%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930115640+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930115640+01'00') /Title (The Power of Kings: Monarchy and Religion in Europe, 1589-1715) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4581 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Power of Kings: Monarchy and Religion in Europe, 1589-1715)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Kliber Monod has written an ambitious and very welcome book, which seeks to investigate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Christianity and kingship across the whole of Christian Europe in the 'long' seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century from 1589 to 1715. This is certa inly a brave enterprise, calling as it does for a working knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of several languages and the strikingly diverse histories of many countries. It is courageous in another way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too, because anyone who takes such a broad approach must be vulnerable to hos tile criticisms from legions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of outraged specialists. That is one reason to praise the book, for at a time when scholarly myopia often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems more of a threat than ever such synoptic essays are peculiarly valuable. More than that, this is in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respects an excellent book; economically presented, well-argued, provocative in the best sense. There is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasing and constructive determination to bring together elements taken from intellectual, cultural, religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political history, so that here too bou ndaries are constantly being crossed to positive effect. The central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis is both plausible and important, suggesting as it does that the ways in which monarchs claimed to act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as mediators between the heavenly and earthly worlds underwent a crucial cha nge. Sacred kingship was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplanted by rational rulership, within the context of a religion which laid much greater stress on individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral responsibility. Representations and rituals altered accordingly, as did theories of sovereignty, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sta te itself accumulated both new powers and new problems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is a very bald summary of a complex argument, whereas the book looks to make proper allowance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the innumerable cross-currents and regional variations. Monod subdivides the whole period into five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsections, each roughly twenty to thirty years lo ng. Within these cells he employs a kind of collage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technique, discussing key episodes or developments state by state \(although not in an unvarying order\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage includes not only the kingdoms of Western Europe, but Scandinavia, Poland and Russia . )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(127)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Kleber Monod)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(427pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Briggs)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7453 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably this is a highly selective survey in terms of each national history, although a high proportion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the best-known events or crises of the century find a place somewhere. There is some degree of trade-off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved; this mode of presentation is lively and attractive, ensures that the discussion is always related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real events, and suggests that there were identifiable phases within the broader scheme. The price may be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain loss of analytical power, for however compressed the descriptio ns may be, they still tend to absorb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of the space, while comparisons are often less rigorous than one might wish. I felt that these chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have benefited from more elaborate framing devices, which might have included proper introductory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and concluding sections. The problem becomes more serious when the conclusion to the whole book fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(match the excellent introductory chapter; I hope it is not just my own obtuseness which leaves me wishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a considerably firmer attempt on Monod's pa rt to pull all his threads together. If there is a problem it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly not with the writing, which is clear, stylish, and wholly free of jargon or pretentiousness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it comes to the main argument, on the other hand, I am in some respects happier with Monod's end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than with his beginning. I am wholly persuaded that a new type of relationship between monarchs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion became possible through the far-reaching ev olution of European Christianity in the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation era, as much as through parallel changes in the state. This makes a pleasing extension to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weberian story of how religion repeatedly served as the midwife to rationalism. The picture could be f illed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out on many fronts, not least through a much fuller investigation of the origins and nature of the forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were transforming many aspects of belief and practice. It is not meant as a criticism to say that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some respects what we have here is a sketch map - a book of this kind is arguably most helpful when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invites others to start filling in the gaps. What may be more debatable is the whole notion of sacred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, which by implication is seen as characteristic of the pre-1589 era. Monod himself admits that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only England and France could be advanced as full examples, in terms of characteristics firmly attached to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their rulers, although the Emperor Charles V and his son Philip II have more individualistic claims. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader will look in v ain for any clear definition of the term, which suggests a more general problem than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere failure on the author's part. While historians undoubtedly need constructs resembling Weberian 'ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types', these are notoriously slippery creations, which have an awkward way of taking on a life of their own. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this case there does seem to be a danger of reifying a thoroughly untidy situation into an implausibly neat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My own judgement is that there was no coherent ideology of sacred monarchy in fifteenth or sixteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Europe, rather that elements of sacrality were present at various levels without forming a system. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rituals, ceremonies and public declaration s rested on a kind of intellectual bricolage, like so much else )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in later medieval thought, and historians should resist the temptation to select elements from them in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct their own anachronistic systems. The extraordinary mixture of pagan, classical and Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes in each royal myth points up this heterogeneity. It is not wholly surprising that a powerful French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch like Francis I, surrounded by claims about a saintly royal bloodline leading the second Chosen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(People, seems to ha ve found remarkably little need to use them. A king who possessed all the characteristics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an alpha male could treat his authority as if it emanated directly from himself, leaving the fictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated by his tame intellectuals as mere decoration. Mu ch the same could be said of the Emperor Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V; here there was a distinct touch of the prophetic and apocalyptic traditions in some of the myths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding the Habsburgs, yet it is hard to see that Charles himself had much time for them. The fact th at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles and his son Philip II undoubtedly believed in their divinely approved mission to fight against Islam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the protestant heresy may even help account for their more casual approach to issues about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One must surely question how far the theories elaborated around princes had any impact on political reality; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could later medieval grandees have uttered Shakespearean meditations on the king's two bodies, or equated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their favourite sport of rebellion with a sin against God? The sixteenth century does begin to look rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different, as educational, religious and intellectual changes altered the whole context of political thought and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct. My suggestion for rescuing much of Monod's argument, while putti ng a rather different spin on it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that the first instinct of later sixteenth-century monarchs in difficulties - or perhaps their councillors - was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed to play up their own sacrality, through a much more elaborate development of traditional themes. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7535 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classic case is that of the late Valois kings Charles IX and Henri III, as the work of Denis Crouzet in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular has brought out. The attempt to build a fantasy world through which the king could somehow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recreate the authority he had lost in the re al one proved an inevitable fiasco; in France it led through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massacre of St Bartholomew to the League, the branding of Henri III as a devil-worshipper and murderer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then his assassination. Elizabeth I of England may have been an incomparably more suc cessful monarch, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet she too had to deal with a religiously divided country, then the eternal problem of her own gender. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cunningly constructed myth necessarily evaded these problems, and therefore sits awkwardly with the tropes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sacred monarchy. O ne may also doubt whether it had much political or religious weight, in comparison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with her more pragmatic skills in compromise and prevarication.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My argument is therefore that late medieval rulers were happy to incorporate the sacred into the bundle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims which reinforced their power and status, one of whose strengths was precisely its vagueness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptability. Attempts to turn sacred kingsh ip into an actual style of rule, on the other hand, are probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best seen as signs of panic or weakness; one reason why new forms evolved to replace it was precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it proved such a broken reed. Henri IV of France, for example, exploited the ro yal touch to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate his legitimacy, but the main thrust of his policy and public statements was to associate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown with rationality, the preservation of order, and national hostility to Spain. The simultaneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of Bodin's theory of so vereignty fits very well with this shift. If1589 is therefore a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate date at which to begin the story, it may also be a much sharper break than Monod indicates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marking the abrupt end of an ill-starred experiment with sacred monarchy in one m ajor state. Sixty years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later the execution of Charles I would mark a similar watershed in British history, despite the considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posthumous success of the cult of the royal martyr. The difficulty we all have is in deciding just where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial shi fts occur, when even traumatic events have to be placed within the massive continuities of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period when change was generally regarded as a thoroughly bad thing, and innovations did best if disguised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a return to the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the whole I think that Monod succeeds in conveying the immensely disruptive force of the reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and counter-reformation movements, to which monarchs had no choice but to respond. Whether he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried the analysis far enough is another matter, w hile some particular elements may be underplayed, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the strong apocalyptic and eschatological influences on the thought of many zealots, which might even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead some of them to exult in 'times of shaking'. To engage in a rather outrageous reviewer's gimmick of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having it both ways, I must add that when he does highlight this element in connection with Frederick V of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Palatinate and his Bohemian adventure of 1618-20 I think he has been led astray by some of the wilder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculations of the late Dame F rances Yates, subsequently pretty much exploded by numerous critics. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally there is another major problem in determining the extent to which extreme statements of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions represent broader opinion. For example, Monod perceives an ou tright clash between the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dvot)] TJ ET BT 60.008 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( movement and the policies of Cardinal Richelieu, which involves him in some drastic simplifications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of highly complex issues and relationships. Others - including this reviewer - would see Richelieu as having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been remarkably successful in retaining the support of most Catholic reformers in France, and doubt whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either popular or noble revolt drew major inspiration or strength from this direction. One of the Cardinal's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest skills lay in his manipulati on of public opinion; in this context there does seem to be some error of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective in devoting more attention to Rubens's canvases glorifying Marie de' Medici than to the crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates in the 1620s and 30s over )] TJ ET BT 198.992 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raison d'tat)] TJ ET BT 259.232 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and to the propag anda offensive of which the latter were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part. It can well be argued that such key policy issues as alliances with protestant states and toleration for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huguenots had deeply unsettling implications for the Most Christian King. Opponents, many of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly opportunistic, deployed a whole range of what were essentially analogical claims, which implied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the political and religious worlds should operate as a harmonious whole. Ministerial writers were forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to draw distinctions which relied on analytical reasoning, and bore a very close