%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818090702+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818090702+01'00') /Title (Land, Popular Politics and Agrarian Violence in Ireland: the Case of County Kerry, 1872?86) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4346 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Land, Popular Politics and Agrarian Violence in Ireland: the Case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of County Kerry, 1872?86)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1870s and 1880s were formative decades in the development of Irish nationalist identity. The land and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national movements mobilized the countryside on a scale not seen since the days of Daniel O?Connell. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite a significant corpus of work being produced between the 1970s and mid 1990s, scholarship on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant period in modern Irish history has become stagnant in recent years. Therefore, Donnacha Sen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucey?s )] TJ ET BT 77.000 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land, popular politics and agrarian violence in Ireland: the case of county Kerry, 1872-86)] TJ ET BT 514.640 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed for reviving a debate that has become moribund. Regional studies such as this expose the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anomalies present in national surveys, and Lucey?s extensive primary research and thorough engagement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the secondary literature, deepens our knowledge of the complexities of post-Famine Irish society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The prosperity of Ireland in this period led to the expansion of a credit-based system, with shopkeepers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extending credit to farmers. The precarious nature of the economy resulted in the Land War becoming ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bitter conflict between two sets of creditors?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 250.304 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 250.304 95.985 m 264.296 95.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.296 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In Kerry, tensions were especially noticeable between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative Catholic middle-class that generally supported Home Rule and those from the lower classes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that partook in agrarian violence. Lucey paints a vivid picture of the extensive intra-tenant strife that existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the end of this period of prosperity in Kerry; with little animosity being directed towards landlords, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1270)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 14 June, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donnacha Sen Lucey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781906359669)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University College Dublin Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Casey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 250.3037 96.2995 264.2957 108.1795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7746 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which supports Hoppen?s contention that: ?well into the second half of the [nineteenth] century, bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords, not landlordism )] TJ ET BT 163.352 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 192.344 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, constituted the main object of attack? by tenants.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.980 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.980 780.819 m 446.972 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into seven chapters that combine a chronological and thematic approach. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter focuses upon the post-Famine economy of Kerry. Here, Lucey traces the growing influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerry middle class and their increasing politicisation, as Catholic merchants became a burgeoning power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(base. The diverse quality of land in the locality saw farming methods vary from region to region. As James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Donnelly showed in 1971, demand for butter between the 1850s and 1870s was very high, and as the land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the southwest was suitable for dairying and was in reasonable proximity to the Cork Butter Market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmers benefited immeasurably from the commercialization of farming.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.604 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.604 669.027 m 396.596 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.596 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The quality of land can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correlated with prosperity across the county. As the land was quite barren in the Caherciveen, Dingle and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenmare unions, they were quite poor and the poorest farmers still relied upon migratory labour to survive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the prosperity that came to Kerry in the post-Famine period did also benefit them. This prosperity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought an increase in the value of land in the county, though landlords faced resistance when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to increase rents. The tenant-right market was quite vibrant in the 1870s, with farmers often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selling it in an attempt to defraud creditors. As landlords failed to regulate it, they attempted to impose fines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on tenants that sold tenant-right, in an attempt to derive some benefit from it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters two and three focus upon the emergence of the agricultural depression and the Land League )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agitation that soon followed. There were no contested elections in Kerry in the first two decades following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Famine, with the Kenmares and Herberts of Muckross dominating politics in the county. Lucey argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the calm nature of landlord-tenant relations in the county played a significant role in maintaining a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political equilibrium between these two liberal families. However, the emergence of the Home Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association and Rowland Ponsonboy Blennerhasset?s election in 1872 changed this dynamic. There was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant clerical resistance to Blennerhasset and his election was indicative