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| |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 4449 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his principal books on the philosophy of history, in particular )] TJ ET BT 344.000 185.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking History)] TJ ET BT 434.996 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\), )] TJ ET BT 475.988 185.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On ?What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History?? )] TJ ET BT 85.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1995\), )] TJ ET BT 123.008 171.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why History?)] TJ ET BT 189.332 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1999\), )] TJ ET BT 230.324 171.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refiguring History,)] TJ ET BT 323.660 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003\) and )] TJ ET BT 381.980 171.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 494.660 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2009\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Jenkins, the noted postmodern philosopher of history, displays a remarkable constancy of approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involving a thoroughly sceptical/postmodern critique of the subject, designed to reveal its ineffectiveness as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a vehicle for the discovery of ?truth? about the past, or indeed any knowledge of the past. Not that Jenkins?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions regarding the implications of the supposed ineffectiveness of history have remained unchanged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout. On the contrary, as he explains in the introduction to )] TJ ET BT 348.320 100.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 461.000 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in the late 1970s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he first became acquainted with the postmodern critique of history, he chose merely to distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself from those historians who ignored or challenged it. Later, for a while, he argued the case for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?postmodern? history that might replace conventional academic history \(with which he was mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abingdon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Jenkins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415244107)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(96pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abingdon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Jenkins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415472357)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abingdon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.229 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Macfie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7497 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned\). But finally, in the late 1990s, he came to the conclusion that we should let ?history [and ethics] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go? \(Jenkins, 1999, p. 2\). Henceforth, we should simply wave goodbye to history, and look forward to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future unburdened and unspoilt by the historicised/historical past. \(History here stands for histories: in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins?s opinion there is no such thing as mere ?history?. Postmodern/postmodernism refers to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential currents of critical thinking generated by a group of mainly continental anti-foundational thinkers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the second half of the 20th century\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be presumptuous to envisage this article as some kind of summing up or evaluation of Jenkins?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to philosophy of history studies, but the fact that he has only recently decided to write nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more on the subject does enable the reviewer now to treat his works as something complete, something that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has attained to what the postmodernists sometimes mysteriously refer to as closure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not surprisingly, Jenkins?s increasingly powerful assault on conventional history provoked many strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions. The outcome was an at times furious and prolonged debate, in which there were numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusations of insane individualism, solipsism, fantasy-mongering, left-wing posturing and hectoring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarianism ? a debate which no self-respecting historian could easily ignore; though it has to be said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many did.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins, it might be remarked, was according to his own account \(given in an inaugural lecture on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointment as Professor of Historical Theory at the University of Chichester\) brought up in the ?idyllic? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions of a working-class home in a remote Derbyshire village. The house in which he grew up, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Jenkins, had ?no indoor toilet, no running hot water and no electricity?, a fact that he still finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising in a village in the heart of England in the middle of the 20th century. Educated at a local primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school and a secondary modern \(where he was not entered for any public examinations\), he then spent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several years training as a more or less professional cyclist and working at a series of jobs, before taking a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence course in ?O? level GCE \(he quickly acquired 5 ?O? levels\), qualifying as a teacher at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers? training college \(passing out with distinction\), graduating in Medieval and Modern History at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local university, and completing a Ph.D. in the political thought of Nietzsche, Freud and Sorel \( a subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?formidable difficulty?\). It was no doubt this last qualification that eventually led to his appointment as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecturer in history at Chichester. But not, one would suppose, to his self-appointment as one of the leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sceptical, relativistic and ?disobedient? philosophers of history of his generation. This, it seems, came about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later as the result of a close reading of the works of Marx and an early commitment to left-wing history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, followed by a ?revelatory? course of reading in Camus, Nietzsche \(?the death of God?\), Lukacs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adorno, Foucault, White, Ankersmit and Rorty \(and many others\) ? a group of mainly continental thinkers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom Jenkins later characterised as probably ?the greatest clutch of cultural theorists the world has ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen? \(Jenkins, 2009, p. 16\). In the space of 30 years or so, he believes, these \(and many other\) thinkers so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deconstructed the foundational and essentialist presumptions of the Western tradition as to leave it entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bereft of all intrinsic meaning and value.