%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723064014+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723064014+01'00') /Title (New Beginnings: Constitutionalism & Democracy in Modern Ireland) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1852 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(New Beginnings: Constitutionalism & Democracy in Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ireland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1263)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Kissane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781906359515)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University College Dublin Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Kerr)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7493 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Kissane's third book on the origins of democracy and the state in modern Ireland offers a challenging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision to constitutionalists in Ireland, one which will no doubt spark much debate, criticism and serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection amongst Irish historians, political scientists and constitutional lawyers. The title of the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Beginnings)] TJ ET BT 112.352 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but Kissane?s argument that the nodal points in Irish constitutional history are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of Irish nationalist state-building failures, as well as the legacy of partition, is consistently and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly made throughout. He takes the position that Irish nationalism is not a value system that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pervades all of Irish constitutionalism, but that Irish constitutionalism is an autonomous part of Irish political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, where a blend of constitutionalist and nationalist values produced a distinct form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism in the 20th century. He argues that while constitutions are ?external? to the political system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the sense that the issues from which they derive their authority, such as revolution, independence and set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of values broadly representative of society, are outside of the political spectrum, they are 'internal' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense that they shape the distribution of power across government institutions. In the case of modern Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the religious, nationalist and patriarchal values that gave Irish constitutions their ?external? authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came unstuck, the ways in which the constitution distributed power across those institutions is fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to our understanding of how it was challenged at different points in contemporary Irish history, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of those challenges. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kissane addresses the question of why Irish politicians have seen constitutions as a device for making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state more manageable, as opposed to furthering, underpinning and consolidating democracy. By this he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that despite the consistent influence of the Westminster model and British democracy on Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism, Ireland?s constitutional trajectory illustrates that, out of the party system that emerges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the civil war, Fianna Fil used constitutionalism to consolidate its hegemonic position within the Free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State and subsequently the Republic of Ireland. In doing so, he focuses on five turning points in the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state-building venture. These points are attempts at ?new beginnings?, but they actually represent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?incompleteness? of Irish state-building and the absence, to date, of any constitutional formula for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidating the state by addressing and managing the ethno-national divisions that led to partition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a polity in the south that became constitutionally premised on its own disestablishment at some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future point. Public consciousness of ?a revolution incomplete? is reflected in both the Gaelic, nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Catholic nature of constitutionalism and change in modern Ireland, and the irredentist obligation placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon successive Irish governments by amon de Valera?s 1937 constitution, which rejected the 1920?1 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement and institutionalised the state?s claim to Northern Ireland. So Irish constitutionalism revolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around Fianna Fil?s struggle to consolidate the state, and the task of squaring the circle of past state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building failures was largely ignored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first ?new beginning? is the revolutionary period of 1916?23, which saw British rule forcibly challenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Ireland, 26 counties of Ireland ceasing to be an integral part of the UK, the partitioning of Ireland through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Government of Ireland Act 1920, and civil war between pro-treaty and anti-treaty forces in the south. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are the formative years of Irish constitutionalism and democracy, ?from home rule to Sinn Fin?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the ideals of revolutionary republicanism clashed with the reality of the deeply-divided society that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Ireland at the beginning of the 20th century, and the Hobson?s choice the British government faced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to settle rival claims to self determination in Ireland. The second period deals with the 1922 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution, which continued the Home Rule tradition of viewing minority rights as integral to democracy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this constitution was born out of the legacy of the Government of Ireland Act. As Kissane puts it, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1916 republic \(and Sinn Fin\) found its nemesis in partition. This document suffered from the tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between its ambition to mark a ?new beginning? and its subordination to the Anglo-Irish Treaty, yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objective of its drafters was to engage in a form of constitutionalism that delivered a degree of independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the aspiration that nationalist objectives would be achieved when the Irish could move ?from treaty to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution?. This was anathema to anti-treatyites, therefore the Free State emerged from a contested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution with rival claims of monarch and republic clashing, and a ?winner takes all? mentality gestated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the heart of the Irish political system and prevailed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third moment is the repeal of the 1922 constitution and its replacement with the 1937 constitution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was legitimised by plebiscite. Bunreacht na hireann attempted to deal with the past by renouncing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7629 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland?s unionist past and the British constitutional legacy that came with it. Here Kissane argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document was significant by the symbolic disjuncture it represented in Anglo-Irish relations and its rejection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1922 ?from treaty to constitution? formula. Rather than heralding a new beginning, it represented an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultra-conservative attempt to consolidate the state system by reflecting public consciousness over the failures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the revolutionary period. It signified a break with the Free State?s home rule origins, representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity rather than radical change or any sort of democratic constitutional experimentation. Articles two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and three set out the nationalist position of what became the Republic of Ireland, thus de Valera?