%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818085537+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818085537+01'00') /Title (Spanish Identity in the Age of Nations) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4265 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Spanish Identity in the Age of Nations)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the central theme in the history of Spain has been whether it can be considered a European country, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or whether its unique historical trajectory qualifies it for a status as a marginal case, a fringe member of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental club. For foreigners as contrasting as Voltaire and Ernest Hemingway, Spain was different: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having once been the hegemonic power in Europe, its ?absolutism?, imperialism and adherence to a brand of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fanatical Catholicism condemned it to the periphery in the course of the 17th century; it was, wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hemingway, the one country where the Reformation had had no impact.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of Spanish otherness looms throughout Jos lvarez-Junco?s study of )] TJ ET BT 438.308 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Identity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age of Nations)] TJ ET BT 105.356 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is a work of enormous scope and range, and the English translation will be of enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefit to students, academics and the reading public. While focused on the debate on nationhood during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century, it shades into a general study of how or why )] TJ ET BT 315.644 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Espaa)] TJ ET BT 351.644 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( developed as it did during both the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern and modern periods. The essential thesis is that 19th?century Spain was not characterized by a sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fervent nationalism of the sort that could be said have pre-shadowed the Franco dictatorship; rather the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise opposite was the case: Spain was marked by the relative failure of the nationalist programme. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of a fervent nationalism among the masses can in part be attributed to the commitment of much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative opinion to the Catholic Church, which as an institution existed almost as a rival to the state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1260)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jose lvarez-Junco)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719075797)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(90.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(432pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillip Williams)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7924 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in the field of education. The rural populations of Andalusia and Castile continued to identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves according to regional and confessional, rather than national, criteria: peasants did not become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spaniards. Moreover there seemed to be no prospect of them doing so. They lacked the cultural or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual tools necessary to adapt to the challenge of modernity and when forced to confront the rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialization and urbanization of the early 20th century they readily threw themselves into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme of ultra-nationalist Catholic conservatism of the 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s viewpoint or methodology places emphasis upon ideas and political developments. There is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great deal here on historical interpretations, theatre and poetry, and there are fascinating descriptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist archaeology, science and anthropology. In his ?Introduction?, Professor lvarez-Junco makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that he will not ?aspire to the heights of what was once pretentiously dubbed ?total history??. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reference to social and economic developments are ?not essential tools of analysis of this topic?. Culture is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the driving force of history, or at least of the parts of history which gave birth to Spanish identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many regards the awareness of a distinctive Spanish identity began during the Enlightenment. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lumires)] TJ ET BT 75.344 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 91.340 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ilustrados)] TJ ET BT 139.352 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( saw the country as representative of all that was wrong in )] TJ ET BT 421.292 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 489.608 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Europe. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment attack created something of a problem for the liberals, whose attempts to describe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagate an )] TJ ET BT 98.660 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(espaolismo)] TJ ET BT 158.660 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could hardly call upon the almost entirely negative image of the country presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Montesquieu or Voltaire. The solution at which they arrived was that the true character of the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people had been manifest in the Middle Ages. During this period the values of liberty, constitutionalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-existence had defined the various kingdoms of Spain, as Jew, Christian and Moor lived side-by-side. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Golden Age was destroyed by the Habsburgs, a foreign dynasty \(?the Austrians?\). Having defeated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?national? rebellion of the )] TJ ET BT 162.656 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Comuneros )] TJ ET BT 220.988 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1521, Charles V strove to impose the writ of the Counter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation not only on the Spanish, but also to on other peoples of Europe. In doing so, he and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors exhausted the economic and demographic resources of Castile, leading to its decline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National sentiment in the modern sense began in 1808 with the rebellion against Napoleonic France. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call to arms was decisive and successful, although lvarez-Junco takes great care in balancing his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the motivation of the combatants \(for example, pp. 12, 205\). The problem lies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determining whether the war against Bonaparte was a )] TJ ET BT 294.620 375.557 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 300.620 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War of Independence?, as liberal nationalists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently claimed, or a holy war, a defence of religion against the godlessness of the French and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment doctrines, as Napoleon himself believed. Throughout the first half of the 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative thinkers, writers and statesmen held steadfastly to the latter argument and viewed the call of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation with profound suspicion. In any case after 1814 nationalism ceased to hold the centre stage, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoration of the House of Bourbon and the subsequent Carlist wars ensured that political realities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined by the dispute over exactly what sort of Catholic royal absolutism would prevail. It was not until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time of the ?War of Africa? \(1859?60\), a partially-successful imperialist venture in Morocco, that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of consensus began to emerge, as right-wing opinion shifted towards an acceptance of the reality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation \(to view ?reality through the prism of nationalism?, p.275\). By this point the liberals had ceded much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground, having given up calls for local democracy, freedom of the press and parliamentary control over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executive. Greater consensus there may have been, but the common ground upon which conservative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal met was considerably to the right of the Constitution proclaimed at Cadiz in 1812.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Numerous problems, limitations or restrictions continued to affect the call to nationhood. The state proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to establish and maintain an effective educational system. The Church, in contrast, turned out to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more successful than the state in setting up and running schools. When it suited them to do so, Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools taught in the Catalan or Basque languages. Moreover, methods of ?nation making? that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective elsewhere in 19th?century Europe stalled in Spain. It proved peculiarly difficult to invent tradition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Church had already seized such a large part of the festive calendar and secured many of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic spaces for monuments to the martyrs, saints and apostles. Moreover, the impoverished government was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to exploit foreign and imperial adventures in order to feed or engineer a patriotic frenzy; those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns that were attempted were of limited scope and impact; ?jingoism? remained very much a concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the educated urban minorities, and even the catastrophic defeats at Cuba in 1898 elicited little popular )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7857 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment, let alone outrage. Those who did identify themselves as Spaniards had to define themselves by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to glorious events that had taken place in the distant past: this was a ?retrospective nationalism? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jos Maria Jover?s phrase, whose final consequence was to increase frustration at present-day circumstances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and so sow a sense of despair and defeatism among the progressive groups.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two points of criticism can be made, while in one respect it might be possible to extend the range of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument advanced by Professor lvarez-Junco. The first is that for all the perils of ?historicism? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teleology, ?total history? offers interpretations whose relevance to the emergence ? or non-emergence ? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish national feeling can hardly be ignored. The second is that lvarez-Junco accepts so much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment case against the Church in Spain, that he isolates the confessional experience of Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants from those of their counterparts in the rest of western Europe over the previous three or four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries. Here the author?s fundamental attachment to the ideas of the )] TJ ET BT 377.936 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ilustrados)] TJ ET BT 425.948 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has, perhaps, led him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept a rather one-dimensional appraisal of the Council of Trent and Spanish history in the early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. While this observation might have primary relevance to the chapters on the Habsburg and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourbon eras, rather than to the central thesis on the 1800s, it does refer back, one again, to the central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of why the development of Spain was, or at least appeared to be, so different to that of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European countries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The extremely critical view of early modern Catholicism is perhaps a slightly dated one \(see, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 206?8\): the faith is presented as a collective culture, one which served to bind its illiterate congregations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a sort of intellectual and cultural conformity \(?not so much a )] TJ ET BT 349.976 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(religion)] TJ ET BT 387.980 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a )] TJ ET BT 412.304 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culture)] TJ ET BT 446.300 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?\). In turn this outlook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes leads him to the brink of an extremely bleak view of Spanish cultural achievement \(p. 140\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even to coming close to accepting the 19th?century liberal narrative of the Habsburg despotism \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(215?17\). On the role and impact of the Catholic faith three points can be made: first, that there must be some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt about the efficacy of the Church \(in general\) or the Tribunal of the Holy Office \(in particular\) to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the effect on ?popular culture? which was subsequently ascribed to it by Enlightenment thinkers; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second, that similar methods or forms of ?thought police? existed in all early modern states; third, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general consensus among historians is that the Counter Reformation aimed to break down the old communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sacramental forms of worship ? in other words, to ensure that its faith was not simply a culture, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanical conveyor of comfort to illiterate masses \(as its critics alleged\), but rather a religiosity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound personal conviction. It is true that the means by which these reforms were implemented in Spain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unambiguous in their methods: as lvarez-Junco notes, when the Inquisition threw Casanova in prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was not doing much for the image of the country abroad. On the other hand the Venetian tourist may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented a rather obvious target for the )] TJ ET BT 228.296 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inquisidores)] TJ ET BT 287.636 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the consensus among historians today would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably be that the Tribunal was, in fact, a rather uneven and ramshackle organization, which often became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tool for the prosecution of private grudges. It is probably safe to say that it was as much a reflection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society as a means of transforming it. Finally, it should be said that, as has long