of how the Catholic middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class were beginning to play an important role as power brokers in elections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucey expands upon Samuel Clark's 'challenging collectivity' thesis, by examining the Kerry Tenant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Defence Association, which was established as a response to the inadequacies of the 1870 Land Act, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analogous movements being established elsewhere in the country. Divisions soon emerged when The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Donoghue attempted to impose himself its leader. This presented numerous difficulties as he did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support tenant-right, and his supporters were not in favour of Home Rule or Parnell. Such a multifarious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure supports Lucey?s argument that 'In many ways, the KTDA reflected the disparate nature of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlord politics in the mid to late 1870s which was a combination of Liberal tenant-righters, home rulers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Fenians' \(p. 41\) While it was a direct challenge to landlord authority, it would be disingenuous to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that it was a united body.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The economic crisis of the 1870s saw the Catholic middle class in Kerry now begin to play a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political role, as they were responsible for the distribution of relief. The formal establishment of the Land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League in Kerry saw Timothy Harrington of the )] TJ ET BT 267.968 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kerry Sentinel )] TJ ET BT 340.628 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming its president, with the )] TJ ET BT 497.288 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sentinel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming its mouthpiece. The provincial press played an important role in disseminating ideas during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Land War. While traditional, ?unwritten? laws still played an important role in the countryside, Lucey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contends that they were unable to take the evolving market economy of post-Famine Ireland into account. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The illiterate, monoglot, Irish speakers of the south and west limited the spread of the league in Kerry, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity concentrated in North and Central Kerry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four explores the proto-nationalist nature of agrarian violence that evolved into later movements. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The localist and subaltern nature of it poses the question as to the level of nationalist consciousness there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was amongst the lower classes in rural society. It is arguable whether Whiteboyism, as Lucey contended, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was based on class consciousness. It would have been useful to provide a definition of class as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries may have understood it. This is especially pertinent as peasants were generally passive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creatures until their immediate circumstances were threatened. The suppression of the league led to a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wave of agrarian violence that strengthened the anti-rent campaign, and the imprisonment of moderate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders removed an important buffer, which led to what Lucey terms 'agrarian anarchy'. Lucey states that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.9797 781.1335 446.9717 793.0135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.6037 669.3415 396.5957 681.2215 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7282 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence suggests that individual Land League members played important roles in secret societies, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moonlighters often claiming to be carrying out the work of the Land League, and leaders were sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambivalent to violence and extra-constitutional activity. While some of the leading members of the league in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerry encouraged violence, they did not commit it, with some, such as Harrington and the clergy, opposing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. The violence in Kerry was a mesh of anti-landlord sentiment and personal disputes, and Lucey challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lee's assertion that 'the boys' carried out the violence. More than social frustrations were responsible for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social unrest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five sheds important new light on that phenomenon that was Parnellism. Lucey is correct in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserting that the stress upon 'high politics' within Irish historiography limits our understanding as to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics of the semi-revolutionary land war by failing to examine the role of the 'rank and file' participants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the movement. Parnell had succeeded in moderating nationalism, though Lucey could also have argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the imprisonment of some of the more radical leaders played an equally important role in this regard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The violent consequences of the 'No Rent Manifesto' in Kerry saw three murders and numerous shootings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This violence was checked in the aftermath of the 1881 Land Act and the 1882 Arrears Act, as tenants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to derive some benefit from them. This was coupled with a special 'police tax' imposed on disturbed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(districts and a shame felt towards violence, with no desire to return to it. The movement had moved from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nascent radical hue and was now appealing to a wealthier, middle class and this resulted in a rightward shift. