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rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American National Biography Online)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 597.921 m 215.012 597.921 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.012 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian Dictionary of Biography)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 571.665 m 205.688 571.665 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 208.688 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Dictionary of National Biography)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 545.409 m 234.020 545.409 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 237.020 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 519.153 m 238.016 519.153 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 241.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary of Irish Biography)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 492.897 m 177.680 492.897 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 180.680 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary of New Zealand Biography)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 466.641 m 218.684 466.641 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.684 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though not so established or essential an indication of nationhood as a flag, an anthem, or an airline, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematised collections of national biographies have long been commissioned as both research tools and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public statements. ?Let us celebrate the birth of a giant?, the )] TJ ET BT 325.628 413.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian Book Review)] TJ ET BT 441.620 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( wrote in April 1966 on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the publication of the first volume of the )] TJ ET BT 231.332 398.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 282.008 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; ?[o]nly once does a nation undertake so prodigious a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(task?. The Australian Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, recently lauded it as ?our greatest historical work?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian)] TJ ET BT 81.356 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( welcomes the reader to a place where ?you will meet people who played an important role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of what is now Canada?. The )] TJ ET BT 227.312 356.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 273.968 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( presents those ?whose lives have shaped the nation?; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?British? of those who ?shaped the history of the British Isles and beyond?. 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0.000 rg BT 297.968 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([20])] TJ ET BT 317.960 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which, when complete, ?will be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive guide to the country?s peoples, natural environment, history, culture, economy, institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and society?, and so is the only one of the national biographies not conceived of as free-standing. 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Most authors work ?in the field of education )] TJ ET endstream endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.6437 807.8743 150.6437 807.8743 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.teara.govt.nz/en) >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.6437 795.3895 294.9677 807.2695 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.teara.govt.nz/en) >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.3037 752.6215 523.9637 764.5015 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.mch.govt.nz/) >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 738.3655 75.3317 750.2455 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.mch.govt.nz/) >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.2477 708.0823 375.2477 708.0823 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.australianbiography.gov.au/) >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.2477 695.5975 479.5877 707.4775 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.australianbiography.gov.au/) >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R ] /Contents 93 0 R >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Length 12243 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the university and college levels, but the )] TJ ET BT 242.324 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DCB/DBC)] TJ ET BT 293.660 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also recruits authors from among postgraduate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students, freelance historians, museologists, archivists, librarians, writers, and others?. The )] TJ ET BT 472.952 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 519.608 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets out its two general, 18 senior, and 233 associate editors, and a 14-person editorial advisory board; all but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four are academics. It is impressive, but makes the relatively limited range of lives covered in the )] TJ ET BT 504.260 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more surprising. The )] TJ ET BT 155.000 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 205.676 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has an editor, supported by editorial staff based at the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.296 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Centre of )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.296 738.051 m 560.612 738.051 l S BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biography)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 723.795 m 84.680 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 87.680 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([23])] TJ ET BT 107.672 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with four distinguished Editorial Fellows to offer review of entries before publication; but, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and consistent with its egalitarian ethos, it is keen to reassure readers that they have lots of authors, but ?not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of them academics?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basic information about content can be gleaned. The )] TJ ET BT 290.300 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand)] TJ ET BT 353.972 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has ?over 3000? entries, the )] TJ ET BT 493.604 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8,400, the )] TJ ET BT 84.680 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 107.348 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 9,700, the )] TJ ET BT 161.012 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 211.688 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 12,000, the )] TJ ET BT 271.352 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 318.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 18,700, and the ?British? 58,000. The )] TJ ET BT 504.992 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boasts 700 authors, the )] TJ ET BT 147.008 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 197.684 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 4,500, the ?British? 11,500; The )] TJ ET BT 358.676 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 405.332 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 411.332 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian)] TJ ET BT 458.672 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 485.000 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer no means of collating such information. One of the great limitations of the original dictionaries was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were effectively Dictionaries of National Male Biography. These all offer ?gender? as a search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term \(and the )] TJ ET BT 101.000 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 147.656 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers ?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.968 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s history)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.968 597.747 m 271.292 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.292 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([24])] TJ ET BT 294.284 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? as a research idea\), but the male to female ratios are: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 80.672 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 16,121 male to 2,702 female, the )] TJ ET BT 244.652 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 295.328 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 10,512 to 1,397; the ?British? 51,868 to 6,230, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian)] TJ ET BT 81.356 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 7,934 to 504, )] TJ ET BT 153.692 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 176.360 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 8,913 to 943, )] TJ ET BT 245.696 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand)] TJ ET BT 309.368 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 2,260 to 802 \(in this respect, as in others, the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced\). The better reflection of female lives was explicitly in the remit of the new ?British?, but, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the best of wills, these dictionaries are constrained by the limited opportunities for women to occupy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions of national significance in their national pasts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is nevertheless possible, however impressionistically, to sketch portraits of the nations, made possible only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because these are digital resources. The )] TJ ET BT 226.952 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 277.628 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides a ?Faceted Browse? whereby the reader can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peruse records by definition, such as occupation \(1,532 Members of Lower House, 121 emancipists, one ice-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skating rink owner \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.000 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Bendrodt)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.000 457.443 m 207.992 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 210.992 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([25])] TJ ET BT 230.984 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1891?1973, roller skater and restaurateur\)\). This is a helpful tool )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the researcher, but also the reviewer of national biographies, as it reveals in black and white what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes this particular dictionary. The )] TJ ET BT 233.996 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian)] TJ ET BT 281.336 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers ?browse by identification?, and also has a novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(but wholly justifiable\) option to search geographical location. Thus the province of )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.628 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nunavut)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.628 414.675 m 480.956 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 483.956 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([26])] TJ ET BT 503.948 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furnished four individuals deemed worthy of note in Canadian history, and no one since 1930. The function )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also global: there are 1,370 Canadians connected to the UK, 247 to France, and 31 to the whole of Africa. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand)] TJ ET BT 128.348 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, North Island produces nearly twice as many \(2,336\) lives as South Island \(1,430\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 84.692 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains 2,949 Anglicans, 1,199 Catholics, 243 Jews, and one Jehovah?s Witness \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.648 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Barnes)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.648 357.651 m 544.640 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([27])] TJ ET BT 54.008 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1904?1952, publican and politician\). ?Ethnicity? records 4,541 English, 1,537 Scottish, 164 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?indigenous Australian?, and one Pakistani \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.988 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dervish Bejah)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.988 329.139 m 316.976 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 319.976 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([28])] TJ ET BT 339.968 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1862?1957, camel driver\). The )] TJ ET BT 497.264 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers 54 varieties of aboriginal people \(and ?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.956 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blacks)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.956 314.883 m 285.620 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.620 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([29])] TJ ET BT 308.612 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, of which there are 39 individuals\). The )] TJ ET BT 509.900 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers the opportunity to browse only by subject or contributor, which is browsing of rather an unfaceted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind. Advanced search includes categories for place, religion, floruit date \(date of activity\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation/field of interest. There are also manifestations of linguistic sensitivities. The )] TJ ET BT 458.300 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian)] TJ ET BT 505.640 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available in English and French, and the )] TJ ET BT 229.988 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand)] TJ ET BT 293.660 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be read in English and M?ori; the )] TJ ET BT 479.960 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 526.616 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 84.692 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?British? and )] TJ ET BT 157.352 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 180.020 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, have no Spanish, Welsh, or Gaelic functionality, only English \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culturally-sensitive research threads exist: the )] TJ ET BT 256.304 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 302.960 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers ?Black history?, ?Native American heritage? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?Hispanic American heritage? as research ideas\). The )] TJ ET BT 314.912 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 361.568 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and ?British?, however, offer much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more in every other sense. One cannot easily avoid the conclusion that elsewhere breadth may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrificed to depth; the least ?politically correct? dictionaries are also the most academically useful in form. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporaneity is affected by format as much as funding. For some, the online publication of biographies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears still to be dictated by the paper version: the ?British? includes those who died as recently as 2008; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those wishing to read in the )] TJ ET BT 169.340 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 220.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( about Sir Donald Bradman are still waiting over eleven years after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 102.332 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 143.324 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 165.992 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have helpful mini-historiographical essays in addition to biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliographies, and the latter has the valuable option of opening and saving a biography as a PDF. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?British? allows not only the ability to search by author, but also to see all the author?s \(linked\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions. Some dictionaries are very well-connected. The )] TJ ET BT 335.624 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 386.300 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( links to )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.976 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Obituaries Australia)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.976 60.705 m 526.988 60.705 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 529.988 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([30])] TJ ET BT 549.980 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.2957 738.3655 560.6117 750.2455 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ncb.anu.edu.au/) >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 724.1095 84.6797 735.9895 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ncb.anu.edu.au/) >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.9677 598.0615 271.2917 609.9415 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://anb.org/researchideas.html) >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 130.9997 457.7575 207.9917 469.6375 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/bendrodt-james-charles-9484) >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.6277 414.9895 480.9557 426.8695 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.biographi.ca/009004-110.01-e.php?q5=Nunavut) >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.6477 357.9655 544.6397 369.8455 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/barnes-john-francis-frank-9437) >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 247.9877 329.4535 316.9757 341.3335 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/bejah-dervish-5187) >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.9557 315.1975 285.6197 327.0775 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.biographi.ca/009004-110.01-e.php?q7=Blacks&c1=identity_list_en&brws=2) >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 111 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.9757 73.3303 427.9757 73.3303 ] >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://oa.anu.edu.au/) >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 113 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.9757 60.8455 526.9877 72.7255 ] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://oa.anu.edu.au/) >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R 136 0 R 138 0 R 140 0 R 142 0 R 144 0 R 146 0 R 148 0 R 150 0 R 152 0 R 154 0 R 156 0 R 158 0 R 160 0 R 162 0 R 164 0 R 166 0 R 168 0 R 170 0 R ] /Contents 115 0 R >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Length 11648 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a digital repository of obituaries published in newspapers, journals, magazines, and bulletins, as a ?sample of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Australian experience? \(again no Bradman\) and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.276 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People Australia)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.276 780.993 m 365.276 780.993 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.276 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([31])] TJ ET BT 388.268 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a quick reference service \(still no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradman\), and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.332 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women Australia)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.332 766.737 m 191.996 766.737 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 194.996 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([32])] TJ ET BT 214.988 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which does the same \(where Bradman?s absence is less problematic\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?British? links entries, where possible, to their presence in the old )] TJ ET BT 374.636 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DNB)] TJ ET BT 398.636 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.300 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Portrait Gallery)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.300 752.307 m 541.616 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([33])] TJ ET BT 54.008 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.672 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Register of Archives)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.672 738.225 m 220.004 738.225 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.004 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([34])] TJ ET BT 242.996 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.996 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who Was Who)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.996 738.225 m 319.652 738.225 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.652 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([35])] TJ ET BT 342.644 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.636 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bibliography of British and Irish )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.636 738.225 m 547.652 738.225 l S BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 723.969 m 70.016 723.969 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 73.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([36])] TJ ET BT 93.008 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Only the ?British? offers extensive and specific reference lists, reference groups, and feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays; the )] TJ ET BT 88.676 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 135.332 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has 12 ?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.656 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research ideas)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.656 709.539 m 245.288 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.288 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([37])] TJ ET BT 268.280 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, supported by the )] TJ ET BT 362.600 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Companion to United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which offers many cross-references. All, in fact, provide more than mere cross-referencing: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duplicated ? or substantially similar ? lives include those of James Madison \(1751?1836\) by Lance Banning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 110.672 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the ?British?, Sir Robert Menzies \(1894?1978\) by A. W. Martin in the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.296 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.296 666.945 m 524.972 666.945 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 527.972 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([38])] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the ?British?, Sir Robert Borden \(1854?1937\) by Robert Craig Brown in the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.648 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.648 