been recognised \(see chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven\), the characterization of the culture of early modern Spain as uniquely backward and intolerant invites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some difficult questions when comparison is made with the witch-craze that took hold nearly elsewhere else )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in early modern Europe, or with the sort of spontaneous violence and popular massacres committed during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French Wars of Religion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is difficult, in these regards, to blame the Church for the peculiar historical development of Spain, or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolate its aims from the central programmes of churches, both Catholic and Protestant, elsewhere in Central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Western Europe at the time. It would seem to be very hard to believe that the peasants of Valladolid or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soria were fundamentally different in outlook or ?mentality? to their counterparts in Lancaster or Brittany in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 16th or 17th centuries, although the interpretation given here is that the rural masses remained eternally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the figures portrayed by Goya, villagers dedicated alternatively to bright festivals and dark ceremonies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether this is a reflection of historical realities or simply an indication that studies of ?popular culture? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not taken the same course in Spain as they have elsewhere is difficult to say. In any case, the possibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of change, adaptation or resistance is discounted; indoctrination is assumed. Again, a certain strand of liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotic pessimism might be discerned here. Finally, there is a hint of contradiction in lamenting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely low levels of literacy in 19th?century Spain while simultaneously condemning the Church, which )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7960 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, by all accounts, by far the most effective provider of mass education.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second point of criticism lies in discussing the birth of nationhood without taking into account social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic realities. True to his word, Professor lvarez-Junco leaves economics, demographics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography and landscape well alone. Thus the explanation that seems most obvious ? that the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism was the direct consequence of the comparative economic underdevelopment of 19th?century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain ? is introduced only occasionally and sits slightly awkwardly with the tone, if not the content, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(core arguments \(for instance on roads, p. 327\). Yet it seems to make little sense to wonder how the peoples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Spain saw themselves without asking what sort of country they lived in. Grim material realities lurk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneath the surface of ?the symbolic world ? this artificial medium?. Thus one Catalan nationalist, Jaime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balmes, dismissed Madrid as ?having no sea, no river, [existing] in the heart of a desert, with no industry, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life of its own ?? \(p. 367\). The comparative scarcity of water has provided a fertile line of analysis for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars of the medieval and early modern periods, in part because it sheds further light on the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great municipalities like Seville, Segovia and Zaragoza that controlled the access to streams, rivers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrigation systems. Catalonia might prove a more concrete example. As Pierre Vilar demonstrated in one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great works of ?total history?, the exploitation of viticulture in the course of the 18th century would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve to drag the Catalans out of the poverty that had beset them in the early modern period and so set them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the path to prosperity. In turn, the acquisition of capital led to industrialization. Cadiz was another region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was able to exploit the )] TJ ET BT 166.004 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(comercio martimo )] TJ ET BT 260.660 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sell its wines and fruits abroad. The economies of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other parts of Spain, however, were condemned by the geographical restraints that Balmes evoked in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(crude\) polemic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, as lvarez-Junco warns, an enormous potential pitfall of pretentiousness when claiming to write )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?total history?; on the other hand, it has to asked why the efforts of legions of patriotic poets, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropologists, scientists, playwrights, )] TJ ET BT 226.688 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(philosophes)] TJ ET BT 284.024 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and ? it is painful to admit it ? historians \(!\) had so little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact in forging a Spanish consciousness. A comparison with the sort of confident, assertive urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment that ultimately loomed behind Linda Colley?s )] TJ ET BT 321.008 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons)] TJ ET BT 356.348 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Simon Schama?s )] TJ ET BT 457.676 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Embarrassment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Riches)] TJ ET BT 66.008 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( perhaps underlines the point: a critical ingredient in both was the perception of economic successes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as manifested in Hogarth?s comparison of John Bull and the emaciated Frenchman, or the fulsome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakfasts that helped to forge a sense of Dutch identity among classes whose economic interests might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise have cast them asunder. As countless visitors testified, breakfasts were not nearly as filling in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain. When Manet visited the )] TJ ET BT 185.336 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Museo del)] TJ ET BT 237.992 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prado )] TJ ET BT 270.992 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1865, he complained that his stomach had suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tortures in the long return voyage on terrible roads to Madrid. But Velzquez, he concluded, had been worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor lvarez-Junco shows that one of the limitations on the development of nationalism was the frailty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the army. In many other states, and most notably in France, the army served as a motor of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentiment, a mechanism by which both to inculcate and to demonstrate ideals of equality and fraternity. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it proved impossible to establish a modern national army in Spain in the way that was achieved in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western countries, largely because the state simply did not have the resources necessary to do so, there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no immediate prospect of a war with European powers and the the sons of the middle and upper classes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually able to opt out of military service. The burden of fighting fell disproportionately on the lower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes, whose experience of the )] TJ ET BT 192.632 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ejrcito nacional)] TJ ET BT 274.292 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( during the campaigns of the second half of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century only served to feed their doubts about the national programme to whose defence it was dedicated. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, said the radical left, a ?blood tax? levied on the poor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This line of thinking might be extended back into the early modern period. It is becoming increasingly clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the political history of the peninsula under the Habsburgs is not best understood in terms of absolutism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and militarism. The apparent serenity of Habsburg and Bourbon rule throughout Spain in fact masked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioning of a complex patchwork of regional liberties, immunities and freedoms, all of which served to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curtail or moderate the power of the executive. Thus excellent recent ?revisionist? works by Sean Perrone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Aurelio Espinosa on the Castilian policies of Charles V \(1516?56\) have both underlined the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the power and authority of the 16th century state were much less ?absolute? than the )] TJ ET BT 474.596 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ilustrados)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagined. Government was much more complex, being dependent upon a series of negotiations and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5737 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromises with municipal and ecclesiastical bodies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It could be argued that the problem for Spain under the Habsburgs and Bourbons was not that there was too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much absolutism and militarism, but that there was far too little of it. The very reason why the Jews and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(specifically\) the Moriscos \(the Moorish communities of Granada and Valencia\) were perceived to be such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat to the country was that the frontier between Spain and the Muslim world of North Africa was such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeable one. The defence of this ?forgotten frontier? \(see Andrew C. Hess?s classic study \(2\)\) fell almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely on the shoulders of militias, which were made up of gentlemen soldiers whose membership was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent upon property or wealth qualifications. Like the officers or informants \()] TJ ET BT 430.604 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(familiares)] TJ ET BT 479.276 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inquisition, these men served in order to gain a range of ?privileges, pre-eminences and immunities? ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other words, to secure them exemptions from the demands and exactions of the state, not to increase them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Moriscos were expelled in 1609?14; but it is now clear that many of them made their way back to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain; the ?state? was simply incapable of manning its frontiers. In the Habsburg period the regiments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crack troops, the famous \(or infamous\) )] TJ ET BT 223.640 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tercios)] TJ ET BT 256.304 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, were trained and garrisoned in the Monarchy?s Italian fiefs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and had to be ferried back to Catalonia or Cadiz in moments of emergency. The 18th century saw little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in this regard. In the early 18th century the entire state apparatus of soldiers and officials ran to no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than 30, 000 men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This long-term perspective on the role of the military does, in fact, considerably strengthen and extend the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation advanced by lvarez-Junco. In other words, if there was one country in Western Europe where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarism was not ingrained in the spirit of the people in 1800, 1850 or 1900, then it was Spain. That the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country eventually ended up in 1939 with the )] TJ ET BT 254.660 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caudillo de Espaa )] TJ ET BT 353.000 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an irony of history whose origins lie, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally, in the circumstance of the rapid modernization after 1898, not in the history of the people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the previous four or five centuries. Indeed Franco?s invasion from Morocco was the working out of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nightmare that had haunted Span for many centuries about how a country of genteel soldiers, village militias )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regional privileges might defend itself against the determined assault of professional military forces. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this respect Professor lvarez-Junco?s fine study may help to define a new paradigm: that 1939 was not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culmination of Spanish history over the previous three or four centuries; it was, in fact, the denial of them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion Professor Jos lvarez-Junco has written a work of tremendous scope and ambition which will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest all of those who take an interest in Spain and its history. Its engagement with central arguments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its thematic range will make it essential for many postgraduate courses ? it would be possible to base an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entire module around it ? and it will be invaluable for many third-year undergraduate course that examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively broad themes or ideas. The general reader will find a great deal of interest in it, while it contributes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a great deal to the theoretical debate about the evolution of national consciousness and identity, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between ideas and culture and the economic and geographical circumstances in which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourish.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 273.295 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 255.515 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 255.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1260)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 254.121 m 328.316 254.121 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 229.144 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/18971)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 254.4355 328.3157 266.3155 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1260) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000004947 00000 n 0000005056 00000 n 0000005166 00000 n 0000005275 00000 n 0000008836 00000 n 0000008964 00000 n 0000009048 00000 n 0000009113 00000 n 0000017090 00000 n 0000017155 00000 n 0000025065 00000 n 0000025130 00000 n 0000033143 00000 n 0000033227 00000 n 0000039017 00000 n 0000039145 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39241 %%EOF