%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 48 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417055222+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417055222+01'00') /Title (The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3863 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two decades ago Francis Fukuyama gained widespread attention, and some notoriety, with the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the modern world had reached the end of history. Of course, he did not mean that history as a flow of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events would cease. What he did mean was that history as successive stages of society had reached its final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level. There is no future regime beyond modern democracy and capitalism. This is because liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy is basically in alignment with human nature: it satisfies our natural desires for wealth and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition. Two decades on, and with no post-liberal, post-capitalist stage of history visible on the horizon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it appears that his basic diagnosis remains sound.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the end-of-history thesis had also predicted that the rest of the world would follow the West and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually arrive at the last stage. This part of the argument remains undecided. The continuing prevalence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of autocracy, illiberal states, and ineffective governance in many parts of the world casts severe doubt upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. The anticipated universal convergence currently seems unlikely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now )] TJ ET BT 60.344 71.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Political Order)] TJ ET BT 207.020 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( revisits these two issues, among others, to provide an overview of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political evolution. The book begins with the evolution of human nature, briefly covers social evolution from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1261)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Fukuyama)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846682568)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(608pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Profile Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Hewson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7100 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foraging to agriculture to the earliest states, and then compares political evolution, its parallels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergences, in India, Islam, and particularly China and the West up to the eve of modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A key theme of )] TJ ET BT 111.332 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins)] TJ ET BT 148.004 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is that a modern political order is not a unitary package: it consists of a bundle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three separate institutions with distinct histories. One is a modern state, with competent and honest officials, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not prone to nepotism, corruption, and clientelism. Second is the rule of law, or binding constraints upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers as well as the ruled. Third is accountability, usually via elections but also via a sense of responsibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the people, a sense of ruling for the common good. The bulk of )] TJ ET BT 381.296 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Political Order)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consists of successive sections looking in turn at the origins of the modern state, of the rule of law, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accountability. The book is a thematic rather than a chronological history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decision to focus upon these three institutions means that )] TJ ET BT 332.660 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins)] TJ ET BT 369.332 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not a general history of politics or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state. Much is left out. We hear little of other aspects of rule such as conquests and empires, city-states or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudalism. Since Fukuyama is concerned with the origins of our current arrangements, he leaves out polities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that proved to be transient. There is nothing on the polities of pre-Columbian America, a scant pair of pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Africa, and nothing on the Greco-Roman West. Most of the book is about four regions that loom large in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary world politics: China, India, Islam, and the West. Among those, China and Europe receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most attention, since they were the scenes of the major innovations in political development: a rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy in the former, and the most solid rule of law and accountability in the latter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins)] TJ ET BT 91.688 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( begins at the beginning with human evolution. This is no mere prolegomena. Fukuyama )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves credit for emphasizing that we are political animals and that evolved human nature is a basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on politics. Gathering evidence from a variety of sources ? studies of chimpanzees as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports from the political life of hunting and gathering bands ? Fukuyama proposes that humans have four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key natural dispositions most relevant to politics. We evolved to be nepotistic, most inclined to cooperate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with kin. We evolved to be religious; we evolved to be norm-followers; and we evolved to seek status or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A particularly illuminating element of the book is how these evolved dispositions have continued to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential. Nepotism, or kin selection, as expressed in strong tribal or clan lineages, is a continuing theme in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book as the nemesis of the modern state. If tribalism is strong, as today in Afghanistan or the Sunni )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Triangle of Iraq, modern states cannot flourish. The importance of religion as an influence on political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development is another theme throughout. It was from religion, Fukuyama argues, that the rule of law arose. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The key role of norms and institutions provides the subject-matter of the book: political institutions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fukuyama regards the desire for status or recognition as the main source of change in history, and he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engages in a running dispute through the book with rationalist or rational-choice explanations. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fukuyama uses a bio-historical and bio-political approach, he is by no means a ?biological determinist?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biology he treats as probability not determination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After briefly describing the transition from foraging to agriculture and then the development from bands to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribes to chiefdoms to states, Fukuyama turns to his main concerns: \(i\) the origins of the modern state ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient China; \(ii\) the origins of the rule of law in the realms of powerful religions: India, Islam, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christendom, but not China; and \(iii\) the origins of accountability in the assemblies of medieval Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the English parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considering the origins of the modern state, Fukuyama?s key contention is that this did not arise only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th?century Europe but earlier, in China, in the 3rd century BC. For Fukuyama, the Chinese bureaucracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was rational and Weberian and hence ?modern.? If he is correct, we have to conclude that there were two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different roads to political modernization: one in China, the other in the West. In other words, this was a