%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818123810+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818123810+01'00') /Title (Poor Relief in Ireland, 1851-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4441 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in Ireland, 1851-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mel Cousins? )] TJ ET BT 103.352 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in Ireland, 1851?1914)] TJ ET BT 269.012 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an addition to the developing historiographical field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor relief in not just Irish history writing but at an international level. The increased focus on pre-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare regimes such as the poor law has, as one leading historian of German relief commented, ?become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileged site of inquiry for historians?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.996 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.996 243.417 m 241.988 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 241.988 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While much work has concentrated on German and English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences, the Irish case also has received recent attention from scholars. This book makes an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to this growing and developing international historiography, and significantly adds to Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social history, which has traditionally been the poor sister of political history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Poor Law is undoubtedly a rich topic for historians. Created in 1838 and inspired by the 1834 New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Poor Law, the system rapidly expanded and by the 1850s over 150 workhouses had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established. These were run by locally appointed and elected boards of guardians \(poor law boards\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled by a central authority, initially the Poor Law Commissioners, replaced by the Local Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Board in 1872. Although the poor law and the stigmatising workhouse have been most closely associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the horrors of the Great Irish Famine, the system remained the most prominent form of welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision in Ireland for much of the 19th and early 20th century. The workhouse \(indoor relief\), outdoor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief and medical relief, provided by both workhouse infirmaries and the dispensary system, ensured that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literally hundreds of thousands of the Irish poor came into contact with the poor law on an annual basis. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1265)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 7 June, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mel Cousins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9783034307376)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(321pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Lang)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bern)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donnacha Sen Lucey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 227.9957 243.7315 241.9877 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7689 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the poor law, on which a wide variety of disparate source material survives, provides for a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into issues relating to poverty, attitudes towards the poor and the development of social policy at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both a local, regional and central government level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introduction the author clearly outlines the aims and objectives of the work, which are to examine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporal transformations in indoor and outdoor relief in Ireland, explore regional variations in relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision, concentrate on political and class struggles on poor law boards, and to outline the broader role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poor law and the boards of guardians in local politics and communities. The book is divided into ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters along with an introduction and conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter provides a statistical analysis of poor relief trends in the period 1851?1914. Extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the expenditure levels of relief in Ireland leads the author to highlight that expenditure per GDP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not increase significantly over time and in turn did not have a major role in Ireland?s economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development. Also, the statistics reveal a relative stability in spending along with a significant shift towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outdoor relief as the period progressed. The second chapter examines the regional differences in poor relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends. Cousin?s identifies three regions with contrasting levels of poor relief; the religiously divided north, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peripheral and poor west, and the more prosperous south. The wealth of a region, seasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment amongst agricultural labourers and demographic structure are all highlighted as important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors in determining levels of regional relief. Furthermore, urban areas witnessed higher levels of indoor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief and lower levels of outdoor relief than their rural counterparts. The level of outdoor relief in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern region was influenced by the importance of agricultural labourers in the region who utilised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outdoor relief. In the western region the high levels of poverty and poor rateable land ensured that local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property was unable to sustain high levels of relief.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The low level of relief in the northern unions was brought about by a number of reasons. Northern boards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guardians were largely Protestant and unionist in religious and political outlook in contrast to their southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist and Catholic counterparts. The temptation to portray sectarian discrimination \(that is, Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guardians refusing poorer Catholics outdoor relief\) as the sole factor in these lower northern levels is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempered. The author highlights that northern unions with a large Catholic population were generally poorer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and couldn?t afford to grant extensive relief. A greater ethos of ?self-help? in the unionist/Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, along with a desire to discourage unwanted inward migration into the urban regions, were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important factors. However, religion is not totally discounted, and it is highlighted that ?sectarian tensions? