%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150327220336+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150327220336+00'00') /Title (Royalist Agents, Conspirators and Spies: Their Role in the British Civil Wars, 1640-1660) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4038 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Royalist Agents, Conspirators and Spies: Their Role in the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Civil Wars, 1640-1660)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a fascinating and absorbing account of Royalist conspiracy and spies throughout the Civil Wars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Commonwealth and Protectorate. It highlights the increasing importance of underground Royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity as the Stuart monarchs failed to regain their kingdoms. It also gives an insight into how the Royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort was organised and managed, especially the Royalists? ability to communicate across, counties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries and even continents. It demonstrates the diverse backgrounds of Royalist agents and shows their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause was dependent upon individual talents, and was affected by the weaknesses of these spies due to a lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of overall direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to previous accounts, Smith?s begins in 1641 and not in 1649. It is argued that Charles I resorted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to intrigue when the normal political channels were not capable of achieving the King?s desired aims. Smith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the genesis of the King?s own intelligence network emerged from the Bishops? Wars against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Covenanters and that Royalist emigration to the continent began after the impeachment of Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wentworth, the Earl of Strafford. Plots had emerged out of the discontentment felt by army officers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake of defeat during the Bishops? Wars. However, weaknesses in Royalist conspiracy, which later became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common features of Royalist plots, can be seen in these early stages. Furthermore, the infamous army plots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1641 were disorganised, with plotters not acting with the approval of their commanders and without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1258)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Smith)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754666936)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(252pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirsteen MacKenzie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7084 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed objectives. They were inaccurate, unrealistic and muddled, with no security measures in place. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plots diminished the Crown?s standing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Smith points out, during the early years of the war Royalist spy networks were created within areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Parliamentarian support. In particular, there was a small group of loyal Royalists in London who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established clandestine communications between the capital and Oxford. Many women played an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in outwitting Parliamentarian officers, despite restrictions on movement. Smith maintains that the true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the Waller plot, which still baffles many historians, was purposefully misrepresented by John Pym )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to destroy the Peace Party in the Commons and to demoralise Royalists in London. Smith argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that during this period there was no overall direction and no established hierarchy of authority amongst those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in Royalist espionage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms that a Royalist espionage network was built up and grew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout Stuart kingdoms and the European continent. Military failures at home spurred on Royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(espionage and the necessity of having to find new ways to defeat their opponents by other means. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Queen had developed her own network of agents in order to secure lines of communication between her, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her husband and his supporters, especially when she left Oxford for the continent. At this stage Smith points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out there was very little difference between spies and foreign diplomats at this time. In fact, many people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working for the King would have seen themselves as diplomats rather than spies. As the King became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desperate for help the more he would rely on unrealistic and hair-brained schemes. In addition, as Smith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, Charles I was sometimes his own worst enemy. The King completely failed to understand how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his efforts to gain support from Ireland might be interpreted and did not fully comprehend the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions in Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the defeat of Charles I there were two broad options open to Royalists, surrender and live a quiet life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, or carry on the fight by clandestine means at home and abroad. Royalist agents were then given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent positions and were able to display their loyalty to the Stuart cause. The most significant problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the King and his agents during this period was the King?s ability to communicate with his supporters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his court in exile. People working for the King?s household were vetted and the personnel were changed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a regular basis. As the grip of the English Parliamentarians tightened Royalists had to resort to disguises and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborate plots. Many of these failed but notably one did succeed which involved dressing James, the Duke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of York, as a young girl who then caught a boat to Europe. Charles I himself was the subject of many plots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for escape which had all failed by late 1648 and Charles I was executed in January 1649. The failure of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly small, regular and insignificant plots, as Smith clearly highlights, had a major impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentous events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were varied reactions to the King?s execution amongst Royalists, some chose seclusion and study and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others continued fighting for the Royalist cause. Smith focuses on those who wanted to continue serving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart monarchy in difficult and dangerous circumstances. There were still many roles open to Royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspirators from diplomacy to skulduggery. However, during this time Royalist agents were scattered all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over Europe trying to raise