%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141219001037+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141219001037+00'00') /Title (Global Trade and Commercial Networks: Eighteenth-Century Diamond Merchants) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3770 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Global Trade and Commercial Networks: Eighteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Diamond Merchants)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tijl Vanneste has written an important book about the functioning of commercial networks during the mid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century. The author goes beyond national boundaries, as he carefully analyzes how a cross-cultural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-religious, and cross-gender diamond merchant network operated between the cities of Antwerp, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, Amsterdam and Lisbon. His main focus is on how cross-cultural trading networks contributed to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalized outlook.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the core of Vanneste?s book are the papers of James Dormer, a British Catholic merchant who traded and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived in the city of Antwerp around 1750. As Vanneste explains, Dormer?s papers reveal a network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence which crosses national boundaries, religious affiliations, family ties, and gender. He has also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively investigated additional records concerning Dormer and his correspondents in a wide variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belgian, Brazilian, British, Dutch, Portuguese, and United States archives and libraries. These especially, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not exclusively, concern Francisco and Joseph Salvador, who were Sephardic, London-based merchants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Belgian historian argues that a cosmopolitan merchant mentality unified the early modern world. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need for reciprocity, trust and mutual understanding created an intimate world that led to a culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1269)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 14 June, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tijl Vanneste)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848930872)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pickering and Chatto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ernst Pijning)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7114 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal help across national boundaries, and united merchants of different religious/cultural backgrounds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This new merchant mentality was created as a consequence of an ever-increasing international trade. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merchants pursued their self-interested goals, yet these could only be achieved by non-selfish acts involving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reciprocal favors. Profit was a goal to be pursued, yet to diminish risk a mind-set of understanding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual interest was crucial. Merchants thereby recruited and recommended fellow colleagues into their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks who had a similar understanding and shared the same values and reputation. As these merchants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were embedded within their societies and participated in the highest level of exchange, sometimes even as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents of governments, they brought these sets of outward-looking values that commercial exchange had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created, and contributed to a dissimulation of a more global awareness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first two chapters Vanneste sets the scene. Given this book is a case study of a commercial diamond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network around the 1750s, he explains the importance of human agency \(case studies\) in economic history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining how merchants operated, as well as what he means by commercial networks, namely merchants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who acted as an organized group over a long period of time and who had mutually beneficial relations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These merchants had a common interest in wishing to diminish risk, and needing to be well-informed about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the market in order to be able to make sensible decisions themselves, and trust others to make these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions for them. This was especially necessary since the diamond trade was secretive, monopolized, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluctuating, and prone to smuggling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vanneste explains well in the second chapter how the diamond market was organized, especially during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th and 18th centuries. During Dormer?s time, the Portuguese government tried to regulate the diamond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market. As most gems were mined in Portuguese Brazil, the Crown established monopolized contracts both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Brazil, and with regard to the Brazilian diamonds sent to external markets from Portugal. Yet diamonds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were easily smuggled from Brazil, using an older and thus more established route through Goa \(Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India\), Madras \(British India\) and from Borneo. Because of its secrecy, the diamond trade was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicized. Indeed, the Portuguese government ended its European contract in 1757 when it realized that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sephardic merchant Francisco Salvador, one of the Dormer commercial network?s main participants, was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a secret alliance with the official diamond contractors. Marketing diamonds was equally challenging, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different tastes were prevalent in the many markets around the world. Vanneste makes a strong case, arguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a close commercial network was crucial to enable the buying, polishing, financing, and marketing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diamonds at the right place and at the right time. Hence it was vitally importnat that members of the network )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned to trust each other?s judgments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the subsequent two chapters, Vanneste contrasts two commercial networks related to James Dormer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities on the diamond market. The first was a multi-cultural network among whose members were an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishman in Antwerp \(Dormer\), two Huguenots belonging to the English factory/nation in Lisbon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sephardic Jews in London \(Salvador\), British financiers in Amsterdam and a female broker and polisher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who traveled between Amsterdam and Antwerp. James Dormer was a full partner in this network, with all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions being reciprocal, in contrast to the other which was a competing family network of Ashkenazi Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Dormer acted mostly as an agent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The different partners in the network maintained contact through frequent correspondence. Their cooperation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was based on mutual trust, reciprocity and routine ? what Vanneste labels as a ?merchant culture?. Each had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different roles; buying, polishing and marketing diamonds, as well as financing these activities. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the partners in the network supported each other, in and outside the diamond trade. Rendering favors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing recommendations, marketing products for third parties, hosting friends, endorsing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underwriting bills of exchange, and advising/supporting new commercial projects ? all these were all crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the reputation of the merchants. This eventually led to capital accumulation, increased prestige, risk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduction, financial stability and personal friendships. Nevertheless Dormer was also in close and secret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence with the competition, a kinship-based Ashkenazi network.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vanneste contrasted the cross-cultural network with an ethnic and family network of Ashkenazi Jews. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of the Levy/Norden/Salomon network, they operated through family members in Amsterdam, London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hamburg, but needed an Antwerp agent who could sell their gems on that market. The connections with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7382 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dormer were held secret, especially since they were competitors to the other cross-cultural commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network. Vanneste does not consider Dormer to be an equal partner in \(or even a member of\) the Ashkenazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network because the relations were more conflicted, based on less trust, and never fully reciprocal. Still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vanneste shows that there was some personal approximation, as the Levy family did invite Dormer to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wedding of their children, and their business correspondence also had amicable passages. Vanneste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained that the Levy/Norden/Salomons network was less trusted on the market, partly because they had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation of being involved in contraband trade and were thus able to undercut the regular market value of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diamonds. Secrecy seemed to be key to their operations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Vanneste explains how the commercial network mentality changed local outlooks, he moves increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from James Dormer. Chapter five discusses how members of the cross cultural network were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embedded in local societies without losing their own identities, using as examples of the Sephardic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huguenot diaspora the Salvador family in London and the Berthon/Garnault partnership in Lisbon. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of the Salvadors, they were embedded in a ?stronger? British society, but still remained loyal to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sephardic community, although they did keep close ties with British elites. Politically, Joseph Salvador )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported the defeated naturalisation bill in Parliament, which allowed Sephardic and Ashkenazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities to become partial citizens. Even though he became politically involved and showed some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar characteristics to the British elites \(having high profile affairs was one of them\), he did remain loyal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his Sephardic background and a well respected community member.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berton and Gaulart, the Lisbon based Huguenot merchants, were in a ?weaker? Portuguese society, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership of the British nation in Lisbon provided them with privileges. As Huguenots, this allowed them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to continue in their private religious practices and intermarry within their own community. In terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce, the privileges of the British nation in Portugal provided special protection, both in the export of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currency and diamonds as well as in their trading disputes with Portuguese partners. Nevertheless, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huguenot merchants continued to feel ?French? and had close relations with their French compatriots in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese capital. Like the Salvadors, they never lost their original cultural identity, which Vanneste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compares to the reciprocal and outward-looking merchant mentality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Successful cosmopolitan and open-minded merchants were highly regarded by the political elites. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participated in local communities, and became sought-after advisors for high-level governmental agents. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only did they trade and exchange goods and property from many parts of the world, but they were also aware )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the different issues at stake and even discussed them in their correspondence. In the last part of the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, when Joseph Salvador became a member of the Royal Society, he was engaged in discussions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the improvement of the sciences and agriculture, and intervened in East India Company affairs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Previously, the Salvador family was sought out by the Portuguese ambassador \(Pombal and his father\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolve issues, among which was the building of a Catholic chapel. James Dormer eventually died on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission of the Austrian emperor to Britain to find support for a lottery. All members of the cross-cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network corresponded regularly, often considering matters of state that were seemingly unrelated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial activities. In other words an outward outlook was ingrained in this merchant culture, a shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in the rest of the world in which all merchants communicated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book and especially in his conclusion, the author provides the reader with ?to do? lists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will answer the obvious criticisms of most readers. Vanneste discusses what constitutes a cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural network, which he contrasts with a family network. Reciprocity seems to be the key point. Yet both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Sephardic and Askhenazi networks had strong family ties, and in both cases Dormer did have a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal correspondence. Hence the question of ?belonging to? or ?not-belonging to? became murky. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vanneste?s definition is outcome-oriented, looking at the level of trust between the different partners. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, according to his definition embedded merchants were not related to, nor had married into, the host )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities, and thereby kept their own identity. Again, this seems fluid, especially since part of the cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural network, including James Dormer, had indeed intermarried locally. Another distinction is between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?weak? and ?strong? host societies, defined by how much privileges a foreign factory/nation could impose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the host society, Portugal was seen as ?weak? and Britain as ?strong?, based on treaty concessions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vanneste has his personal doubts about this self-identification of the British as being superior, and indeed, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5157 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he points out himself how important families related to the diamond trade such as the Braamcamps and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gildemeesters were interrelated with their host community. Yet, did they thereby lose their own cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, or for that matter contribute to a more outward-looking mentality? Vanneste pointedly remarks that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more research will be necessary concerning other groups that contributed equally to a more global outlook. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, one of these groups might be centered around the Royal Society, to which Joseph Salvador )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belonged, and within which members from around the globe corresponded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a different vein, Vanneste claims that his work on the trading network is non-Eurocentric, as he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider these networks superior to other trading networks outside Europe. Vanneste sees these networks as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a general globalization movement, and his examples just happen to come from a variety of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations. At the same time as the author recognises that the merchants in Dormer?s network resided in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Europe, he also points out that similar commercial relations and mentality went far beyond this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical area. As Vanneste is analyzing a cross-cultural network, he claims that the validity of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings also crosses time and oceans, as he expected that similar cross-cultural networks in other parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world will display a similar mentality. Vanneste asserts that cross-cultural interaction can be found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both correspondence and the development of credit lines. The author makes a plea for a global comparison, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provides future researchers with a model for analysis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tijl Vanneste is himself an interesting historian, keeping the Belgium interest in Brazil, Portugal, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese India alive. Together with Johan Vanberckmoes and Bart de Prins, he continues the scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of Eddy Stols and others who have actively promoted the understanding of Latin America, Asia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Iberian Peninsula in the Low Countries. Their activities go beyond the interests of professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, for instance in 2011?12 they organized impressive expositions concerning the indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations in Brazil \()] TJ ET BT 141.680 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ndios no Brasil)] TJ ET BT 219.020 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), images of Brazil in the Low Countries \()] TJ ET BT 419.996 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terra Brasilis)] TJ ET BT 487.676 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diamonds \()] TJ ET BT 87.680 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Circuito dos Diamantes)] TJ ET BT 202.352 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) as part of the Europalia/Brasil international arts festival. This effort was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an impressive collaboration between the Belgium and Brazilian governments, under the aegis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Union, and forged by a connection between Belgium, Brazilian and Portuguese scholars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic institutions. In the same vein this book, )] TJ ET BT 274.004 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Global Trade and Commercial Networks)] TJ ET BT 470.672 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is the fruit of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissertation defended at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, while the advisor was Diogo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ramalda Couto from Portugal, and it was published in Great Britain. He is part of an increasing global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic network that is interested in interacting with the local communities in which they find themselves.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 356.575 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 338.795 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 338.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1269)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 337.401 m 328.316 337.401 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 312.424 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/20909)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 337.7155 328.3157 349.5955 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1269) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000004481 00000 n 0000004590 00000 n 0000004700 00000 n 0000004809 00000 n 0000008370 00000 n 0000008498 00000 n 0000008582 00000 n 0000008647 00000 n 0000015814 00000 n 0000015879 00000 n 0000023314 00000 n 0000023398 00000 n 0000028608 00000 n 0000028736 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28832 %%EOF