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Protestantism helped to inform self-help attitudes towards the poor \(p. 59\). These insights are important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a wider understanding of relief practices. In a European context, Lutheran and reformed Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern European countries are viewed as having been more reliant on state relief systems; in contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern Europe which provided more informal charitable relief, largely through Catholic religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.680 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.680 288.627 m 101.672 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.672 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paradoxically, Ireland demonstrated a contrasting experience, whereby the Catholic regions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the country granted more publically-funded relief than Protestant regions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third chapter examines the place of relief in supporting families. Concentrating on three cases studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workhouses \(Dublin in 1861, Ennis in 1901 and Mullingar in 1879\) and utilising census returns, indoor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registers and Helen Burke?s earlier work, the author stresses the fact that nuclear families \(both parents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children\) rarely if ever entered workhouses.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.944 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.944 205.347 m 257.936 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.936 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, it was ?incomplete families? \(such as single parents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parentless children, etc\) along with single persons that were most likely to seek indoor relief, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations remained on outdoor relief in many regions for much of the period. The system didn?t support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the family unit most common in the country, the nuclear family, and in many cases ?Irish poor law relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy focused on providing support only where families were broken down? \(p. 79\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the first three chapters concentrate on trends in relief practices, the following six explore the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social tensions and clashes that surrounded the poor law. In post-famine Ireland social, economic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic and political transformations occurred as the population contracted, the agricultural economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altered from a largely tillage to a pastoral one, and a general rise in living standards and expectations was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought about by a degree of economic prosperity. The period was also marked by heightened nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics in the form of Fenianism in the 1860s and Home Rule in the 1870s. By the 1880s Irish society had )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.6797 288.9415 101.6717 300.8215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.9437 205.6615 257.9357 217.5415 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8124 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become dominated by the Irish Land War, and an on-going political and agrarian agitation between Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist tenant farmers and their representatives and unionist landlords. The poor law, and in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boards of guardians, became the focal point for political conflicts at a local level. Chapters four to seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the effect of these widespread transformations on the poor law, a process which the noted historian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. L. Feingold, has previously termed as the ?politicisation? of boards of guardians in post-famine Ireland.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 723.795 m 48.008 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four explores the role of politics in the era from 1864 to the outbreak of the Irish Land War in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 1870s. During this period issues such as debates over union rating, religion and the role of outdoor relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were popular amongst emerging nationalist politicians, which demonstrated that such figures had established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?distinctive policies on poor law issues? before the establishment of the Irish Home Rule Party \(p. 111\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters five, six and seven examine the role of the poor law during the Irish Land War, a period which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed the beginnings of a farmer proprietorship class as the most influential grouping in provincial Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, and the sidelining of Irish landlords. The politicisation of local boards of guardians during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period has received a degree of attention from Irish historians, most notably in the work of W. L. Feingold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and latterly by Virginia Crossman along with this reviewer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.652 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.652 583.491 m 333.644 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cousins highlights how the serious economic distress of the period challenged the primacy of the workhouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the system and how temporary legislation was introduced which allowed outdoor relief to the able-bodied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1880, 1881 and 1886. In turn, the numbers on outdoor relief grew greater than the number on indoor relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the first time since the great famine. These measures, coupled with the wrestling of control of poor law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boards from landlords by local nationalists, represented a significant transfer of power at a local level. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Cousins dismisses the socially radical potential of this transformation, stating that local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists didn?t adopt any distinctive polices on a ?left-right political spectrum? \(p. 129\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six turns to non-workhouse forms of relief in the form of outdoor relief and labourers cottages. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the post-famine period outdoor relief, which was not allowed to the able-bodied and entitlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely restricted to the impotent poor, grew extensively. A number of historians have viewed this growth as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a result of the emergence of nationalists on local boards of guardians who were more willing and eager to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grant such relief than their unionist landlord counterparts. However, Cousins argues that other economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors were centrally important in determining patterns in outdoor relief. Such provision was often tied to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the needs of local labour supply and the larger proportion of agricultural labourers in a poor law union, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher the level of outdoor relief distributed. Cousins challenges the idea that outdoor relief grew in areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high political agitation, believing that ?looking at the broader picture it is clear that outdoor relief increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most rapidly in a wide range of counties in which agitation was not very high? \(p. 149\). While these offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of new interpretations of the growth and role of outdoor relief, they could have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantiated by less reliance on statistics, and more extensive use of qualitative case studies for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage of the land war \(1879?81\). The statement that ?there is an almost total absence of any explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion at broad level as to policy on outdoor relief \(p. 158\)? is problematic. Recently published research, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which admittedly appeared after this monograph, demonstrates that heated political discussions concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outdoor relief were a feature of board meetings in counties Kerry, Mayo and in Cork City during the 1880s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This wider work argues that outdoor relief was an important form of patronage for local middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists challenging the social and political power of landlords during this period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.984 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.984 203.091 m 457.976 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 457.976 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nationalists created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new terms of entitlement where political outlook \(along with deservingness, respectability and need\) were all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors which determined accessibility to assistance such as outdoor relief and labourers? cottages.