the text \(pp. 30?4\), the methodology?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortcomings are relegated to the footnotes ? where we are also directed to the voluminous works of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure on reconstitution. In this sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams?s approach is far from novel, but her findings do throw light on some important dynamics. The life-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycle analysis detailed in chapter four demonstrates that elderly individuals and couples, families, lone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents and orphans made up approximately 85 per cent of regular relief recipients \(p. 101\). In some ways, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parish appeared to be ?generous? with these regular pensions. Pensions increased in value up to 1820, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more likely to be received by lone female parents and older people, and for lone parents were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given over extended periods and were worth 37 per cent more than family allowances. Older men, women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and couples received a pension which equated to 62 per cent of the household income of a Campton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labouring family not in receipt of poor relief, and lone men and women also fared relatively well, receiving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sums worth 45 per cent. Couple-headed families ? the typical labouring class family ? were less likely to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in receipt of a pension, their allowances often ran for a limited duration and were worth just 29 per cent of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labouring family?s income. As such, Williams sees Campton parish as being less ?generous? than initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed. The relative paucity of support for couple-headed families in the parish ? this being largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined to years of chronic distress, the food crisis of 1799?1802 and the nadir of the post-Napoleonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depression between 1815?22 ? she argues, casts some doubt over the position, taken by some economic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7528 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians that the destitution of labouring-class families was the cause of the increase in poor rates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, Williams asserts, ?allowances to married couples with children ... were relatively short and low in cost to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parish? \(p. 162\). With this in mind, the author asks how parishes dealt with the increase in demand for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief from these families as a result of the under- and unemployment of agricultural labourers in the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the old poor law. Parish officials? attempts to ?tighten up? relief provision are littered throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book. They were keen to remove people who did not have a settlement \(chapter three\), and from 1810 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief provision in kind was reduced and medical contracts and infirmary subscriptions were established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter two\). After 1815, large numbers of men and adolescent boys did receive occasional relief due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment, this duly impacted on the straw-plaiting industry where due to women?s narrowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities to labour in the field, straw-plaiting became considered as women?s and young girls? work. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, many adolescents who would have returned to this employment in the winter months, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could not work the fields, went without a wage. Allowances to ?make up? adult men?s pay can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found recorded in overseers? accounts and parish-based employment schemes came into use. These were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either agricultural-based tasks, such as weeding, grubbing and stone-picking, or were road-building based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasks, such as digging, moving and sieving gravel. The notorious ?roundsman? employment system, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereby male labourers were sent around principal farms to undertake tasks that supposedly would not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completed by the employer?s regular workforce, was also used in both communities, albeit only for brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods. As Williams details in chapter five, other parish policies and schemes were applied with neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more nor less tenacity during this period, but were still necessary, if usually irregular, elements to families? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies of makeshift. Parish-employed carers and nurses, for instance, were, so Williams?s reconstitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data shows, were not necessarily poor relief recipients.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond the copious detailing of the nature and dynamics of poor relief provision, two sections of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are more notably distinctive: the analysis of poor ratepayers \(in chapter three\) and the analysis of charity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision \(in chapter five\). As Williams states, we ?still know little about ratepaying, the proportion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish paying the rate, the wealth distribution of ratepayers and their familial characteristics? \(p. 71\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author links the details of surviving poor rate books of Shefford \(1803?20\) to the family reconstitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records to produce ratepayer biographies to cover each of these areas. Between 15.4 and 20.6 per cent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population in Shefford were ratepayers, and including dependents, it is estimated that between 30 and 40 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of the residents were in rate-paying families. In addition, one fifth of ratepayers also claimed relief at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some point in their lives, sometimes poor relief being claimed simultaneously as the payment of poor rates. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charitable provision, so it is shown, was more concentrated in the market town compared to the agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(district of the parish, charities providing very little assistance to defined groups of individuals and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families. Williams? finely-grained research has also revealed that few people received poor relief and charity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money in the same year. This suggests that the recipients of charity were different from those who obtained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief, and although it could be seen as form of social control ? obtaining it meaning that the recipient was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected to conform to set codes of behaviour ? Williams argues that it created a ?hierarchy of resort? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitated ?local status and belonging? \(p. 154\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few parishioners were housed in poorhouses in either community, although the archive did not permit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any precise account. Williams therefore asserts that they were of little importance in either community, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stating ?these were more like modern council houses than workhouses, and those accommodated were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually transient and expenditure on them small, never exceeding 6 per cent of total spending? \(pp. 35?6\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other Bedfordshire parishes, though, significant proportions of the relief receiving community were offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and accepted indoor relief \(pp. 51?3\). Using the notebooks and estate papers of the local justice of the peace, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel Whitbread \(MP for Bedford Borough from 1790\), it becomes clear that workhouses were an area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular local concern. Indeed, whilst calling for improvements to labourers? homes and parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodation, he reserved particular criticism for the management of workhouses, his critiques forming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basis for a Bill as how to better regulate workhouses which he presented to parliament in 1807. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary attempts at poor law reform also extended to plans for expanding the amount of money to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent on the poor and for a free school system \(p. 93\). Thomas Gilbert?s Act of 1782 that allowed parishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to combine in the provision of supposedly better regulated workhouses being another example of local )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3858 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns generating national ? and nationally adopted ? policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, this book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the nature of the old poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law, as well as the complexity of the many local dynamics in its operation and the importance of differing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household survival strategies for the agricultural poor. Only Williams?s careful, forensic approach allows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her to defiantly make such claims. For this alone, the book has to be essential reading for all poor law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists and welfare historians. There is, however, one important note of caution that must be sounded, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual point that extends to many recent studies of the old poor law. How far we can, as poor law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, extrapolate conclusions from the study of one parish, one town, one city? Necessarily, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expediency and the variable quality of the archive determines that we adopt some sampling framework, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choosing one or a handful of parishes for intensive study. Once determined, we raid the archive of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen parish/es and scour every relevant extant document ? overseers account books, vestry minute books, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bastardy and settlement examinations ? linking them to other documents such as census returns and quarter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sessions minutes to provide a rich local account that highlights complexity. But, and here I sound a note of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caution, we must engage with the more conceptually-driven literature which considers how we extrapolate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the local. Barry Reay?s )] TJ ET BT 175.316 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Microhistories)] TJ ET BT 245.984 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the most emphatic ? and therefore obvious ? source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspiration here, being footnoted by Williams on page one, and Postan?s idea of ?microcosmic? history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects \(versus ?macrocosmic? subjects\) is also mentioned in passing. But it is not clear how microhistory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the microcosmic have influenced this work ? how they have informed the selection, research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the two communities. This being the case, what Campton adds beyond nuance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological inspiration to the regional, let alone, national understanding of poor law practice, policy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects is illusive. This book might have been the ideal opportunity to engage conceptual innovation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological innovation in poor law studies, but, as it stands, work remains to be done.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 468.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 450.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 450.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1255)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 449.193 m 328.316 449.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 424.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/17263)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 449.5075 328.3157 461.3875 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1255) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000571 00000 n 0000000653 00000 n 0000004974 00000 n 0000005083 00000 n 0000005193 00000 n 0000005302 00000 n 0000008863 00000 n 0000008991 00000 n 0000009075 00000 n 0000009140 00000 n 0000016901 00000 n 0000016966 00000 n 0000024547 00000 n 0000024631 00000 n 0000028542 00000 n 0000028670 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28766 %%EOF