%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 31 0 R 45 0 R 75 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150630085235+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150630085235+01'00') /Title (This Seat of Mars: War and the British Isles 1482-1746) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4384 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(This Seat of Mars: War and the British Isles 1482-1746)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Carlton?s lively and readable book is an attempt to discern ?how war ? affected the history of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Britain? \(p. xx\) between the battles of Bosworth \(1485\) and Culloden \(1746\). The latter, as the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle fought on British soil, marks an evident terminus; but Bosworth is a less than obvious place from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to start, notwithstanding Carlton?s protestations that it marked ?the end of a military and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system that has been described as feudalism? and that ?the battle completed the building of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation? \(p. 3\). The former seems simplistic, while the latter ignores scholarship on the contested nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishness in the sixteenth century or the extension of the Tudor state over its borderlands.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.628 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.628 186.393 m 489.620 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 489.620 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in two parts, one looking at the impact of war at what Carlton calls the ?macro? level \(p. xx\), a chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of wars, battles , the growth of the navy \(from Tudor times\) and of a standing army \(from the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century\) and their inter-relation with the state. The second, ?the micro effect? \(p. xxi\), examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of war on individual soldiers and sailors. In an interesting attempt to connect these two approaches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are interleaved, so that a first chapter on early Tudor warfare from a macro perspective is followed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on the experience of soldiers joining and training; the macro-level chapters proceed chronologically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while thematic chapters on the experience of soldiering follow the life-cycle of a soldier \(and, more rarely, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sailor\) from recruitment through motivation, campaigning and killing, to discharge \(or death\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1256)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Carlton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300139136)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Atherton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.6277 186.7075 489.6197 198.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8494 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chronological accounts provide a standard narrative of military engagements, great and small \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly the former, with maps detailing the deployment of forces at the battles of Bosworth, Edgehill, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marston Moor, Naseby, the Boyne, Blenheim, and Culloden, and during the Armada\) with brief accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each battle that do little to explain why a battle was fought, why one side won, or the consequences of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement. Warfare is seen in very personal terms ? Henry VIII?s ?craving for honour? \(p. 10\), Charles I?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to teach a rebellious subject a lesson determining his attack on Gloucester in 1643 \(rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any strategic role the city may have had as a route between the king?s headquarters in Oxford and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruiting grounds in south Wales\), or the role of the duke of Marlborough enabling Britain?s ?magnificent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance? during the War of the Spanish Succession \(p. 216\). Here, Carlton?s book resembles many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other armchair studies of decisive battles, the heroic deeds of great men, and the less than heroic exploits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the incompetent, a traditional military historiography that goes back to Julius Caesar. This approach is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married by Carlton to more recent trends in military history, including an attempt to assert the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare and military developments to social and political change. Without the great expense of Henry VIII?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars, which forced the crown to call parliaments to raise taxation, England may ?have followed the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Spanish model by becoming absolutist? \(p. 19\), a judgment that ignores Bourbon and Habsburg paths to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute rule through the costs of war and greatly increased military establishments. The broad outlines of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlton?s argument are shaped by earlier work on state building and the military, but unlike Wheeler or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Braddick, for example )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.656 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.656 540.723 m 158.648 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.648 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Carlton places the key changes in the late 17th and early 18th century, not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1640s and 1650s. For Carlton, it was the Glorious Revolution that ?virtually completed the formation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British state?, helped consolidate an empire, and ?made a standing army acceptable for both civilians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers? \(pp. 231, 233\). For those versed in recent historiography, Carlton draws too straight a line from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1688 to 1707.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.352 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.352 483.699 m 114.344 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.344 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, though the aim is stated to be the history of warfare in the British Isles, this is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-centric history, with little place for intra-Irish or intra-Scottish conflicts. The 16th century is seen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of England?s wars. There is nothing here on the militarization of Gaelic society with its kerne and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gallowglasses, or of military ventures by the Scottish crown against the clans of the highlands and islands, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the impact of war on the Scottish crown. Carlton?s account does show, however, significant military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in the late Stuart era including the decline of cavalry warfare, a standing army with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalized officer corps, the replacement of pikes with bayonets, and the adoption of platoon firing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a corresponding dramatic increase in infantry fire power \(kill ratios rose from one fatality per 250?400 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rounds fired to a chilling one enemy killed for every 15 musket balls fired at Malplaquet in 1709, p. 225\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are similarities between his arguments and those of Black for a military revolution in the century after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1660 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 341.139 m 75.008 341.