support and arms for the King. They were in Germany, Ireland, the Low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Countries and Jersey. In addition, with the deposition of the King, the work of the agents was less legally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accredited and it was therefore more difficult to gain support. Charles II did organise diplomatic retinues to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visit the various courts in Europe but due to his alliance with the Scottish Covenanters in 1650 many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best diplomats were rooted out due to their lack of commitment to the Covenant. Charles was also prevented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from creating a broad alliance between the Royalists and Presbyterians due to the stringent demands of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Kirk. The Commonwealth had increased its patrols of the seas surrounding Britain and Ireland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this further restricted Charles II?s means of communication with his agents and his exiled court. As Smith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states, the Battle of Worcester was the ?endgame? for Charles whereby agents on both sides of the border )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were crushed, captured and exiled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith highlights the many problems, issues and conflicts which Charles II and his agents had to endure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1650s. The major issue was trying to overcome the organised and effective intelligence network )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of John Thurloe, England?s Secretary of State. In addition, there were difficulties within the exiled court at )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8130 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time with court factions constantly changing and bitterness becoming particularly acute. Many Royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents fell foul of the shifting sands but some, like Daniel O?Neil, were adept at dealing with such situations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it was often these agents who survived. The Sealed Knot, the well known intelligence network, was set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up with the blessing of the King but Smith believes that this was a mistake because it was easily undermined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by factionalism in the court. Charles II had another major problem at this time; his diplomats were being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squeezed out of European countries due to the increasing acceptance of, and interaction with, the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth by major European powers. European princes stopped investing in what they believed was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(floundering Royalist cause. The Royal household became even more dispersed and communications were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly more difficult. Plots continued to be organised during this period but were quickly suppressed. .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Smith argues, Royalist spies became increasingly desperate and demoralised by the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penruddock?s rising and other plots and the spies resorted to one of the few options left open to them ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassination of Oliver Cromwell. These plots were easily discovered but, as Smith points out, the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these plots should not merely be attributed to the efficiency of Thurloe?s intelligence system but also to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of the Royalists to keep their own network of spies loyal and secure. Smith highlights the significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact those Royalist spies who worked for Thurloe had on undermining the Royalist cause.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exiled court could not sustain such plots and therefore began to look towards the Spanish for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistance. The Spanish had recently gone to war with Cromwell. Spain did maintain a Royalist army in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders for the King and this alliance with Spain revived the employment opportunities for Royalist agents. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders became the new hub of Royalist intrigue. However, ultimately, Charles was restrained from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marching into England as head of a Spanish army, knowing the English fear of popery would ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthen the hand of Cromwell?s regime. By 1658 Charles II?s Flanders army had lost too many men to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of assistance to him and there was a sense of disarray and despair amongst Royalists. Royalist plotters were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointed with the lack of opportunities due to the death of Oliver Cromwell and turned their focus on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad alliance with the Presbyterians but these plots, centred on Booth?s rising, ultimately failed, leaving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown dependent upon the Spanish monarchy once again. Furthermore, the confusing situation after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of the Restored Commonwealth did not improve matters for Charles, since the ports had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closed and General Monck?s motives and movements were a mystery to Royalists, both at home and abroad. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those who were agents for the King were not all rewarded equally, or rewarded at all, at the Restoration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is a continuation of Geoffrey Smith?s research into Royalist exiles during the Civil Wars and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth, a companion volume and follow up to Smith?s )] TJ ET BT 344.012 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cavaliers in Exile 1640?1660)] TJ ET BT 508.676 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined life for the exiled Royalist community in Europe between 1640?60.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.636 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.636 331.395 m 421.628 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.628 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Many themes discussed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Royalist Agents, Conspirators and Spies )] TJ ET BT 230.696 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can also be found in this preceding work; the traffic of exiles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Britain and Europe over a 20-year period and an attempt to avoid an overtly negative view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalist exile. Similarly, he discusses the court divisions which made it difficult for the exiled community to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present a united front. The major difference between )] TJ ET BT 289.604 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Royalist Agents, Conspirators and Spies )] TJ ET BT 486.284 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cavaliers in Exile)] TJ ET BT 120.680 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is that Royalist Conspiracy exclusively deals with those who took part in plots and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy to restore the King, both within the exiled community abroad, as well as those at home. )] TJ ET BT 511.292 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cavaliers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Exile)] TJ ET BT 71.012 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( examines Royalist conspiracy more briefly and within the wider context of the overall experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Royalist in exile.