%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021041732+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021041732+01'00') /Title (Making History: The Historian and the Uses of the Past) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4269 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Making History: The Historian and the Uses of the Past)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to the blurb on the back of this book:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Everyone has a personal connection to the past, independent of historical inquiry. So, what is the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian? )] TJ ET BT 84.344 232.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making History)] TJ ET BT 160.004 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argues that historians have damagingly dissociated the discipline of history from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the everyday nature of history, defining their work only in scholarly terms. Exploring the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between history and society, Kalela makes the case for a more participatory historical research culture, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which historians take account of their role in society and the ways in which history-making as a basic social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice is present in their work. )] TJ ET BT 191.648 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making History)] TJ ET BT 267.308 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( not only asks provocative questions about the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, it also provides practical guidance for students and historians on planning research projects with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater public impact. This book is vital reading for all historians, lay and professional, and will be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential text for undergraduate and postgraduate courses on historiography and research methods?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pursuit of this ?more participatory historical research culture? starts in the preface \(entitled ?Why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history??\) with the author, Jorma Kalela, arguing that this question is more fruitful than the conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?What is history?? This undertaking is rationalised by the author with the claim that people need knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the past, which is as natural as needing to eat or breathe \(the author quotes the American historian David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thelen to this effect\) \(p. ix\). Kalela then goes on to offer a detailed defence of the history profession, based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1272)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 21 June, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jorma Kalela)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230276819)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(52.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alun Munslow)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7948 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the basic assumption upon which the book is built and which it defends. This assumption is that there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?relationship between historical inquiry and history-in-society?, but Kalela places ?the emphasis on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the question? \(p. x\). It is a book about not just the nature of history \(which the author defines as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?craft?\) but its uses and especially how ?laypeople? create histories. Kalela thus addresses \(as he says\) ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more complicated matter than just the disciplinary practices of which historians willingly talk ? not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention the idea of some postmodernist thinkers according to which history is the historians invention? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xi\). Then in the next-but-one sentence Kalela says it is his hope ?...that members of any society will accept, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the British historian John Tosh has recently emphasized, history by its nature as the citizens? resource?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now, it is not much of an insight to say that we all read texts through our own intellectual beliefs. So, I came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to realise from the first few pages that this book was probably not going to be one I could agree with. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became certain when I read the author?s claim that historians ought to ?... take on a more balanced way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking and greater self-awareness? \(p. xi\) concerning what they do. Spending half my career trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue this exact objective has suggested to me that such an aim is laudable but incapable of delivery. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that apart, what is it that Kalela is arguing?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Kalela says, ?... it seems obvious? \(to him\) ?that we have a connection to the historical past, as ordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persons, prior to and independently of adopting a historical cognitive interest? \(p. xi\). He summarises this as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?history-in-society? \(p. xii\). This is delivered for Kalela through his defence of what elsewhere I have called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?empirical-analytical/colligatory-representationalist? epistemological understanding of how we can and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be able to conflate the past and history. Kalela ends the preface to his book by saying ?Since the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is written in the spirit of ?history is an argument without end?, I welcome all criticism and comments: )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jorma.Kelela@utu.fi)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 497.955 m 133.052 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 136.052 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 150.044 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?. So, please regard this review as both criticism and comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That apart, the author gets into his stride in the introduction to chapter one, which he subtitles ?Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts about history? \(p. 1\). Basically, he addresses the connection he makes between the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption and professional production of history. In acknowledging that history is a social process, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that historians are ?parts of history? \(quoting E. H. Carr\) to the effect that historians are ?spokesmen of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society to which they belong? \(p. 1\), Kalela evaluates the matter of ?history-in-society?, believing that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(big issue is the public functioning of history. In pursuit of this narrative the author notes the ?paradigmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in historical research? comprised of ?the disruption within the discipline ... that elevated cleaners to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status on a par with kings?, and a second such change, namely the linguistic turn ?which questioned the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar tenets of historical research, reality, objectivity and truth? \(p. 5\). This time of turmoil in approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and content was shaped by the ?the trouble symbolized by Hayden White?s )] TJ ET BT 399.284 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 457.280 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from 1973, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example? \(pp. 5?6\). Invoking Richard J. Evans as his source for his analysis of this ?trouble?, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that this ?postmodern threat? overshadowed the other ?disruption? \(p. 6\). The resulting upset was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?...enough to be characterised as a paradigmatic change? and produced a ?scientific revolution in historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research? \(ibid.