case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of parallel evolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fukuyama makes the useful point that state-building requires overcoming the strong bonds of kin. States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were recurrently prone to being colonized by their officials? nepotism \(favouring their relations\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynasticism \(seeking to have their offspring inherit their office\), tribalism, and clannishness. One method of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5746 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by-passing kinship was to recruit military slaves. This was a common ploy in Islam and resulted in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies as the Ottoman Janissaries. Another was to rely on eunuchs, who were biologically prevented from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding their own mini-dynasties within the apparatus of the state. A third was to recruit officials on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of competence or merit. This, Fukuyama argues, was China?s main innovation. Europe was unusual: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before state-building got underway, the Church had already weakened extended lineages \(except in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peripheral areas, such as Highland Scotland with its clans\) with its ban on cousin-marriage. The bonds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended lineages had already diminished prior to European state-building.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Fukuyama, China?s pioneering ?modern? rational bureaucracy arose due to a combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the necessities of war and the megalomaniac ambition of Qin Shi Huangdi \(259?210 BC\), the First Emperor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who is the most vivid and memorable character in )] TJ ET BT 276.980 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins)] TJ ET BT 313.652 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Still, it might be objected that this explanation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomplete because warfare and megalomania have been much more common across history than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationalized bureaucracies. A crucial precondition is missing: a rational bureaucracy is only likely to arise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and endure in a population that was pre-adapted for rationalism, for cognitive ability, and for holding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and examinations in high status.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How ?modern? was China?s bureaucracy? One objection to Fukuyama?s modernity-of-mandarins thesis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that though Chinese officials were recruited on educational merit, the content of their education was highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionalistic. Civil service examinations were exhaustive and gruelling tests of candidates? ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorize prodigious quantities of classical texts. Competence was not measured in mastery of practical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific, or technical knowledge. The latter kind of competence is closer to what a ?modern? bureaucrat is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed to master. If so, this calls into question Fukuyama?s point that there were two different roads to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political modernity: the Chinese and the Western. It implies that China?s bureaucracy was less than fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern. Fukuyama?s Sinocentric account of the modern state is interesting but not entirely convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning to the origins of the rule of law, a second divergence comes into view. In China, no rule of law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed; but in the lands of Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity it did. The reason is that where the authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of religious organizations was high, rulers were constrained to accept the rule of law. But in China, where a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong state had solidified early, and where the rulers took pains to prevent a challenge to their supremacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from organized religion, no rule of law developed. In Europe during the Middle Ages, the balance tilted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furthest in favour of the Church and against the state. There, the rule of law was strongest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One criticism of Fukuyama?s treatment of this issue is that he gives relatively little attention to the )] TJ ET BT 510.320 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(content)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ruling laws, as opposed to the presence or absence of legal constraints on rulers. In the West, law had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two unusual features that had a great impact on political order. One was that the law recognized corporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entities, bodies independent of either rulers or kin groups. This was the legal basis for self-governing city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporations or universities. Another key feature of Western law from ancient Greece onwards was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prohibition on polygyny. This was unique to the West. All other major regions of the world allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polygyny. This had one clear political effect: European rulers had no harems, unlike rulers elsewhere. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result, there was a correlation between polygyny and despotism and between monogamy and greater political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty. Since Fukuyama highlights the West?s divergence in kinship matters, it is odd that he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention its divergent marriage system.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7366 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next great divergence concerns accountability: as Fukuyama recognizes, only in Europe, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular England, did institutions of political accountability develop. Across medieval Europe, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament, a )] TJ ET BT 99.668 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cortes)] TJ ET BT 128.996 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or a )] TJ ET BT 156.320 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejm)] TJ ET BT 178.316 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was to be found in most places. But the only one to survive and grow in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power was the English parliament. The crucial juncture for modern accountability was the sequence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Civil War, the Glorious Revolution, and the English colonists? Declaration of Independence. Why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was England unique? Fukuyama compares four paths taken by early modern European states. One was weak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutism \(France or Spain\) involving the sale of offices. A second was strong absolutism \(Russia\). A third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was failed oligarchy \(Poland, Hungary\). The fourth was accountable government \(England, Scandinavia\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the reasons he offers for the accountable path were the growth of literacy encouraged by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism and the cohesion or solidarity of the English parliament. It is no wonder, then, that Fukuyama )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinks the rise of accountability was highly contingent. It was a close-run thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Fukuyama begins the book by vowing to offer an alternative to an Anglocentric or Eurocentric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of political liberty, and offers instead a Sinocentric account of the modern state, in practice he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognizes that this part of the story is unintelligible without taking account of England?s and Europe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniqueness. The old contrast of Western liberty and Eastern despotism retains much of its truth. China may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been precociously modern in its bureaucracy, but that simply meant a more rational despotism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fukuyama chooses not emphasize it, but his account of the history of political liberty is centred upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This makes Fukuyama?s exclusion of ancient Greece and Rome from any discussion illogical. Fukuyama?