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking History )] TJ ET BT 141.008 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1991\), a remarkable bestseller, much translated, Jenkins argues compellingly that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional view of academic history ? that it enjoys the benefits of a uniquely effective epistemology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology which enables it to discover from historical facts, properly established, some sort of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth, a truth, moreover that can be conveyed to a willing audience by way of historical narrative ? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally flawed. Even the most perfunctory understanding of conventional historical method, properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed in a postmodern way, will show that the historian, no matter how well trained he might be, can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never really know the past, as the gap between the past and history is an ontological one, one that in the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of things cannot be bridged. Nor is it possible for the historian to attain to some kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological objectivity, free from prejudice and bias. No amount of skill or expertise will make that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible. Conventional history, despite all its extraordinary pretensions, is basically just a contested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse, an embattled terrain, on which people, classes and groups construct essentially autobiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of an imagined past to suit themselves. Any contemporary consensus can only be arrived at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when one dominant voice or set of voices silences others, either by means of overt power or covert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporation. History, in short, in Jenkins?s view, is not an epistemology but an aesthetic literary genre, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incapable of making claims about the truth. Debates about history are debates about meaning, and meaning )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8291 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is no more entailed by facts then values are by discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On )] TJ ET BT 64.676 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 70.004 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 151.340 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(1995\), \()] TJ ET BT 201.656 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History )] TJ ET BT 279.992 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the title of a well-known book on the philosophy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, published by E. H. Carr in 1961\) Jenkins compares and contrasts the thoughts and opinions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding history of Edward Carr \(no longer a credible modernist\) and Geoffrey Elton \(pass, backward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking, no longer good enough\) with those of Richard Rorty \(original, seminal, ironic\) and Hayden White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(thought provoking, stimulating, wide-ranging\). This he does in order to expand and elaborate the arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the fallibility of history outlined in )] TJ ET BT 252.344 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking History)] TJ ET BT 343.340 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Thus, according to Jenkins, history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains what it has in fact always been, namely a narrative prose discourse, of which, as White famously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarked, the content is ?as much imagined/ invented as found? \(Jenkins, 1995, p. 134\). In order to appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible any such discourse must normally look simultaneously towards the once real events and situations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the past and towards narrative-type myths common in all social formations. Moreover, history cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recover that past, but only such evidence of a past as remains in accessible traces. These traces are then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed into written histories by means of a series of theoretically and methodologically disparate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedures \(ideological positionings, tropes, emplotments, argumentative modes and so on\); which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography may then be made subject to a series of uses, logically infinite, but in practice for the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part the product of social power. Histories, that is to say, are invariably fabricated, without any real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations beyond the textual. Far from being ?objective?, as claimed by the conventional historian, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are invariably subjective ? i.e. positioned, constructed in someone?s interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why History?)] TJ ET BT 113.336 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1999\), on the other hand, Jenkins analyses the inadequacies of history by way of a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case studies of Jacques Derrida \(one of Jenkins?s favourites\), Jean Baudrillard, Jean-Franois Lyotard, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Evans \(in Jenkins?s opinion the archetypal conventional historian\), Hayden White \(again\) and Frank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ankersmith; with added chapters on Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth and David Harlan. In this way he once again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, as he puts it in the introduction to )] TJ ET BT 234.020 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why History?)] TJ ET BT 300.344 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that certain postmodern ways of thinking almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly signal ?the end of history? \(Jenkins, 1999, p. 1\). At the same time, in particular in the chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derrida, Jenkins explains how, by way of the ?undecidability of the decision?, postmodern thinking also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads to the end of all traditional \(rule-based\) ethical systems. This is because for a decision to be ethical it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must first pass through a moment of radical ?undecidability? \(Derrida?s )] TJ ET BT 381.956 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(poria)] TJ ET BT 413.960 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Otherwise the ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice made will be merely formulaic, one intended to obey the rules of a previously worked out system or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(code. Postmodern thinking will, therefore, lead inevitably to the end of all rule-based ethical systems, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much the same way that it lead to the end of history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was at this point, it may be noted, that Jenkins finally concluded that we should forget history, let it go, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn to live in new ways of timing time. We, the inhabitants of this new, postmodern world, now no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need history to ?place ourselves? in present time, think about the future and articulate identities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes appropriate to a reflexive, emancipatory politics, ?without foundations? \(Jenkins, 1999, p. 202\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refiguring History)] TJ ET BT 137.348 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003\), described by Hayden White as a ?small masterpiece?, Jenkins attempts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat paradoxically it must be said, to breath new life into history by refiguring it as a discourse that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gratefully accepts and elaborates the inevitable failure of all historical representation. This he does by trying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to promote in history the endless openness advocated by Derrida and other postmodern philosophers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Endless openness, logically unavoidable, he argues, will allow for new, disrespectful, contentious radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readings and rereadings, writings and rewritings to be produced. As for the new histories thus produced, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be useful, even emanciatory, contributing as they almost certainly will to a radical, ?disobedient?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-hegemonic politics, of the sort that Jenkins, apparently depressed by the failure of the Modernist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiment known as the ?Enlightenment Project?, deems most desirable \(Jenkins, 2003, pp. 3?5\). Such, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems, is the ultimate purpose of )] TJ ET BT 194.336 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refiguring History.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, in )] TJ ET BT 86.360 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History )] TJ ET BT 202.040 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2009\))] TJ ET BT 234.032 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 237.032 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a collection of essays on the theory and practice of history written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the period 1994?2008, Jenkins covers a wide range of subjects ranging from time to Marxism, the ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility of the historian and the works of Hayden White and Sande Cohen. Yet it is evident throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his main interest lies in the exposure of \(what he sees as\) the inherent inadequacies of conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, as essays on ?Why bother with history?? ?Postmodernity, the end of history and Frank Ankersmit?, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7797 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?The End of the Affair; on the irretrievable breakdown of history and ethics? show. For, as he remarks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his introduction, history depends not on the past for its current existence, but on its \(present\) representers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(historians\) and their representations. No representations, as he puts it, no past. Loosed from the past, history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(floats free, such that, undetermined, historians can make the past ?historical? in any way they like, that is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say, in their own image. History, in short, having no)] TJ ET BT 284.336 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( object )] TJ ET BT 319.664 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of enquiry, being able only to figure forth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposals, is merely a sort of rhetoric \(a category in which Aristotle placed it over 2,000 years ago\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inescapably aesthetic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers of )] TJ ET BT 88.664 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 201.344 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( might like to consult the essay ?Nobody does it better: radical history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hayden White? for a sort of summing up of Jenkins?s thoughts on history and its inadequacies. There he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlines ?somewhat skeletally, impressionistically?, what he refers to as some of the ontological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presuppositions and axioms of his position. These \(very much condensed\) are: That the universe \(matter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stuff, materiality\) exists. That we human beings, of whatever culture or denomination we happen to come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from, can never really )] TJ ET BT 142.976 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(know )] TJ ET BT 171.308 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that matter, stuff or materiality, whatever it might be. Moreover, what little we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do know about such things, either by way of intuition or by their representation, is radically contingent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent always on the circumstances of their production, that is to say, the way we access them. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, meaning and truth are not ?out there?. Rather, they are created, constituted by our human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses, which are ?about? but do not correspond to that to which they ?refer?. The world, in other words, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as we know it, is inescapably ours, inescapably human, real only in so far as we make it ?real?. Language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(meaning\), far from corresponding to the world, is simply imposed on it, initially by way of what is in effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an act of violence. And as language \(words, such as history\) cannot escape indeterminacy \(being always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to interminable re-description\) we shall never know what such words mean. We shall never know, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is to say \(speaking now of history\), what History/history ?really is?. Its putative aim ? the truth ? is thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an impossible myth, yet one which continuously energises historians? production. It is such conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history \(histories\) that in the future radical histories, written specifically ?for us?, might replace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In another essay in )] TJ ET BT 127.328 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History,)] TJ ET BT 243.008 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on ?Living in history, but outside ethics?, Jenkins reveals the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising fact ? if it is a fact ? that postmodernism, of the sort he habitually espouses, is \(historically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking\) little different from the anti-foundational and sceptical sophism of the pre-Socratic philosophers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Platonic essentialism might similarly be seen as the precursor of a series of later ?stabilising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fantasies?, such as God, nature, the categorical imperative, spirit, dialectical reason and class. Given how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many such reified projections there have been, he adds critically, one might have expected them to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been seen for what they patently are, mere expressions of human desire. But apparently they were not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen. Rather people merely concluded that they had somehow discovered ?truth? or some such other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metanarrative ?fix?