\) and that ?everyday history, too, was transformed towards the turn of the twenty-first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century thanks to the unparalleled number of people engaged with history? \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, Kalela claims, the nature of this change in ?perspectival paradigms? \(p. 8\) led to no consensus on what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is ?real? historical research \(ibid\). Kalela then says the extent of these paradigmatic changes \(to cleaners as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to kings and the linguistic turn\) remains open to question, quoting John Tosh to argue that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection between ?historical enquiry and history-making as a basic social practice is a case in point, since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most academics look askance? at popular uses of the past \(ibid.\). And the author completes his thoughts with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a further Tosh quote, to the effect that these developments were a diversion from the real job of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructing and interpreting the past. And this is what concerns me with this book. I find myself having to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualify the author?s claim that ?It is the task of the profession to advance archive-based scholarly knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has been reliably reconstructed and explained? which is again from John Tosh \(ibid.\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, what is the point of this book? I read it as being an evaluation of the process of the creation of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its use in society, and not merely by academics. This leads the author into heritage and the social context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which history is produced and used. The author invokes the customary range of reasons for why history is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socially useful, particularly that history which is written in a common-sensical everyday way \(though most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have not reflected on the consequences of this\). History, the author argues, is a present-minded )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 498.2695 133.0517 510.1495 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (mailto:jorma.Kelela@utu.fi) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7501 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline and that mediates the distinction between ?objectivists? and ?the representatives of partisanships? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time quoting Koselleck \(p. 13\). As the author notes, the dominant objectivist or orthodox section of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians take no account of the present, and that this view was rejected by the postmodern radicals. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning of all this furore is that historians do not work in a social vacuum which permits no involvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present. This is the return to the classic idea of E. H. Carr \(as the author more than happily admits\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians can do the job \(in an objectivist way\) but still ?shake off their professional blinkers, and clarify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their relation to the ongoing social process of history-making? \(p. 18\). In effect historians can rise above )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their social and historical situation by recognising the extent of their existence in it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answer to all this, for the author, is to acknowledge and welcome a ?participatory historical culture? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20\) that builds ?... on the shared histories which people have mutually created? \(ibid.\). Hence the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that his book is not an introduction to the study of history but an introduction to a discussion on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of historical research ?...as a genre of history making? \(ibid\). The rest of the book delineates how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be achieved. It is a mix of classic empirical-analytical and representationalist procedures that Tosh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his familiars would approve ? planning, testing and producing a final account that acknowledges the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?tension? between ?reasoning? and ?rhetoric? \(p. 23\). Making the history sound ?...in order to make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message \(meaning?\) more convincing? \(ibid.\). Rhetoric of course serves scholarship. Writing-up is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important ? very important ? but it is still writing-up. It serves the meaning of the past and does not create it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this point I found myself muttering to myself about the ontological distinction between the past and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The analysis and description of historical research \(in chapter two\) is pretty straightforward. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledging that historians must reflect on their profession as a cultural institution, he goes on to say that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they must also evaluate it as a discipline \(p. 25\). This means that thinking about the scholarly practices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians must take place on the historian?s terms, and not be influenced by ideas imported from issues in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy. Historians, we are reminded, work in society, and they make histories in and for their society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History making is a public endeavour and the idea of ?everyman his own historian? is restated in support of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the notion of ?shared histories? and the existence of the remnants of the past in the present \(pp. 27?-49\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section of the book offers and defends the classic empirical, inferential and representationalist model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical research. So, sources yield meaning to the ?expert referee? through the notion of the most likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation that results from the ?reconstruction? of the past in the historian?s description. The author says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The argument of this book, all the consequences of the linguistic turn notwithstanding, is that there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason to give up the objective of reconstruction? \(p. 35\). The author immediately admits that it is true that ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(...it is an epistemological impossibility to make transparent something that is inherently opaque. This is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that supports the postmodernist demand that )] TJ ET BT 297.668 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(construction)] TJ ET BT 357.668 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is substituted for )] TJ ET BT 443.672 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction?)] TJ ET BT 519.668 