%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902185727+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902185727+01'00') /Title (The Great Famine and Beyond: Irish Migrants in Britain in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4327 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Great Famine and Beyond: Irish Migrants in Britain in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a timely and necessary book after nearly a quarter of a century during which a steady stream of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialist monographs and articles on Irish communities in individual British towns and cities has appeared. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even if Irish migration to Britain has not yet become the academic industry which is the fate of the Irish in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America, there has, nevertheless, been a proliferation of studies on themes such as migrants' settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns, changes in family structures, religious behaviour and beliefs, education, criminality, political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and sport. When topics such as anti-Irish violence, anti-Catholicism and racial stereotypes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish are included, it becomes clear that the field has not been lacking in scholarly attention. The extent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of this literature has contributed to a feeling that the field is ripe for stock-taking and re-assessment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in recent years several scholars \(including Don MacRaild, the editor of this volume, and Graham Davis\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have written extremely valuable one-volume syntheses of this research. The essays published here make an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original and stimulating addition to this process of re-appraisal and also contribute to a re-orientation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In broad terms, the essays can be categorised under the following headings: \(i\) historiographical surveys of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field; \(ii\) studies which employ the comparative perspective with other branches of the Irish Diaspora; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and \(iii\) contributions which raise methodological questions about the study of migrant groups.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historiographical surveys by two historians who have themselves edited three key collections of essays on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish in Britain set the scene. In an authoritative summation of the existing corpus of historical writing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Swift identifies three broad questions which have dominated debate: Why did the Irish migrate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(126)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald MacRaild)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(315pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Academic Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul O'Leary)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settle in particular districts of Great Britain? How were they perceived and why did attitudes change? To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what extent did they integrate and was a distinctive ethnic identity preserved? This volume makes significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions to answering the first and second of these questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a complementary essay, Sheridan Gilley's lucid survey of the historiography of Irish Catholicism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England is prefaced by a combative passage attacking those social historians who approach the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion from a secular point of view. This is an important point, even if its impact will be somewhat muted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the intemperate manner in which it is expressed. It is widely accepted that religion played a larger part in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lives of Irish migrants than it did in the lives of the other inhabitants of English towns and cities \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation in Scotland and Wales, neither of which are discussed in this essay, was somewhat different\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the difficulty for historians of religion is that Irish attendance at places of worship was low when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with patterns of religious practice in post-Famine Ireland. Consequently, Gilley's insistence on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of priestly authority in migrant communities in Britain needs severe qualification. The present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer's research in Catholic archives in Wales indicates that clerical authority was frequently challenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Irish lay men and women, especially when the priest was considered to have stepped outside his 'proper' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere of influence. The politicisation of denominational education following the inception of state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education in 1870 and the public support expressed by some priests for the Conservative Party is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important factor here. By overtly participating in political life, the priest left himself open to being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged on secular grounds. Gilley does not deny the possibility of a social history of religion - in fact, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been a notable contributor to it in his pioneering studies of Irish Catholicism in London - but most social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians would agree that theological notions of clerical authority are problematic and should not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed to delimit the boundaries of historical research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the remarkable facts to emerge from these surveys of the field is that few historians have made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit comparisons between the Irish in different parts of the globe. However, among the intriguing aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this book is the way in which it demonstrates how a notion of an 'Irish Diaspora' has taken root in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years \(see Donald Akenson, )] TJ ET BT 171.644 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Diaspora: A Primer)] TJ ET BT 314.972 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1992, and the invaluable collaborative venture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish World Wide)] TJ ET BT 138.344 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, six vols., 1992-7, ed. Patrick O'Sullivan\). The concept has rapidly become an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established part of the mental furniture of writers in the field, whereas previously it would have been an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exotic and unfamiliar description to apply to the scattering of Irish migrants around the globe. The reasons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the emergence of the term are complex and have been much debated by scholars, but it implies a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalising perspective, encompassing the Irish communities in Australasia, South America and South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa, as well as those in Britain and North America. To differing extents this globalising perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informs a number of the contributions to this volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a perceptive essay, Donald MacRaild argues that migration history is a particular beneficiary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative methodologies because the phenomenon links countries and continents. Taking the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world as the context of his essay, he delineates both the commonalties of Irish experiences on both sides of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pond \(such as Orangeism and anti-Catholicism\), as well as the key differences \(such as the salience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race in American life and its comparable absence from the process of locating the Irish in British life\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide-ranging chapter will be the essential starting point for those who wish to pursue the comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to Irish migration more generally and it provides an excellent context for two of the essays which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his closely argued and sophisticated study of Liverpool's Irish 'enclave', John Belchem makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons between 'the two most Irish cities in the world', Liverpool itself and New York. Here, again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race is identified as one of the key factors differentiating the contexts within which the Irish in the two cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived and worked. According to Belchem, the aim of ethnic Irish middle-class mobilisation in Liverpool was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to gain the recognition of the host society; this was a failure because the host population saw it as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising Irish apartness. By contrast, the Irish-Americans successfully entered the mainstream by means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their ethnic mobilisation, thus enjoying the 'wages of whiteness'. This is a thesis of seminal importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with far-reaching consequences for understanding the processes of Irish integration and separation in British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7235 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If it is the structural differences between the Irish on either side of the Atlantic which impresses John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belchem, it is the institutional similarities which emerge from Alan O'Day's sure-footed comparison of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Irish League of Great Britain and the United Irish League of America between 1900 and 1914. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationalist politics pervaded all branches of the Irish Diaspora at least since the emergence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary Fenian movement in the 1860s. The received wisdom is that nationalism was more eagerly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraced by those who migrated to America than by their compatriots in Britain, distance and the feeling of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exiledom making the political heart beat fonder and faster. However, Alan O'Day reaches the initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat surprising conclusion that after 1900, when the Home Rule question appeared to be moving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards its final resolution, both movements suffered from acute difficulties in mobilising the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. Drawing on studies of ethnic mobilisation in eastern Europe he explains this result in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relatively limited ethnicity of migrants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taken together, these studies indicate that the comparative mode has the potential to yield important new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into the experience of the Irish in Britain. There are already indications of the kind of perspectives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and debates which such an enterprise might engender: Belchem's and O'Day's essays demonstrate that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison between the Irish in Britain and America \(and by implication other branches of the Diaspora\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must address a combination of the contextual factors influencing ethnic mobilisation as well as the internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics of the group. To be successful, such an enterprise would need to recognise the diversity of migrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences within both countries and possibly the ways in which similarities in some domains of social life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are matched by stark contrasts in others. It would be instructive to compare not only the larger cities, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool and New York, but also the smaller ports and industrial towns, as well as the coalfields and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mining settlements. Irish participation in the armed forces of different countries might also yield intriguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights. The slight literature on the history of Irish women in Britain would certainly benefit from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with the more developed literature on Irish women in the United States. Here is one notable area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where this book establishes new perspectives and outlines fresh research agendas for the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four essays in the volume raise important methodological questions about the study of Irish migrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities in mid-nineteenth century British cities. From very different perspectives, each one tackles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about Irish settlement patterns, associational networks and migrant social organisation. In a well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crafted essay on the Irish in Newcastle upon Tyne, Frank Neal reports what he modestly describes as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('interim' findings of a project on the north-east of England. Based primarily on data culled from the census )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enumerators' books for 1851, his essay starts from the premise that 'the establishment of parameters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding size, spatial distribution, occupational profile and the principal demographic features of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants is a necessary but not sufficient condition for undertaking a fuller investigation of the growth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of Irish settlements in any area'. He reveals the importance of chain migration from the north-west )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coast of Ireland to Newcastle and establishes the importance of extended families, lodgers and visitors for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bolstering immigrants' income levels. His research also confirms the findings of studies on other British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns which emphasise that the Irish did not inhabit ghettos. On the evidence of this essay the larger study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Irish in the north-east of England planned by Frank Neal promises to be a major addition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of the Irish in Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neal recognises the importance of utilising sources other than the census if a fuller picture of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal life is to be drawn, a point which other contributors pursue. One avenue with considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential in this respect is suggested by Mervyn Busteed in his chapter on the Irish in Manchester. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognising the importance of the census, his principal contribution is the imaginative and creative use he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes of ballad literature to reveal dimensions of Irish cultural life hitherto understudied. Using this data he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the residential clustering of Irish migrants was a defensive mechanism designed to cope with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latent and overt hostility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Belchem's chapter on the Irish in Liverpool, also sees ethnicity as defensive, emphasising that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a primordial attribute but a constructed identity, and that ethnic networks provided the benefits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security. This study is an explicit statement of the limitations of the census enumerators' books for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the social networks of the Irish. Belchem is careful to distinguish between social space \('the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7548 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locus of ethnicity'\) and geographical space, which was often shared with members of other groups. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies successful migrants as 'culture brokers', a group which tends to be obscured by aggregate census )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The theme of ethnic networks of mutuality is continued by Martha Kanya-Forstner in her fascinating study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of notions of Irish Catholic womanhood as revealed through the activities of lay networks in Liverpool, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the work of the St Vincent de Paul Society. Members of the Society \('brothers'\) were men, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two-thirds of the recipients of relief were women. The distinction between deserving and undeserving poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired new resonances, the former being the poor who performed their religious duties, with the priest as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final arbiter of the issue, thereby extending his influence in the community. Poverty is revealed here as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered phenomenon. Given the paucity of studies of Irish women in nineteenth-century Britain, this essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stands out as a seminal contribution to the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent writings on Irish settlement in nineteenth-century Britain have drawn attention to the small-town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, pointing out that significant numbers of the Irish settled in small numbers in towns like Chester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Stafford, where their experience was very different to the migrants who settled in the large cities. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller towns, it has been suggested, the Irish failed to develop all-encompassing ethnic networks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradually 'faded' into the host society. By contrast, this volume redresses the balance in favour of the cities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There appears to be a growing consensus here that the larger cities of Irish migration in Britain would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefit from the kind of multi-author treatment accorded the Irish in New York \(R. H. Bayor and T. J. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meagher \(eds.\) )] TJ ET BT 109.652 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New York Irish)] TJ ET BT 203.324 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1996\)\). Besides Liverpool, both London and Glasgow would surely be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent candidates for this kind of study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodological questions of a different kind are raised by several contributors who make use of oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony and autobiography to shed light on the nature and persistence of ethnic identity. Colin G. Pooley's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of a Northern Irish Protestant woman who migrated to London in the 1930s to take up a position in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil service lifts the lid on an understudied aspect of Irish migration. Using a combination of diaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviews with his subject, he concludes that the woman in question assimilated easily into English society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a conclusion is hardly remarkable given the woman's Protestantism and Unionism, but it is all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant because of that. By contrast, Sean Campbell reassesses the uses to which Tom Barclay's much-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted autobiography, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memoirs and Medleys: the Autobiography of a Bottle Washer )] TJ ET BT 443.972 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1934\), has been put as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a preamble to his study of the second-generation Irish in England. His reading of this text conflicts with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of other historians who have read Barclay's testimony as evidence of rapid 'ethnic fade' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second generation. This is an area which requires more systematic study, not just in terms of a few selected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('classic' texts. This essay robustly questions essentialist definitions of Irishness and undermines claims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second generation are invisible and easily assimilated. Campbell claims that at issue here is the definition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what it is to be Irish. He makes a case for assessing aspects of the cultural production of non-traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musicians like John Lydon, the Gallaghers and others in terms of a distinctive Irish dimension. However, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds that Irish migrants are often uncomfortable with the hybridity of second-generation Irishness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently actively seek to inauthenticate it. The message seems to be that what might be described as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalisation of Irishness in the Republic can have its downside for members of a more loosely defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish 'community' abroad.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not only the parameters of Irishness which have changed since the creation of an Irish State. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political economy of Irish migration to Britain since 1921 has also changed dramatically for those hailing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Free State \(and, from 1949, the Republic\); whereas from 1801 Irish migrants had been citizens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Kingdom, those who migrated after 1921 belonged to a different legal jurisdiction. In an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important essay, Enda Delaney assesses the nature of state intervention in the migration process from 1921 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1945, during which time debates in Ireland about the constitutional position of the country led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion in Britain about restricting immigration. The IRA bombing campaign of 1939 and the onset of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war meant that immigration was now regulated, especially as the Free State remained neutral. Delaney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimates that anything up to 150,000 Irish people migrated to Britain during the war years, some two-thirds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whom travelled under Ministry of Labour schemes. Free movement was reinstated in 1945. It struck this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer that the political economy of internal migration in Britain changed at roughly the same time, as the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4565 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British State began to direct surplus labour from the depressed to the more buoyant regions. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincidental developments, a comparison of the two might provide instructive insights to changing attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Irish migration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At one point in this fine collection of diverse and thought-provoking essays, Don MacRaild quotes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling metaphor by Donald Akenson to the effect that the international Irish Diaspora was like a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faberge egg, 'a marvellously complex phenomenon' in which 'details, though fascinating in themselves, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordinated to the larger picture, since they all interrelate and are all subject to the whole.' While it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be misleading - and unfair - to say that the individual contributions to this book are incapable of standing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone \(like the sections of a Faberge egg\), it is also the case that taken as whole the volume amounts to much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a miscellany. The guiding theme of the volume is the persistence of ethnicity and the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish migrants simply to disappear into British society in the second generation. The Irishness of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants and their descendants continued to be important, even for those distanced from the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration itself by several generations. Something of a consensus emerges here that 'ethnic fade' was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deferred for far longer than some historians and sociologists have claimed in the past, with only one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributor arguing in favour of rapid integration. The unanswered question is whether Protestant Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants retained a sense of ethnic attachment for as long as did Catholics. The one study dealing with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that assimilation was, in fact, accomplished in the first generation. This is an area where further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research is required before confident generalisations can be made. It is also necessary to take full account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the implications of the proliferating studies of Irish settlement in smaller towns, where Irish assimilation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to have been rapid. Taking these factors into account points to the conclusion that migration is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singular noun but a plural experience. Each migration from Ireland to Britain from the mid-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century has been characterised by diversity of composition and plurality of experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Famine and Beyond)] TJ ET BT 182.660 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an extremely valuable addition to the historiography of the Irish in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and will be warmly welcomed by students of Irish migration more generally. It provides evidence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing vitality of the field and addresses issues of concern to all historians of migration and ethnicity. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be a key reference point for students and researchers for some time to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 370.831 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 353.051 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 353.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/126)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 351.657 m 322.316 351.657 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 326.680 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/733)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 351.9715 322.3157 363.8515 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/126) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000606 00000 n 0000000688 00000 n 0000005067 00000 n 0000005176 00000 n 0000005286 00000 n 0000005395 00000 n 0000008956 00000 n 0000009084 00000 n 0000009168 00000 n 0000009233 00000 n 0000016566 00000 n 0000016631 00000 n 0000023919 00000 n 0000023984 00000 n 0000031585 00000 n 0000031669 00000 n 0000036287 00000 n 0000036415 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36510 %%EOF