652.689 m 469.988 652.689 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 472.988 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([39])] TJ ET BT 492.980 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?British?, Constance Markievicz \(1868?1927\) by Senia Pa?eta in the )] TJ ET BT 367.292 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 389.960 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the ?British?, and Sir Keith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Park \(1892?1975\) by Vincent Orange in the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.640 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.640 624.177 m 311.312 624.177 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.312 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([40])] TJ ET BT 334.304 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the ?British?. The common thread is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear; whether this is through historical or through publishing ties is more a matter for debate, and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This review has been worthwhile if for no other reason than that no such assessment appears to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted before. Some conclusions are possible: first, that national biography is a minor, but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsiderable, appurtenance of nationhood, and national heritage, as variegated as both terms have become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the cultural turn; second, the internet has made the transmission of those values, and the reviewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content, almost limitless; third, the evolving nature of the internet makes innovation possible, but these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictionaries differ in their embrace of it; fourth, they are spirits of their age in consciously seeking a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative portrait of their national histories than would have been obtained from the old Dead White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Male dictionaries; and fifth, finally, and frankly, these resources are as useful as the funding they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have received. Two caveats should be made: first, whilst it is possible to compare content, usability, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation, and ?added value?, the works reviewed are inherently unbalanced, given that the resourcing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and scale of each publication varies so, and while some are effectively peer-reviewed, others are more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?democratic?, and akin to wikis; second, this is ? in one sense ? somewhat of an otiose review, in that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader has no option but to refer to the dictionary of the nation of which their subject was a national.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has also to be admitted that some of the biographies on )] TJ ET BT 311.324 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wikipedia)] TJ ET BT 359.984 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are as good, or better, and often longer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more transparent, and better-referenced, than the equivalent in their national dictionary, and should assuredly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be read alongside them. The )] TJ ET BT 172.652 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 219.308 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?British?, and )] TJ ET BT 294.968 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 317.636 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( generally feature works of compressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship for a serious readership; the )] TJ ET BT 227.972 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian)] TJ ET BT 278.648 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 284.648 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian)] TJ ET BT 331.988 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 358.316 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand)] TJ ET BT 421.988 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( feel closer to the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader and browser, something free access encourages. It is likely? and it should be put no more strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than that ? that the researcher, undergraduate, or postgraduate student, will find the first three more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfactory than the second, and that the general reader find the second three more approachable than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first. Only the )] TJ ET BT 104.012 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand)] TJ ET BT 167.684 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is truly a product of the internet ? the others originated in print, and have made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varying efforts to adapt ? but for the serious student or researcher that is not a recommendation: the worth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these dictionaries is as sources of reference, and for that reason resides in the written word. There is a limit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what new technologies can do to enhance the written word beyond facilitating access, such as through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indexing, grouping, ordering, linking, and cross-referencing. Portals for the general reader need primarily to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be accessible; for the specialist they need principally to be reliable: of those reviewed, the ?British? is pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminent because it is both. Certainly, the ?added value? ? the extraordinary opportunities to locate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process information online ? suggests that \(for research\) the days of possessing these great dictionaries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their printed forms for anything other than decoration have passed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pioneer, the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.328 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nouvelle Biographie Gnrale)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.328 92.721 m 292.640 92.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.640 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([41])] TJ ET BT 315.632 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1853?66\) has been uploaded, although only as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PDF page images. So too, in very varying modes of digitisation, the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.008 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.008 78.465 m 554.648 78.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([42])] TJ ET BT 84.008 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1875?1912\), the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 171.992 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Neue Deutsche Biographie)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 171.992 64.209 m 301.304 64.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 304.304 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([43])] TJ ET BT 324.296 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1953-\), and the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.276 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutsche Biographische )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.276 64.209 m 527.924 64.209 l S BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enzyklopdie)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 49.953 m 128.672 49.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 131.672 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([44])] TJ ET BT 151.664 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1995?2003, which 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