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(italics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in original\). However,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?...the impossibility of mastering another person?s thinking does not prevent the historian from attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach out to that other person?s concept of reality and discourse. Still less does it hinder the scholar from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructing the circumstances in which that person lived. On the contrary, if research is carried out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properly, the resulting account is a fair description. Performing these methodological operations is what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationale of historical research demands? \(p. 35\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I think this is a step too far. That it seems practical, realist, common-sensical, and representationalist fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convince me. Surely, historians today know about images and stories, the creation of narrative, the knotty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of causality, their own subjectivity, the unavoidability of authorial points of view, that they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing invented narratives, the cultural imperatives under which they labour and above all ? surely these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days ? they/we are all too well aware of the fictive nature of the connection between language and the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both past and present?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That a whole profession can be said to legitimately ignore all these strictures is for me inexplicable. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calling it common sense does not make it any kind of sense. Many years ago I wrote a book called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deconstructing History)] TJ ET BT 147.008 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in which I dissected precisely this argument, and as far as I was aware at the time, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created this nomenclature to describe the basic forms of historical thinking and practice ? reconstructionist, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5350 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructionist and deconstructionist \(later Keith Jenkins and I added what we called postist history\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyway, I ?deconstructed? the concepts of reconstruction and construction and argued that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraught with unwarranted and ? frankly ? woefully undercooked epistemological assumptions. I confronted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what I took then \(and still do take\) to be the facile belief that the notion of being able to reconstruct the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as)] TJ ET BT 44.684 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a narrative mental model was at best unlikely and hence this is why I find Kalela?s argument to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary unconvincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians are no better fixed to referee the meaning of the past than anyone else. There is nothing special in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either reconstructionist or constructionist historical thinking and practice that permits the historian to elevate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves beyond desire and prejudice. It remains ? as Kalela admits ? that historians must justify their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices and decisions, and truth is enigmatic \(pp. 41?3\). Indeed, Kalela acknowledges that the historian is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermediary between the past and present, and one who can only operate from a point of view. This point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view it is again admitted is generated by the relationship the historian creates between form and content. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kalela denies that Hayden White?s analysis of form and content is of value. He argues it is reasonable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deploy literary conventions and devices such as modes of emplotment or different kinds of tropes but that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history text ?cannot be reduced to them as White suggests? \(p. 139\). Well, I do not think that is what White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was saying. He also pursues Frank Ankersmit?s concept of ?narrative theses? \(e.g., ?Renaissance? or ?Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War?\) ?which bring historical data together but do not emerge from it? \(p. 140\). It all depends, as he says, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the balance between truth and argument. To do this he examines the relationships between the historian, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience and the content of the past. A useful survey but ultimately flawed by the judgement that ?literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques are helpful? \(p. 141\), rather than being central to an understanding of the past )] TJ ET BT 462.920 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as)] TJ ET BT 473.588 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history. And this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is why we should always distinguish history \(in all its forms\) from the content of the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, my criticisms of this book concern its author?s assumption that history is essentially a sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction of the past as it most likely was ? as the author says ?The point is that the historian aims, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firstly, to reconstruct the reality of the people studied ? as they saw it? \(p. 130\). The notion of such an access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the reality of the past is defended as well as it could be in this book. But while the defence is elegantly put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it just does not convince me. The notion of ?reasoning while writing? \(p. 131\) fails to persuade me because I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefer the argument that reasoning about the nature of our engagement with the past can only be reasonably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed through an understanding of ?writing-the-past-)] TJ ET BT 308.960 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as)] TJ ET BT 319.628 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-history?. If historians really wish to grasp what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are doing, then they need to understand how they create and write narratives ? and different forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative ? for public, heritage or so-called professional history purposes.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 342.319 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 324.539 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 324.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1272)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 323.145 m 328.316 323.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 298.168 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/21801)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] mailto:jorma.Kelela@utu.fi)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 323.4595 328.3157 335.3395 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1272) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000004960 00000 n 0000005069 00000 n 0000005179 00000 n 0000005288 00000 n 0000008849 00000 n 0000008977 00000 n 0000009061 00000 n 0000009145 00000 n 0000017146 00000 n 0000017273 00000 n 0000017351 00000 n 0000017416 00000 n 0000024970 00000 n 0000025054 00000 n 0000030457 00000 n 0000030585 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30681 %%EOF