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution sought to secure domestic stability and provide a framework for Irish unification. Critics viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these articles as a constitutional time bomb; an impediment to bringing the six counties of Northern Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a future 32-county governmental framework. More so, the Gaelic, nationalist and Catholic nature of de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valera?s new republic was confirmed through this inward-looking constitutional engineering, making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south considerably less attractive to northern unionists than it had ever been. Kissane argues that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment represents a symbolic shifting away from things past, through an attempt to move the state away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its revolutionary origins and consolidate central government. Critics labelled the constitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?confessional?, and while unionists in Northern Ireland had done little to mask their attempts to establish a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant state for a Protestant people, the 1937 constitution made it difficult to refute arguments that it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a mirror image of its northern counterpart. Dissenting voices did exist but they were only heard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the next moment in Ireland?s constitutional history, when both partition and the Catholic nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state began to unravel amidst internal and external challenges. Ireland had an identity crisis that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution not only failed to regulate but actually provoked. Kissane argues that ?values once thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harmonious became antagonistic, as people were forced to emphasise the secular or the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components of their identity, or the sub-national versus the national identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1972 the nationalist and Catholic social values reflected in the 1937 constitution were outdated. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposition of direct rule from Westminster, following the Northern Ireland government?s failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically reform and redress the security crisis it faced after the outbreak of the troubles in 1969, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of the Provisional Irish Republican Army presented the Irish government with a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional dilemmas that it proved incapable of meeting within the short timeframe that the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government had set for the establishment of a new political order in Northern Ireland. The 1973 Sunningdale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agreement challenged the Irish government to address its constitutional obligation to unite Ireland, and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time exposed the archaic and outmoded nature of the 1937 constitution, as it faltered on the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of consent, self determination and partition, not to mention the constitutional changes that would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to transform the republic into a state that moderate unionists might be tempted to join in the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances ? issues such as divorce, contraception and censorship. The Irish government?s discussions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the idea of drafting a new constitution for a ?new 32-county beginning? were reactionary, and while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing in theory, the government backtracked when faced with the challenge of the possibility of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disengagement from Northern Ireland between 1974 and 1976. The fact that the 1937 constitution could only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be changed by referendum reinforced its authority, and that of Fianna Fil, and undoubtedly sharpened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fine Gael-Labour coalition government?s sense of vulnerability as it entered the uncharted waters of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunningdale Agreement, with the ambitious all-Ireland structures it envisaged. Against Conor Cruise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Brien?s advice, Minister for Foreign Affairs Garret FitzGerald overzealously pursued the 1937 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution?s irredentist claim to Northern Ireland through the Sunningdale process, while fudging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional divisions over the conflicting conceptions of identity in both parts of Ireland that the peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process threw up. Key to this debate, with respect to Kissane?s fifth new beginning, were articles two and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three which, as O?Brien argued at the outset of the troubles, had to be removed if Ireland was ever to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unified by consent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, while the 1998 Belfast Agreement marked a new beginning for Northern Ireland and a new era in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Irish relations, it marked a significant turning point in Irish constitutionalism too. This constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment signified a point of no return in Anglo-Irish relations when governments in both Westminster and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin were able to address the constitutional issues that had undermined Northern Ireland?s first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consociational government. Kissane argues that the agreement promotes a ?treaty to constitution? process in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three ways: should a culture of power-sharing develop then this will strengthen Northern Ireland?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3165 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional identity within the UK or a united Ireland; the absence of violence and the changes made to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles two and three frees the Republic of Ireland to consider less reactionary and more consensual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional change; and should these positive developments continue and a vote for unification takes place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then the possibility of a new constitutional beginning could emerge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course one could take many of Kissane?s arguments and apply them to Northern Ireland, as its existence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates failures of British state building, constitutionalism and state consolidation. He raises the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to whether the Belfast Agreement can combine the treaty and constitution elements that may be required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see it function as the equivalent of a constitution for Northern Ireland. There is no doubt that progress has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been made in Northern Ireland in this direction. The Belfast Agreement, in the constitutional context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kissane?s thinking, clearly reflects the rival national identities of the deeply divided society that Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland remains today, and in doing so successfully regulates them within a consociational framework that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operates both internally and externally, with its all-Ireland and UK wide dimensions. Although he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly say it, Kissane?s book shows that in constitutional terms both the Republic of Ireland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Ireland are for the first time not significantly out of step with each other, and that this has much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do with the incremental revisionism that has taken place in Irish constitutionalism, moving from Bunreacht )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(na hireann to the Belfast Agreement, and reflecting the reality that the British and Irish governments are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partners in Europe, partners in Northern Ireland, and rather comfortable bedfellows in the Anglo-Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archipelago where they peaceably coexist.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 525.391 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 507.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 507.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1263)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 506.217 m 328.316 506.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 481.240 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/18985)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 506.5315 328.3157 518.4115 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1263) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000002552 00000 n 0000002661 00000 n 0000002771 00000 n 0000002880 00000 n 0000006441 00000 n 0000006569 00000 n 0000006653 00000 n 0000006718 00000 n 0000014264 00000 n 0000014329 00000 n 0000022011 00000 n 0000022095 00000 n 0000025313 00000 n 0000025441 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25537 %%EOF