resemblance to the casuistry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Jesuits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is one of a number of instances in which Monod's treatment of the central French case leaves me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissatisfied or unconvinced, yet where by following somewhat different lines of reasoning one can arrive at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather similar conclusions. The pattern of ch ange is less linear than he implies, for trends may even go into )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7849 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverse; there are certainly some very powerful cross-currents at work. While he does include a similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautious statement in his own final remarks, the selectivity of his presentation risk s giving a different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression. When it comes to Louis XIV there is little to complain about in what he says; the problem is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather with the omissions. Although Monod makes effective use of one of my own favourite documents, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journal kept by the pri est Alexandre Dubois, he gives only the briefest consideration to developments within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the catholic reform and their interaction with the state. The very high level of symbiosis achieved over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period 1660-1700 in a drive to impose social and religious discipline on the people must be set against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively minor issue of the suppression of the Company of the Holy Sacrament. If Archbishop Fnelon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed familiar )] TJ ET BT 122.000 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dvot)] TJ ET BT 147.992 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( arguments in his 1693 letter criticizing royal policy, he also mastermin ded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disastrous anti-Jansenist bull )] TJ ET BT 175.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unigenitus)] TJ ET BT 227.684 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( twenty years later, which attacked many of the values he had once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to advocate. The church-state alliance ultimately threatened to produce a strange caricature of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional state, within which both the royal government and the catholic hierarchy had trapped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves with an impossibly narrow definition of orthodoxy. The treatment of )] TJ ET BT 422.648 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Unigenitus)] TJ ET BT 478.316 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness, so sketchy that the reader gets no impression of how important the crisis was at the time, nor of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immense significance for the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These remarks have concentrated on France, but I see similar problems with the book's handling of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states, where several alternative narratives could be provided in almost every case. In isolating one aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so complex a situation - whose scale o f difficulty is most imperfectly suggested by this review - Monod has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore not written a truly balanced study of the relations between monarchy and religion in seventeenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Europe. That would of course be a formidable task for even one countr y over a shorter period, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is no prospect that any single volume will achieve such a feat. What he has achieved is however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably more than these perhaps querulous comments might indicate. This is in many ways a book to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think and argue with ; to say that its central thesis is flawed or incomplete is not at all the same as saying that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is wrong. As I indicated at the start, Monod has put his finger on what is patently a crucial seventeenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century development, then marshalled an impressive amount of evidence around his theme, while leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space for others to develop the more elaborate analyses and explanations the topic ultimately demands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a parting shot, one possible line for development might be derived from my concerns about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicability of the 'sacred monarchy' concept in the earlier period. This argument would emphasize the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance ambition, on many fronts, to create structures in what had previously been inchoate or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmented styles of thought. One aspect of this earlier situation had been a remarkably confused boundary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between sacred and profane, whose relatively easy co-existence depended on a lack of differenti ation. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexibility was further aided by the habit of associating the sacred with specific times and places, at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expense of continuities. Religious reformers within all denominations displayed great impatience with such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways of thinking and behav ing, however inconsistent their own attempts at greater logic may really have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been. Rationality was as much internal to religious reform as it was to political ideas about the state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the two did not mesh at all well on many occasions. The refor mers sought to alter key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings about the self and the relationship of the earthly world to the divine purpose, in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliminate the corruption of true religion; in the process they were drawn to redefine the sacred so that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered virtual ly every aspect of life. In retrospect this was an impossibly ambitious dream, which carried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seeds of its own failure and of intense conflicts. Once the sacred was effectively redefined, sacred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy would have had to move far beyond its relative ly feeble and spasmodic medieval manifestations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if it was to prove an effective mode of rulership. In this light religious change posed huge problems for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers, since it set standards which were incompatible with any realistic form of everyday rule, whi le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspiring groups of zealots who would be dissatisfied with anything less. If we locate much of the dynamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the religious and intellectual sphere in this way, then the story told by Monod acquires new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonances. Above all I would claim that it is given a much clearer causal pattern. One of the problems I find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the numerous intelligent and interesting historians of ritual and ceremony on whose work he draws is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the implicit causal links; why and how are changes made, and do they rea lly matter? Of course these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are matters which historians are likely to debate for decades to come, and my criticisms are meant as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendly response to the very considerable stimulus Paul Monod should have given to that debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/127)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/735)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/127) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000005287 00000 n 0000005396 00000 n 0000005506 00000 n 0000005615 00000 n 0000009176 00000 n 0000009304 00000 n 0000009388 00000 n 0000009453 00000 n 0000016959 00000 n 0000017024 00000 n 0000024612 00000 n 0000024677 00000 n 0000032579 00000 n 0000032663 00000 n 0000033367 00000 n 0000033495 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33590 %%EOF