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of the exclusion is thus: ?although Greece and Rome were extremely important as precursors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern accountable government, China was more important in the development of the state? \(p. 21\). This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a notably feeble reason, given that Fukuyama is aiming to explain )] TJ ET BT 353.312 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(both)] TJ ET BT 374.648 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the origins of accountability )] TJ ET BT 515.636 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 533.636 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern state. More likely is that the temper of the multicultural times, plus a rising superpower in East Asia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads him to pay much attention to China and none to the ancient West. The consequence of this decision, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, is to underplay the singular contribution of the West since antiquity to political liberty. We learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing in the book of Greek democracy or Roman republicanism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the bureaucratic state was a case of parallel evolution \(arising independently at least twice in ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China and modern Europe\), if the rule of law was also a case of parallel evolution \(arising in three areas\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and if accountability was a case of divergent evolution \(arising only in Europe\), the next volume will have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackle the issue of convergent evolution: whether or how far distinct societies may converge on a modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political order. The evidence of this volume points to many obstacles to general convergence. Fukuyama )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizes very long term continuities. China, he argues, has had an efficient, centralized, but authoritarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity with only a few interruptions since the 3rd century BC, and continues to display high-quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarianism. In India, there is no historical precedent for strong government, due to the countervailing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of religion. In the West, the rule of law and accountability are long established checks on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of the state. Instead of parallels or convergences, there have been many long-lasting divergences. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short, Fukuyama?s new book suggests, implicitly but undeniably, that political divergence among different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions and civilizations is deeply rooted and long enduring. In such a situation, the idea of a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convergence, a universal rendezvous in a common regime, appears unlikely. The second part of the end-of-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history thesis appears to be in trouble.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The classic history of political order is that there was early on a great divergence between Eastern despotism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Western liberty. Ancient Greeks such as Herodotus noticed it, as did numerous modern European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political philosophers. Today, however, this contrast is regarded as suspect, as is any such contrast that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourable to the West. Fukuyama has improved on the classic contrast, added to it, made it more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated and complicated, but not refuted it. Fukuyama does not deny that there was a broad parting of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ways between Asian despotism and European liberty. But he does downplay it. China appears in )] TJ ET BT 517.952 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not as the most enduring despotism, but with a more positive spin as the pioneer of the ?modern? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic state.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7458 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book ends on the eve of the French Revolution because all three elements of the modern political triad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were then in place. The next volume will presumably focus on diffusion rather than innovation, the spread of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern state, the rule of law, and accountability rather than their origins. Yet, this idea that fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation was over by 1789 can be questioned. Over the centuries, many successive political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformations have emanated from the West, not just the rule of law and accountability, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercantilism, nationalism, the welfare state, and international organizations, to name but a few. The West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been peculiarly innovative in politics, before and after the French Revolution and continuing into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present. Fukuyama?s triadic model of political innovation is not flexible enough to take account of the many-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sided political inventiveness of the West.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One conclusion to draw from this book is that there is much continuity in political orders. The turning points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Fukuyama concentrates upon were ancient China in the wake of the Warring States period, medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, and early modern England. These events, not anything more recent, were the transformations that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the modern political world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more practical lesson for policy is that it is hard to create a modern state in a society in which strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended lineages exist. It is likely that Fukuyama has drawn this lesson not only from history but also from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colossal failures of American policy in Iraq and Afghanistan. Fukuyama was a neoconservative and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporter of the Iraq invasion of 2003, but subsequently changed his mind and broke with neoconservatism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(In this book, Fukuyama is silent on Iraq, but mentions learning the lesson about clans from a trip to New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guinea.\)This book is post-neoconservative in its underlying emphasis on long continuities and hence on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties and obstacles faced by any project of forcefully spreading democracy around the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem of political development Fukuyama phrases as the question of how to get from Somalia to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denmark. At the beginning of the book, Fukuyama promises that he will be supplying an answer. But by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the book we are left wondering if the answer he implicitly supplies is: the best way to get to a Demark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not to start in a Somalia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Political Order)] TJ ET BT 180.692 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a major achievement: it provides an overview of key strands of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution from prehistory onwards; it demonstrates that genes matter, ideas matter, and institutions matter in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaping political orders; and it manages to illuminate both questions of historical interpretation and problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of current policy. The next volume is highly anticipated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-origins-of-political-order-from-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 295.395 m 516.272 295.395 l S BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prehuman-times-to-the-french-revolution-by-francis-fukuyama-2283020.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 281.139 m 407.600 281.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 410.600 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/17/books/review/book-review-the-origins-of-political-order-by-francis-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 252.627 m 542.612 252.627 l S BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fukuyama.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 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