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 75.008 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but Carlton does not draw the parallels. Indeed, he eschews all discussion of a military revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?fruitless? \(p. 276, n. 106\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interleaved with Carlton?s chronological account is a social history of warfare in the tradition of the ?new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military history? examining the impact of warfare on soldiers. This is ground that Carlton has successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tramped before in his influential account of the experience of war during the British civil wars )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.260 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.260 272.115 m 503.252 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.252 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; here he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reprises some of the arguments and examples \(and some of the chapter and section titles\), but greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expands the analysis to cover more than two centuries of fighting and killing. Carlton?s main sources are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(236 printed memoirs and diaries from combatants, from the memoirs of Captain Elis Gruffudd?s service in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calais and northern France in the 1520s, to Lt-Col Edward Windus?s experiences in 1746. Most relate to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period between the Thirty Years? War and the War of the Spanish Succession; most are from soldiers rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than sailors; almost all were written by officers; only two are by women. From these, Carlton assembles a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treasury of stories and quotations about recruitment, training, the boredom of garrison duty, the fear and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement of battle, the pain of being wounded or captured, the bitterness of defeat, the joys and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointments of demobilization. Added to these are numerous literary sources \(a quotation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shakespeare heads each chapter, and frequent use is made of ballads and plays to examine civilian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressions of the military\). Where the chronological chapters emphasise change, these thematic chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stress continuity, with quotations from all periods covered mixed together. Carlton defends this approach on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grounds that ?Fear felt no different at Bosworth Field \(1485\) than it did at Culloden \(1746\)? \(p. xix\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Carlton goes much further, frequently drawing parallels between early modern and modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of warfare and using evidence from the latter to illuminate the former, so that comparisons are )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.6557 541.0375 158.6477 552.9175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.3517 484.0135 114.3437 495.8935 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 341.4535 75.0077 353.3335 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.2597 272.4295 503.2517 284.3095 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 8727 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn between Ireland in the 1640s and the Eastern Front in the 1940s, or between slaughter at Flodden and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1914?18 trenches, and evidence of the psychological impact of combat from Normandy and Burma in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1944 is used to explain the experiences of Edmund Ludlow after Edgehill. Carlton used this methodology in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Going to the Wars)] TJ ET BT 122.348 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and as with that work, some readers will be troubled by the lack of chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specificity, and may feel that the evidence Carlton presents of the changing face of battle might suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the psychology and experience of combat are not unchanging. Fear might have been affected by a soldier?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations of death \(Carlton argues that soldiers facing platoon volleys were more than five times more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to be killed than those facing other systems of musket fire, p. 225\), or by religious belief. Religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plays a shifting role in Carlton?s argument. While the Reformation is said to have produced 150 years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious wars, religion is seen as playing ?little part? in persuading men to fight \(p. 19\), and Carlton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereafter ignores the possibility of religious motivation, even though others have argued for the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of religion in making the English fight the civil wars from some of the same evidence, such as the letters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nehemiah Wharton \(wrongly ascribed by Carlton to Henry Foster, p. 26\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.620 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.620 624.003 m 401.612 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.612 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Carlton seems uneasy on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place of religion: to make the argument that that it is all-too possible ?to exaggerate the role of religion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making men fight? he approvingly quotes Richard Baxter that the soldiers of the New Model Army had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?little religion? \(pp. 76?7\), but elsewhere, to show that combat changed men, he quotes another army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chaplain, William Erbery, that the New Model was ?the army of saints? \(p. 154\). Nevertheless, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlton?s extensive research in soldiers? memoirs that forms one of the strengths of this book, for it allows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author to portray a wide range of military experiences across the life-cycle of a soldier in vivid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chilling detail and gives the book an immediacy that traditional military history often lacks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A further aspect of Carlton?s methodology and argument stands out: his frequent analysis by statistics to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(codify military change and military experience. The nature of naval dramatic naval change in the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century