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins?s relentless assault on history, in )] TJ ET BT 233.672 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 346.352 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and elsewhere, provoked a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive responses, most significantly that of Hayden White, considered by many to be the font of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdom in the postmodern garden. In a foreword to )] TJ ET BT 283.976 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History, )] TJ ET BT 402.656 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White remarks that Jenkins, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who is inclined to ?follow a thought to the end of the line?, should be seen as a revolutionary, a visionary, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utopian, a kind of Blakean man of the Left who had, once upon a time, fallen among the custodians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proper and is now trying to awaken from the slumber of ?what goes without saying?, ?the heart of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter?, the obvious, the right thing, what everyone knows, and all of the other commonplaces that substitute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for thought \(Jenkins, 2009, pp. 1?3\). Nevertheless, he [Jenkins] really is quite commonsensical, rational and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measured. He knows what he knows and argues it forcefully, clearly, plainly, cogently and authoritatively.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Negative responses to Jenkins?s critique were, however, much more common. The authors of these argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variously:)] TJ ET BT 48.816 109.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That Jenkins is not qualified to comment on the discipline of history, as he does not himself write )] TJ ET BT 64.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history \(Zagorin, Waites\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 80.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the postmodern critique \(commonly associated with Jenkins\) must be inconsequential as it has )] TJ ET BT 64.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made little or no impact on the way historians write history \(Cannadine, Zagorin\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 52.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That Jenkins's analysis is contradictory and self-defeating as he himself frequently employs an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8344 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical methodology to undermine history \(Evans, Waites, Mellon, Palladino\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the historian has the ability to discover something about the past, if not everything about it )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Anchor, Connelly, Roth, O?Brien\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That though truths about the past are not absolute, they are yet somehow attainable \(Appleby, Hunt, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That historical investigation, theoretically informed and subject to a collective, professional )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement, might yet enable the properly qualified historian to discover something about the past )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Fulbrook, Elton, O?Brien\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the insights associated with postmodernism are for the most part ancient, cyclical and repetitive. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As such most historians have already taken full account of them \(O?Brien, Himmelfarb\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the postmodern analysis of history is itself merely the product of a particular historical phase, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting the decline of the West, a collapse in belief in progress and a disillusion with science \(Tosh\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That despite the many valuable insights that postmodernism has provided, on pragmatic grounds alone )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we cannot do without the concept of \(historical\) truth \(Southgate\).)] TJ ET BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That in certain circumstances a mass of ascertainable facts may yet determine an overall interpretation )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Friedlander\).)] TJ ET BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And, finally, that history is, not so much a philosophically-based subject, founded on sound reason, as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an activity, based on the everyday language of collective experience \(Oakeshott\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three responses to Jenkins?s end of history thesis \(along, no doubt, with many others\) may be considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly typical: those of Perez Zagorin, Karl O?Brien and Michael S. Roth. Zagorin, in an article in )] TJ ET BT 505.604 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Theory )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.012 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.012 497.955 m 106.004 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 106.004 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, launched a wholesale attack on the postmodern critique of history, in particular that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented by the articles contained in )] TJ ET BT 224.636 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Postmodern History Reader)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.288 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.288 483.699 m 397.280 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 397.280 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a collection of articles recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited by Jenkins. In his article, Zagorin explained at some length that American history had for some time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been threatened by mainly continental postmodernism and relativism. But in the end, thanks largely to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of American \(mainly analytical\) philosophy, it had succeeded in resisting the assault. As a result, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most American historians, convinced that knowledge of the past, as a vanished reality, is attainable, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to write history based on the principles of rationality, logicality, objectivity and truth. As for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins?s contentions that only theory can constitute what counts as a fact, and that historians write history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely in order to promote some immediate practical and political interest, these are misplaced and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ridiculous. Jenkins is simply unable to conceive the viability or value of an historical effort to restore to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehension a vanished past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Brien, in an extended contribution to the Institute of Historical Research History in Focus website entitled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?An engagement with postmodern foes, literary theorists, and friends on the borders with history? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.612 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.612 314.883 m 520.604 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 520.604 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a majority of historians \(a majority of those he happens to know at least\), whilst welcoming the efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jenkins and his supporters to reduce the philosophical writings of a set of mainly continental philosophers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to textbook-level surveys and readings, may yet find most of their work redundant, as most theoretically-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware historians have already absorbed the implications of their findings in their work. In any case, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians never have made the claims to absolute knowledge that Jenkins and his like suppose they make. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They have always been aware, or should have been aware, that historians are human beings, potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompetent, biased, fallible and subjective; that the significance of facts is not embodied within the facts; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that sources need to be contextualised; that languages and the vocabulary of documents require careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation and critical decoding; and that any correspondence between historical sources and a lived past is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at best tenuous. Some part of history may be linguistically constructed, but historians for the most part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain resolutely ?realistic? in believing that things ?matter?, as do style, metaphor and rhetoric. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians admit that they construct, configure and shape their texts by story, discourse, and emplotment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, they cling to the belief that collective and disciplined endeavour will in the end enable them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct a plausible narrative about, or model of, some aspect of the past that will justify their claim to tell a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible story about it; even though that story will always remain conjectural, provisional, tentative, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open to future disagreement, refinement and ultimate obsolescence. Most historians, in short, share common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and cultural concerns with their eloquent antagonists; but they do not for the most part, engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously with the linguistic turn that would suggest that nothing real or objective exists outside language ? a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 92.0117 498.2695 106.0037 510.1495 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.2877 484.0135 397.2797 495.8935 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.6117 315.1975 520.6037 327.0775 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7806 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposition that would lead to the destruction of history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Michael S. Roth, in a review of )] TJ ET BT 227.672 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refiguring History)] TJ ET BT 318.008 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in )] TJ ET BT 386.012 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.008 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.008 768.819 m 497.000 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 497.000 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, despite his determination to remain strictly postmodern in his approach to history \(which Roth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies as an attachment to an ?Old-School postmodernism? already somewhat out of date\) Jenkins, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the postmodern canon that he dips into so enthusiastically has actually little to say about history specifically. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And what he has to say is not particularly convincing. How, for instance, is the by now conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic scepticism ? that we can never know anything for certain because the language we use for knowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never can convey or contain stable meaning ? relevant to historical studies? And how is Jenkins?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphysical scepticism ? that there is nothing in the past to be found and that the things held by historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be intrinsic to history \(historical facts, structures, periods and meanings\) are actually only ascriptions ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant? Certainly, historians impose meaning on the past, but it cannot be said that they find in the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only what they are looking for. Bringing their own values and preconceptions to their study of the past does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not prevent them from being surprised, any more than the fact that physicists use a common methodology or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigm prevents them from finding disconfirming evidence. Or, no more than the fact that we speak our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own language prevents us from communicating with someone else. Jenkins does not consider in )] TJ ET BT 498.296 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refiguring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( David Carr?s argument that the world is experienced in narrative form. Nor does he consider Hans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kellner?s notion of a sublime ?outside? of history. Why should not the disciplinary conversation of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and other practices\) be sufficient to produce all the grounds for decision making we ultimately need? Anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundationalism no more justifies historical and literary experimentation than it does its opposite. Without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations to destroy, in short, and \(impossibly nave\) adversaries to attack, Jenkins?s postmodernism has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not much to say about the conversations historians continue to have, the histories they continue to write, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the art they \(along with artists and writers\) continue to make. Jenkins would do well to recognise that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new \(postmodernism\) has now grown old. It is time to write its history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is the conventional historian to make of the extraordinary conflict \(debate, dispute\) between Jenkins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his opponents? Is some sort of compromise possible, or are the two points of view irreconcilable? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Probably they are. But before considering the possibility of a resolution, I would like to challenge a few of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the points made by Jenkins?s opponents that seem to me to be either unconvincing or out of place. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as follows:)] TJ ET BT 48.816 361.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is clear \(to me at least\) that Jenkins does not have to write history to comment on the subject?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validity He is concerned with the philosophy of history, not its practice.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 332.794 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also clear that the inconsequential impact of the postmodern critique is not a measure of its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validity. Impact is not a measure of validity \(truth\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 304.282 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That Jenkins occasionally uses an historical methodology to debunk history \(i.e. that he appears at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times to be contradictory and self-defeating\) does not mean that the whole of his argument is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory and self-defeating. His use of historical explanation is, as he frequently remarks, merely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 247.258 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the postmodern approach to history is, in all its essentials, ancient, cyclical and repetitive does )] TJ ET BT 64.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not necessarily invalidate the postmodern argument, any more then longstanding doubts regarding the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of essential substance or some such invalidates the conclusions of modern physics.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 204.490 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the postmodern analysis of history is itself the product of a particular historical phase should be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as strengthening the analysis, not as weakening it.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 175.978 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact that most historians have already taken into account many of the implications of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodern critique of history should again be seen not as weakening Jenkins?s case, but as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthening it. It merely suggests that historians are not very logical.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 133.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And, finally, the proposition that, in certain circumstances, a mass of ascertainable facts may entail a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain interpretation of them can be considered valid only if the interpretation is already presupposed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mind of the observer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may well be that a number of Jenkins?s more contentious assertions can be challenged further on more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious grounds, as a number of his opponents suggest. But it seems to me that certain of his basic points are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now beyond challenge \(though many historians and others will no doubt continue to challenge them\). These )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.0077 769.1335 496.9997 781.0135 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 7813 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might include the following:)] TJ ET BT 48.816 770.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That it is no longer possible to talk, in a meaningful sense, of foundational suppositions and beliefs )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(God, essence, absolute truth and such like\). \(We are all Buddhists now!\).)] TJ ET BT 48.816 741.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That history is for the most part, as White remarks, imagined /invented, not found.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 727.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That history is constructed from the present remains of a putative past, made up of memories, reports, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records and such like, that happen to survive in the \(lived\) present.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 698.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That history, in its grander realisation at least, is the product mainly of tropes, emplotment, stories, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses and narratives.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 670.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That history as a cultural creation differs substantially from memory, which is a natural phenomenon; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though there could well be a cultural element in what we remember.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 641.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And, finally \(Jenkins?s most persuasive argument\), that history has no accessible object of enquiry )] TJ ET BT 64.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond present remains.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the light of the above it is evident that the conventional view of history ? that the historian, properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified, can somehow access \(describe, portray, explain\) the past, in part at least, by way of philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, inferential logic and evidence, appears unconvincing, the more so as we cannot, it seems, access the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past to prove or disprove the case. No more can we access the past to prove that the past cannot be accessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(described, portrayed, explained\). The position adopted, therefore, both by Jenkins and his opponents, seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be a matter, not of proof or evidence, but of belief \(rather like religious belief in God.\) Not that the issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in dispute turns entirely on the accessibility of a real past. As O?Brien points out in his History in Focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piece, the debate between Jenkins and his opponents turns also on the question of language. What ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divides the two points of view, then, is not only their attitude to \(belief in\) the accessibility of the past, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also their attitude to \(belief in\) the capacity of language to describe that past. Jenkins is absolutely clear that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language cannot describe the past \(or for that matter the present\). O?Brien and most other conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians are absolutely convinced that it can.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My position on these difficult questions \(also a matter of belief rather than evidence\) is that, as Jenkins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, we cannot actually know a real past, lived or otherwise. All we can know, by a variety of means, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an imagined replica of a once-lived present \(all human experience is experience of a lived present, whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that might be\), about which, therefore, we human beings \(some of us at least\) imagine/invent histories. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History then is a sort of self-knowledge, constructed \(biologically\) from a well-stocked brain, in ways that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we do not yet fully understand. Not that it makes much difference. So deeply embedded is the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction regarding the existence of a real past that can be accessed, primarily by means of memory \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existential foundation of all history\), that it is extremely unlikely that human beings will abandon history, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something very much like it \(some sort of claimed knowledge of an actual past\). Conventional historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can, therefore, sleep easily in their beds, secure in the knowledge that Jenkins?s postmodern scepticism, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the arguments of the Presocratics before him, will slip largely unnoticed into ?history?, forgotten by all but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical few. Nevertheless, we \(no doubt half-baked\) philosophical few have much to thank Jenkins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for, not least his persistent and almost always well argued reminders of just how fallible history really is.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perez Zagorin, ?History, the referent, and narrative:reflections on postmodernism now?, )] TJ ET BT 492.920 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theory)] TJ ET BT 98.012 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 38 \(February 1999\), 1?24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.652 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.652 166.083 m 283.640 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Postmodern History Reader,)] TJ ET BT 222.668 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. Keith Jenkins \(London, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.984 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.984 151.827 m 443.972 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick O?Brien, ?An engagement with postmodern foes, literary theorists, and friends on the borders )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with history? <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.784 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/resources/discourse-postmodernism/obrien-paper)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.784 123.315 m 496.400 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.400 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 513.392 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([accessed 4 April 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.316 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.316 109.059 m 235.304 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael S. Roth, ?Review of )] TJ ET BT 206.336 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refiguring History)] TJ ET BT 296.672 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 302.672 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory)] TJ ET BT 396.668 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, 43, 3 \(2004\), 372?8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.316 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.316 94.803 m 559.304 94.803 l S endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.6517 166.3975 283.6397 178.2775 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.9837 152.1415 443.9717 164.0215 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.7837 123.6295 496.3997 135.5095 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/resources/discourse-postmodernism/obrien-paper) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.3157 109.3735 235.3037 121.2535 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.3157 95.1175 559.3037 106.9975 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 5665 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Bibliography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Macfie)] TJ ET BT 120.980 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, The Philosophy of History: Talks given at the IHR, Lond)] TJ ET BT 398.972 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(o)] TJ ET BT 404.972 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(n, 2000-2006)] TJ ET BT 468.968 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Waites, ?In Defence of Historical Realism: A Further Response to Keith Jenkins?, )] TJ ET BT 473.600 718.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15, 3 \(2011\), 319-334.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beverley Southgate, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 678.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Meets Fiction)] TJ ET BT 239.660 678.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 2009\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Cannadine, )] TJ ET BT 123.668 652.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History Now?)] TJ ET BT 230.012 652.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. H. Carr, )] TJ ET BT 89.336 625.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History? )] TJ ET BT 173.672 625.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1961\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. R. Elton, )] TJ ET BT 94.688 599.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Practice of History)] TJ ET BT 207.680 599.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 1969\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 573.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gertrude Himmelfarb, ?Telling it as you like it: postmodernist history and the flight from fact?, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 559.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Postmodern History Reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Appleby, Hunt L. and Jacob M., )] TJ ET BT 202.664 532.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Telling the Truth about History)] TJ ET BT 353.348 532.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New York, 1994\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Connelly, ?Postmodern Scepticism, Truth and History? in )] TJ ET BT 347.336 506.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Philosophy of History: Talks given at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the IHR)] TJ ET BT 71.672 492.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Tosh, )] TJ ET BT 89.684 466.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of History)] TJ ET BT 197.360 466.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Harlow, 1984\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl O?Brien, ?An Engagement with Postmodern Foes, Literary Theorists and Friends on the Borders with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History?, IHR website, History in Focus, History and its Postmodern Critics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Jenkins \(Ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 133.004 399.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Postmodern History Reader, )] TJ ET BT 294.656 399.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1997\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Fulbrook, )] TJ ET BT 100.688 373.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Theory)] TJ ET BT 186.356 373.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 2002\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. C. Lemon, )] TJ ET BT 104.684 346.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophy of History)] TJ ET BT 210.020 346.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 2003\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Oakeshott, )] TJ ET BT 131.000 320.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On History)] TJ ET BT 184.664 320.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 1983\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael S. 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