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The coercive nature of the Crimes Act also limited the effectiveness of the National League. Labour Leagues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had emerged simultaneously, and with agricultural labourers having active involvement in these the police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed them to be a form of subterfuge for the Land League. The reports of the Special Resident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magistrates for this time are a wholly under-utilised source, with references to the 'Land and Labour League' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being carried in their weekly reports. Despite the cause of labour being championed somewhat briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the country in 1882, it had no strong advocates amongst the leadership of the National League at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a local level. Lucey's argument at this point is unclear. Labourers did play an important role as participants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Land League and Irish National League, but Lucey could have made better use of the source material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in trying to uncover the sincerity of the leadership in representing their cause.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the Protestant middle classes felt isolated because of the Catholic dimension of the Irish National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League, an anti-rates movement emerged in Kerry that transcended political and religious interests, being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the strain felt by the middle classes in relation to the payment of rates. There was further co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation regarding the establishment of a creamery, which would create jobs. When Earl Spencer visited in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 1884, he was generally warmly received, though there was some hostility in parts of the county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where there was a strong Fenian element at play. The Royal visit in 1885 was seen to be a good opportunity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to drum up anti-English support and rhetoric admonished the tyranny of British rule. However, Nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation was disjointed in Kerry, which undermined their ability to mobilise against the visit. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrations took place, the 'respectable' classes greeted the party with warmth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sporting organisations were a cause for tensions within the nationalist community in Kerry and this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symptomatic of diverging nationalist opinions in the county. Those desiring 'respectability' participated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the events of the Tralee Athletics Sports Day. However, its links with the gentry and obvious class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connotations saw it struggle to gain support against the nascent Gaelic Athletics Association, which had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more egalitarian hue. The centralisation of control was a tendency of Parnellism, and in Kerry this resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a schism between Harrington and others, as there was frustration with the League because of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant focus on returning MPs to the neglect of other local issues that concerned people. Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrington and his brother, Thomas, were both divisive figures in Kerry, and Edward's failure to support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(GAA threatened the political stability of nationalists in the county. Their rather forceful personalities saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim become known as 'the supreme dictator in Ireland? \(p. 142\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The return of agricultural distress in 1885 as a result of a plunge in the price of cattle and butter in 1884 saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewed support for the Irish National League in Kerry and this is explored in chapter six. The Land Acts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created an expectation amongst tenants that reductions were possible and the refusal of many landlords to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grant reductions saw a renewed agitation emerge. Prior to the Plan of Campaign, tenants did seek rent )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reductions, and while some, often smaller, landlords did grant these there were others that combined to resist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands by tenants to reduce their rent to Griffith's Valuation. The low returns for the produce undermined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reductions achieved in the Land Courts. While renewed hostilities were in the minds of organisers, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas O'Rourke of the Tralee branch calling for the non-payment of rent in April 1885. The agrarianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creeping into the league was at odds with national objectives and Timothy Harrington could do little to stop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. Following the failure of the Home Rule Bill, attention shifted towards the land question again. John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redmond told farmers that if they were patient, they would get land more cheaply, which is ironic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering that recent scholarship has shown that he received a rather high price for the sale of his estate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the terms of the 1903 Land Act.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.316 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.316 681.027 m 231.308 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As in other parts of the country, the Roman Catholic Church played an important role in the operation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish National League. The law of the League often superseded civil law, with meetings held to settle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes. While Timothy Harrington was a moderate, his control over the local League was not complete. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The clergy also played an important role in moderating extremism because they needed to court middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour to sustain their churches. Radicals had lost the ability to organise both in Kerry and across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country, but Lucey does not explain why, and this is something that warrants discussion in the context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land question. Did some of the more radical leaders die or emigrate? For example, the death of Matt Harris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1890 brought an end to the radical hue that had dominated the nationalist movement in east Galway.