is demonstrated by ratio of weight of canon to weight of vessel, which increased from 3.7 to 7.3 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent \(p. 43\); the militarization of society is suggested by the statistic that 30 per cent of the leading literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures of the period served as soldiers \(p. 20\); two-thirds of the cost of the navy in the 1590s was offset by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crown?s profits from privateering \(p. 46\); a typical soldier during the War of the Spanish Succession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could expect to spend 45 per cent of his time in garrison or on leave, but when campaigning to march 11.25 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miles a day \(p. 96\), at a time when the desertion rate was only 5 per cent a year, desertion when living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among a foreign, hostile population proving unattractive \(p. 107\); only 2.2 per cent of casualties at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malplaquet were inflicted by bayonet \(p. 171\); in 1644 the survival rate of wounded soldiers at St Bart?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospital was better than at St Thomas?s \(13.6 per cent dying at the former, 23 per cent at the latter, pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(244?5\); Queen Anne?s soldiers were due rations of 4,800 calories a day, a total of 245,274 tons of food for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and horses, requiring up to 441,339 tons of shipping \(p. 103\). Carlton acknowledges the speculative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of many of these statistics \(e.g. pp. 53, 150, 261?2\), but the exactitude with which they are given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveys an air of unwarranted precision. Nonetheless, they represent a handy way of trying to pin down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the themes of the book about the impact of war on early modern Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two categories of statistical evidence stand out as the most significant parts of the book: the attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantify participation in the military, and death rates. Carlton calculates that between )] TJ ET BT 445.952 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 451.280 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1586 and )] TJ ET BT 504.608 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 509.936 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1603, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(537,288 English and Welsh men saw some military service, which he estimates to be 55.6 per cent of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(males in the kingdom between the ages of 18 and 39 \(pp. 54?5\). Some observations may be made about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlton?s figures. First, he suggests that the population of England at the end of Elizabeth?s reign was 3.9 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million, whereas Wrigley and Schofield?s estimate for 1603 was 4.2 million.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 402.980 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 402.980 186.579 m 416.972 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 416.972 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Second, Carlton?s figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for military service include Welshmen \(and others have argued for significant numbers of recruits from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales fighting in Ireland during the 1590s\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 244.988 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 244.988 158.067 m 258.980 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 258.980 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but Wrigley and Schofield exclude Wales from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculations: including Wales would add a further 380,000, bringing the combined population to 4.5 million.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 129.555 m 48.008 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Third, more than half of Carlton?s total, 306,000 men, only saw service in the trained bands, militia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudal levies; very few of these undertook more than a few days training a year, so that elsewhere \(when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering how soldiers learned their trade, for example, p. 32\) Carlton tends to dismiss the militia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trained bands. Fourth, Carlton?s proportion is based on adult males under 40, but service in the militia was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretically compulsory for males up to the age of 60. All these factors suggest that Carlton?s claim that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?During the last third of Elizabeth?s reign over half of English males saw some form of military service? \(p. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.6197 624.3175 401.6117 636.1975 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 402.9797 186.8935 416.9717 198.7735 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 244.9877 158.3815 258.9797 170.2615 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 129.8695 48.0077 141.7495 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 10514 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(263\) is an exaggeration, and that the form of service of most of those was pretty cursory. On the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hammer has suggested that 275,000 men served outside the realm in a military or quasi-military capacity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1586 and the end of Elizabeth?s reign, against Carlton?s estimate of 231,000, to which he adds a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further 110,000 for the trained bands and quasi-feudal levies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.284 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.284 752.307 m 347.276 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.276 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Carlton?s figures may be inflated \(and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure of around a 20 per cent of adult males serving in a military capacity at the end of Elizabeth?s reign, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 25 and 30 per cent if the trained bands are included, might be more representative guesses\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlton?s work does show the staggering military commitments of Elizabethan England in the 1590s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second category of statistical evidence that stands out is Carlton?s work on death rates, revising and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extending similar work he undertook for the civil wars. In )] TJ ET BT 314.972 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Going to the Wars)] TJ ET BT 403.304 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he suggested that 190,000 died )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England, 60,000 in Scotland and 618,000 in Ireland, representing population losses of 3.7, 6.0 and 11.6 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent respectively. Here, Carlton revises the number of deaths in England to 230,441 and in Scotland to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(92,751, mainly by assuming slightly higher numbers who succumbed to disease. After criticism that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier estimates for Ireland were