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.912 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.912 174.579 m 520.904 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven continues to examine the importance of nationalist control over local poor law boards and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines whether such developments altered poor law practices. The chapter concentrates on what is often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to as the ?second phase? of the land war, the ?Plan of Campaign?, which amounted to a renewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrarian agitation in the form of rent strikes fought out on individual estates during the years 1886?91. Based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a combination of statistics and case studies, it is demonstrated that outdoor relief actually dropped in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions which were the focus of political and agrarian agitation. In the on-going rent battles with landlords, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists didn?t strategically grant outdoor relief to their supporters or to evicted tenants, demonstrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the ?nationalisation of the boards had limited impact on poor law practices? \(p. 184\). However, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 724.1095 48.0077 735.9895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.6517 583.8055 333.6437 595.6855 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.9837 203.4055 457.9757 215.2855 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.9117 174.8935 520.9037 186.7735 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7329 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Local Government Board did deal stringently with local boards of guardians which attempted to use poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief for such purposes. Of the five case studies provided, the Athy and New Ross boards were suspended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and replaced by government-appointed paid officials, and two others, Portumna and Loughrea, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surcharged for the illegal use of poor relief, demonstrating that the poor law was an important front in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions between the government and local nationalists during the Plan of Campaign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight concentrates on the development of the poor law after the turbulent 1880s. During the 1890s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intense political activity within local boards of guardians was dissipated by the wider Parnellite schism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism. The period witnessed a general rising of standards in poor law provision brought about by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms such as the 1898 forbidding of ?pauper nursing? in workhouse infirmaries. Sporadic distress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to affect the western seaboard, albeit at a lesser rate than earlier in the century, which was met by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief works, as opposed to the extension of outdoor relief. Significant transformations in the governance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poor law emerged with the introduction of the 1898 Local Government Act. Along with establishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(county and rural councils, the act removed ex-officio \(largely landlord\) guardians, ended plural voting rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on property, and extended rating from the electoral division to the union. The government became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for the rates that landlords were previously liable for, in return for their loss of rights in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system. Although both these measures were previously called for by nationalists, little change in poor relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy developed beyond the extension of the building of labourers? cottages. Evidently the poor relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures that were in place at the start of 20th century were favoured by local nationalists and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratisation of the system led to no major policy transformation. In 1896 women were also allowed to sit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as guardians for the first time, although this didn?t amount to a significant increase in female participation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local poor law politics. Also local boards witnessed a return to politics during the early 20th century with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local nationalists and central government clashing over the holding of local political meetings of the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish League in board rooms, and the granting of contracts for provisions along political lines. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these clashes had limited potential. Local nationalists were wary of surcharges from central government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would have led to extra taxation on the rate-paying electorate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second last chapter examines the place of boards of guardians and the poor law in local politics and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader community. Building on Feingold?s analysis of the social composition of poor law guardians in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1870s and 1880s, this chapter examines the social make-up of boards by using the 1901 and 1911 census. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic middle class of farmers and traders \(such as shopkeepers and publicans\), the most powerful socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic group in southern provincial Ireland, dominated many local boards. Interestingly the northern poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law boards with a Protestant majority witnessed an over-representation of Presbyterian and Methodist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guardians and an under-representation of members of the Church of Ireland. Importantly, this section of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book examines the composition of urban unions in Belfast and Dublin and highlights that landlords and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants predominated in the ranks of guardians while only Dublin witnessed some degree of labourer or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade union involvement and manufacturers didn?t feature in either city. In Dublin the religious composition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of urban boards was reflective of each denomination?s proportion in the wider population although this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the case in Belfast where Catholics had limited participation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter addresses an often ignored aspect of the poor law; the eventual winding-up of the system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Edwardian period. Although the New Liberal welfare measures of this period have received much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus, the subsequent effect on the poor law and how the workhouse system was transformed is less well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood. This chapter highlights the development of the other types of residential care including mental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylums and industrial schools. However, the numbers of ?lunatic? sick in workhouses didn?t decrease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly during this period, indicating a degree of class difference in the social composition of inmates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in workhouses and asylums. The trend towards institutionalisation as a central plank in Irish welfare policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued and by the end of the 19th century more children were in industrial homes than workhouses. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of major welfare measures, especially the 1908 Old Age Pension Act, which was extended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pauper aged in 1909, helped to reduce the number of elderly in workhouses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall this work provides a synoptical and panoramic account of the development of the Irish Poor Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system between 1851 and 1914. One of the work?s major strengths is that it outlines all the major )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 6269 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in the system during this period. Also, Cousins? major argument, that nationalist control of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor law locally didn?t radically alter welfare regimes, has much validity, which is particularly demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the continuation of similar policies after democratisation in 1898. However, outdoor relief was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important dynamic in local politics during the upheaval of the 1880s and especially during the first phase of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land war \(1879-82\), something which the work doesn?t fully examine. Notwithstanding, this work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents an important addition to Irish social history, makes a significant contribution to current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings and debates surrounding the Irish Poor Law, and will be the first port of call for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working in the general field of Irish welfare history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larry Frohman, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief and Welfare in Germany from the Reformation to World War 1 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2008\), p. 1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 182.336 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 182.336 615.507 m 236.324 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Sigrun Kahl, ?The religious roots of modern poverty policy: Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant traditions compared?, )] TJ ET BT 221.996 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Journal of Sociology)] TJ ET BT 372.320 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46, 1, 91?126.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.648 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.648 586.995 m 500.636 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Bruke, )] TJ ET BT 131.000 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Poor Law and the People in Nineteenth Century Ireland)] TJ ET BT 421.988 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Littlehampton, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 558.483 m 118.004 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. L. Feingold, )] TJ ET BT 143.348 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Revolt of the Tenantry: the Transformation of Local Government in Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1872?86)] TJ ET BT 106.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.016 529.971 m 238.004 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia Crossman, ?The New Ross workhouse riot of 1887: nationalism, class and the Irish Poor )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laws?, )] TJ ET BT 101.336 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 183.332 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 179 \(May 2003\), 135?58; Virginia Crossman and Donnacha Sean Lucey, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(??One huge abuse?: The Cork Board of Guardians and the expansion of outdoor relief in post-Famine )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland?, )] TJ ET BT 109.328 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 235.328 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 126, 523 \(December 2011\), 1386?1407; Donnacha Sean Lucey, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Power, politics and poor relief during the Irish Land War, 1879?82?, )] TJ ET BT 401.948 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 513.956 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 38, 148 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(November 2011\), 584?98.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.988 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.988 444.435 m 247.976 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucey, ?Power, politics and poor relief during the Irish Land War, 1879?82?, )] TJ ET BT 437.936 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 549.944 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(584?98; Crossman and Lucey, ??One huge abuse?: the Cork Board of Guardians and the expansion of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outdoor relief in post-Famine Ireland?, )] TJ ET BT 253.316 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 379.316 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1386?1407.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 441.644 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 441.644 401.667 m 495.632 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia Crossman, )] TJ ET BT 161.012 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics, Pauperism and Power in Late Nineteenth-Century Ireland)] TJ ET BT 483.668 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 373.155 m 149.000 373.155 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 357.823 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 340.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 340.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1265)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 338.649 m 328.316 338.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 313.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/19970)] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 182.3357 615.8215 236.3237 627.7015 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.6477 587.3095 500.6357 599.1895 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 558.7975 118.0037 570.6775 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.0157 530.2855 238.0037 542.1655 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.9877 444.7495 247.9757 456.6295 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 441.6437 401.9815 495.6317 413.8615 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 373.4695 148.9997 385.3495 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 338.9635 328.3157 350.8435 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1265) >> endobj xref 0 59 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000543 00000 n 0000000632 00000 n 0000005125 00000 n 0000005234 00000 n 0000005344 00000 n 0000005453 00000 n 0000009014 00000 n 0000009142 00000 n 0000009226 00000 n 0000009255 00000 n 0000009383 00000 n 0000009419 00000 n 0000009510 00000 n 0000017252 00000 n 0000017282 00000 n 0000017409 00000 n 0000017445 00000 n 0000017475 00000 n 0000017603 00000 n 0000017639 00000 n 0000017744 00000 n 0000025921 00000 n 0000025951 00000 n 0000026077 00000 n 0000026113 00000 n 0000026143 00000 n 0000026271 00000 n 0000026307 00000 n 0000026337 00000 n 0000026465 00000 n 0000026501 00000 n 0000026531 00000 n 0000026659 00000 n 0000026695 00000 n 0000026760 00000 n 0000034142 00000 n 0000034275 00000 n 0000040597 00000 n 0000040725 00000 n 0000040780 00000 n 0000040908 00000 n 0000040963 00000 n 0000041090 00000 n 0000041145 00000 n 0000041273 00000 n 0000041328 00000 n 0000041456 00000 n 0000041511 00000 n 0000041639 00000 n 0000041694 00000 n 0000041821 00000 n 0000041876 00000 n 0000042004 00000 n trailer << /Size 59 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42100 %%EOF