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Royalist Agents, Conspirators and Spies)] TJ ET BT 227.696 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fits within two major historiographical themes; Royalist conspiracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the exiled Royalist court. It is also part of a continuing and rapidly expanding historiography about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalists during the Civil Wars and the Commonwealth. In the past five years there has been an explosion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of interest in Royalists and Royalism from various perspectives, such as defining and rethinking Royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, Royalist propaganda and finally the exiled Royalist community during the 1640s and 1650s. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, a set of essays edited by Philip Major )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.652 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.652 119.811 m 282.644 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 282.644 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has looked at Royalists in exile, but like Smith?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cavaliers in Exile)] TJ ET BT 120.680 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( it mainly deals with the experience of the Royalist exiles in Europe. Therefore, in light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent historiographical trends, Geoffrey Smith?s volume on Royalist spies is a very welcome addition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, Smith?s book is not the first of its kind to explore the theme of Royalist plots, conspiracy and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.6357 331.7095 421.6277 343.5895 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.6517 120.1255 282.6437 132.0055 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5311 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence. Before the publication of Smith?s book, David Underdown?s )] TJ ET BT 392.972 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Royalist Conspiracy 1649?1660)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 48.008 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was the established text on such themes. However, this groundbreaking work was published over four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades ago and Royalist intrigue now merits further investigation and revision, especially in light of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing historiographical trends and developments over the past four decades. Smith?s account differs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatly from that of David Underdown and makes some important contributions to our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalist intrigue during the Civil Wars and the Commonwealth. Smith recognises that Royalist conspiracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not begin with the King?s execution in 1649, that it was something which existed throughout the 1640s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, Royalist intrigue was not a knee-jerk reaction to the execution of Charles I but something which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had developed and matured over time. As a result, Royalists appear more experienced in the politics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(espionage than has hitherto been acknowledged. David Underdown?s book largely concentrated on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of Royalist conspiracy at home, whereas Smith concentrates on the impact of the successes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures of Royalist conspiracy on the Royalist cause, both at home and abroad. Importantly, Smith?s book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also highlights that Royalist intrigue was often used when ordinary political channels became blocked or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were non-existent. Indeed, a particular strength of Smith?s account is the great character sketches he draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the persons involved in conspiracy, people from various backgrounds with many different strengths and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaknesses. Some quiet, some adventurous, some loyal and some who betrayed the Royalist cause. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moves away from Underdown?s simple division of a stable Sealed Knot versus a boisterous and maverick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Action Party. As Smith shows, many agents changed tactics, plans and loyalties due to the circumstances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they found themselves in at different times. The variety of people involved in Royalist intrigue constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed throughout the years between 1640 and 1660. Overall, this is a fascinating account of Royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrigue during the mid 17th century which highlights that Royalist conspiracy was not a marginal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defensive reaction to defeat, but an integral part of the Royalist cause.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 462.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Smith, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cavaliers in Exile 1640?60)] TJ ET BT 297.668 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.328 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.328 430.179 m 454.316 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literatures of Exile in the English Revolution and its Aftermath, 1640?1690)] TJ ET BT 428.360 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Philip Major )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 401.667 m 196.328 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Underdown, )] TJ ET BT 158.996 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Royalist Conspiracy 1649?1660)] TJ ET BT 313.664 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 1960\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 435.968 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 435.968 387.411 m 489.956 387.411 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 372.079 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 354.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 354.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1258)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 352.905 m 328.316 352.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 327.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/18064)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 48.0077 793.0135 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.3277 430.4935 454.3157 442.3735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 401.9815 196.3277 413.8615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 435.9677 387.7255 489.9557 399.6055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 353.2195 328.3157 365.0995 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1258) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000591 00000 n 0000000673 00000 n 0000004763 00000 n 0000004872 00000 n 0000004982 00000 n 0000005091 00000 n 0000008652 00000 n 0000008780 00000 n 0000008864 00000 n 0000008929 00000 n 0000016066 00000 n 0000016157 00000 n 0000024340 00000 n 0000024370 00000 n 0000024498 00000 n 0000024534 00000 n 0000024564 00000 n 0000024692 00000 n 0000024728 00000 n 0000024840 00000 n 0000030204 00000 n 0000030234 00000 n 0000030360 00000 n 0000030396 00000 n 0000030524 00000 n 0000030579 00000 n 0000030707 00000 n 0000030762 00000 n 0000030890 00000 n 0000030945 00000 n 0000031073 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31169 %%EOF