far too high )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.612 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.612 612.003 m 274.604 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.604 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Carlton has revised downwards his figures for Ireland \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line with the upper estimate of Lenihan\) to 325,000 deaths, representing population losses of 4.6 per cent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, 9.3 per cent in Scotland \(both the text at p. 150 which gives a figure of 9.7 per cent, and table 5 at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.2 per cent, are in error\), and 20.6 per cent in Ireland, or 8.6 per cent across the three kingdoms, making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British civil wars ?the bloodiest conflict in British history? \(p. 151\). His methodology is extended to all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English conflicts before 1603 and British ones thereafter, suggesting 1.2 million Britons died in wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1485 and 1746, half of them during the civil wars, and 60 per cent of them across the period from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and Scotland \(pp. 262-3\). At times, Carlton?s comparative approach may seem unsophisticated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his account of major battles old-fashioned, but his researches vividly bring to life the experience of fighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in early modern Britain, suggest the significant military commitments undertaken by the English and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British crown, and above all demonstrate the slaughter of those wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Fletcher, ?The first century of English Protestantism and the growth of national identity?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and National Identity)] TJ ET BT 210.356 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Studies in Church History, 18\), ed. S. Mews \(Oxford, 1982\); P. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schwyzer, )] TJ ET BT 117.332 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literature, Nationalism and Memory in Early Modern England and Wales)] TJ ET BT 474.656 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004\); S. Ellis, )] TJ ET BT 139.028 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tudor Frontiers and Noble Power: The Making of the British State)] TJ ET BT 461.036 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 346.899 m 118.004 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. S. Wheeler, )] TJ ET BT 134.000 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of a World Power: War and the Military Revolution in Seventeenth-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century England)] TJ ET BT 146.348 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud, 1999\); M. Braddick, ?The rise of the fiscal state?, in )] TJ ET BT 444.968 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Companion to Stuart )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain)] TJ ET BT 98.024 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. B. Coward \(Oxford, 2003\), pp. 69?87.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.324 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.324 304.131 m 359.312 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Goldie, ?Divergence and union: Scotland and England, 1660?1707?, in )] TJ ET BT 425.300 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Problem)] TJ ET BT 523.304 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( c)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. 1534-1707: State Formation in the Atlantic Archipelago)] TJ ET BT 340.676 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. B. Bradshaw and J. Morrill )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 1996\), pp. 220?45; D. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 275.684 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of the Modern British Isles 1603?1707: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Double Crown)] TJ ET BT 135.020 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1998\), pp. 329?33.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.996 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.996 247.107 m 326.984 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Black, ?)] TJ ET BT 114.008 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Military Revolution? Military Change and European Society 1550?1800)] TJ ET BT 473.324 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 218.595 m 149.000 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Carlton, )] TJ ET BT 120.020 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Going to the Wars: The Experience of the British Civil Wars, 1638?1651)] TJ ET BT 470.672 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 190.083 m 118.004 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, P. Gaunt, )] TJ ET BT 178.340 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Civil Wars, 1642?1651)] TJ ET BT 350.684 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2003\), p. 63; C. Holmes, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why was Charles I Executed?)] TJ ET BT 207.992 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\), p. 65.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.316 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.316 161.571 m 373.304 161.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 148.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Wrigley and R. Schofield, )] TJ ET BT 206.000 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Population History of England, 1541?1871: A Reconstruction)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1989\), p. 532.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.336 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.336 133.059 m 248.324 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 128.684 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Renewal and Reformation: Wales 1415?1642)] TJ ET BT 347.336 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1993\), pp. 367?8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.312 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.312 118.803 m 533.300 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wrigley and Schofield, )] TJ ET BT 178.664 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Population History of England)] TJ ET BT 327.008 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 10, 566.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.008 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.008 104.547 m 443.996 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 91.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Hammer, )] TJ ET BT 124.676 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth's Wars: War, Government, and Society in Tudor England, 1544?1604)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2003\), p. 248.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.676 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.676 76.035 m 259.664 76.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 63.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, by Morrill in a review in )] TJ ET BT 251.660 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET BT 320.660 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43, 2 \(February 1993\), 54.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.972 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.972 61.779 m 512.960 61.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 36.917 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.2837 752.6215 347.2757 764.5015 ] 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