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven explores the continuing ambiguous attitude of the Irish National League towards violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even following the death of John O'Connell Curtin at the hands of Moonlighters. )] TJ ET BT 424.148 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(United Ireland )] TJ ET BT 498.140 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arms over this death, asserting that Captain Moonlight had come to the aid of landlords. While individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(branches attempted to assert control over violence, Edward Harrington contended that where the League was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weak, outrage was at its strongest. Those that carried out such violence had little stake in the country, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the League had failed to embrace them, thus, as a consequence, they had nothing to lose. This exposition is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the more important features of this work. The subalterns were part of a marginal subculture, excluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the burgeoning, middle-class polity in the countryside that was dominated by personalities like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrington brothers and The O'Donoghue of the Glens. Unlike in Galway and Mayo, which had radical, left-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaning Fenians such as Michael Davitt, Matt Harris and Michael Malachy O?Sullivan animating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside, the Kerry leadership were a conservative bunch, with little interest in radical concepts such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant proprietorship as they sought concessions in a continuing landlord-tenant paradigm. What is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite striking from this work is the dominance of the moderate forces within the nationalist movement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerry. This forced the Fenian element to capitulate and support Home Rule by 1885, which ended any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalism that may have ensued.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Lucey has a tendency to repeat his points, this appears to be down to a lack of judicious copy-editing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and should not detract from what is a fine book. There was nothing glamourous about the Land War, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revolutionary period of the 20th century. Reading through dense reports of speeches in newspapers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police reports is tiresome and laborious. However, such graft is important for what was the most significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epoch in Irish history and Lucey has carried out his research in a comprehensive manner. A further strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is his ability to compare the agitation in Kerry with that in other counties. Mayo saw the fight take place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between small farmers against graziers, a group that Matt Harris saw as more despicable than landlords; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the Kerry clergy stressed the woes of the strong farmers because they were of the same class. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agitation in Kerry did not take the same radical turn as that in the west because it was dominated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative elements. This is a book of significance. The research it embodies, and the arguments put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward by Lucey, all shed further light on a most intriguing period of Irish history. It shows that intra-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations and tensions played an important role in popular politics, with the lower classes eventually being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the losers in the story of the Land War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. P. Curtis Jr., ?Landlord responses to the Irish Land War, 1879?87?, )] TJ ET BT 403.964 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eire-Ireland: Journal of Irish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies)] TJ ET BT 98.684 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Fall-Winter 2003\), 149.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.668 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.668 52.035 m 273.656 52.035 l S endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.3157 681.3415 231.3077 693.2215 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.6677 52.3495 273.6557 64.2295 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 2181 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. T. Hoppen, )] TJ ET BT 136.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Election, Politics and Society in Ireland, 1832?1885)] TJ ET BT 387.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1984\), pp. 136?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.644 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.644 795.075 m 550.304 795.075 l S BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 90.344 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James S. Donnelly, Jr., ?Cork market: its role in the nineteenth century butter trade, )] TJ ET BT 468.296 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studia Hibernica)] TJ ET BT 550.628 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11 \(1971\), 130?63.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.336 752.307 m 209.324 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Patrick Cosgrove, 'The controversy and consequences of John Redmond's estate sale under the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wyndham Land Act, 1903', )] TJ ET BT 200.156 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 310.160 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 55, 1 \(March 2012\), 75?96.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.800 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.800 723.795 m 501.788 723.795 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1270)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 328.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/20912)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.6437 795.3895 550.3037 807.2695 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 781.1335 90.3437 793.0135 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3357 752.6215 209.3237 764.5015 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 447.7997 724.1095 501.7877 735.9895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 328.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1270) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000600 00000 n 0000000689 00000 n 0000005087 00000 n 0000005196 00000 n 0000005306 00000 n 0000005415 00000 n 0000008976 00000 n 0000009104 00000 n 0000009188 00000 n 0000009217 00000 n 0000009344 00000 n 0000009380 00000 n 0000009471 00000 n 0000017270 00000 n 0000017300 00000 n 0000017428 00000 n 0000017464 00000 n 0000017494 00000 n 0000017622 00000 n 0000017658 00000 n 0000017723 00000 n 0000025058 00000 n 0000025149 00000 n 0000032635 00000 n 0000032665 00000 n 0000032793 00000 n 0000032829 00000 n 0000032955 00000 n 0000033010 00000 n 0000033122 00000 n 0000035356 00000 n 0000035484 00000 n 0000035539 00000 n 0000035665 00000 n 0000035720 00000 n 0000035848 00000 n 0000035903 00000 n 0000036031 00000 n 0000036086 00000 n 0000036214 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36310 %%EOF