%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 33 0 R 38 0 R 55 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902093801+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902093801+01'00') /Title (The Americanization of the British Press, 1830s-1914: Speed in the Age of Transatlantic Journalism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4190 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Americanization of the British Press, 1830s-1914: Speed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Age of Transatlantic Journalism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This impressive book brings together two strands of media history to create a new narrative, attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain how and why newspaper journalism in Britain and the United States was transformed between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1830s and the first decades of the 20th century, establishing the popular style of journalism we know today. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the culmination of many years? scholarship by the author, a Professor Emeritus of History at the City )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of New York, whose sizeable contribution to 19th-century newspaper history includes two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinent essays on the ?new journalism? or ?yellow journalism?, as this phenomenon is known in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the United States respectively. The two essays are a 1988 chapter, ?How new was the new journalism?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his 1994 development of one strand of that chapter, ?The Americanization of the British press, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1830?1914?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.672 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.672 136.497 m 109.664 136.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 109.664 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here he has fleshed out the latter article into book form, although the broader framework of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier piece would have made a better monograph.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In that 1988 essay, Professor Wiener argued that British journalistic genres from publishing ?platforms? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the radical unstamped press, the disreputable Sunday newspaper, provincial papers and magazines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were slowly adopted by London daily newspapers ? alongside American innovations such as the interview )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and investigative journalism ? to create the ?new journalism? of the late 1880s onwards. London morning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1273)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 21 June, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joel H. Wiener)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230581869)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Hobbs)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.6717 136.8115 109.6637 148.6915 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7520 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers were the last type of newspaper to combine these tropes into a formula that has defined popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalism ever since. This fruitful and persuasive thesis has generated much useful subsequent work, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Graham Law?s study of the new journalism element of serial fiction in newspapers )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.604 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.604 766.563 m 462.596 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.596 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, revealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures and relationships that bound together periodicals, the provincial and metropolitan press and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish, English and American publications. Rather than pursuing this line, Professor Wiener has written a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book with a much narrower and more contentious argument: that a more democratic American society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced a more demotic writing style, focusing on ?human interest? stories such as crime rather than high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, inventing the newspaper interview, deifying speed in reporting and publishing, and presenting this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news in a more visually attractive way, with illustrations and bold headlines. This more populist style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached mainstream newspaper journalism much earlier in the US than in Britain. For,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While popular journalism in Britain pioneered the retailing of gossip and the use of pictures, most of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformations in journalism occurred a little earlier and had a greater impact in America \(p. 4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the book is likely to have more significance for British journalism historiography, this review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates on that aspect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To summarise, the first of two short introductory chapters sets out the purpose and scope of the book, briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledging theoretical approaches whilst stating that the aim is instead to present a long view of changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 19th-century journalism that incorporates the complex, evolutionary nature of change, propelled by a cast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of bit players as well as great men such as James Gordon Bennett, Randolph Hearst, W. T. Stead and Alfred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harmsworth. Next, chapter one surveys the British fear of an ?Americanized? press, contrasted with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?higher journalism? of the monthly and weekly review periodicals and the leader columns of the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious daily papers. Most of the writers quoted are either higher journalists or authors, a literary elite who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt threatened by America?s cultural democracy, and whose attacks became shriller as a distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American literary culture developed towards the end of the century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequent chapters, despite their apparently thematic titles, follow a chronological structure. Chapter two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traces some American developments of the 1830s back to British popular oral and print culture, whilst others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are distinctively American, such as James Gordon Bennett?s investigative journalism on his )] TJ ET BT 478.304 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herald)] TJ ET BT 68.012 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and his delayed release of information about shocking crimes to create an extended, suspenseful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melodramatic news narrative. Chapter three explores the ?democratization of news?, first in the US, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers were integral to a burgeoning democratic society, and later in Britain, where a culturally rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than politically more democratic society was enabled by the repeal of the newspaper taxes at mid-century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Developments included faster printing and faster reporting, the growth of news reporting \(as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion\) as a journalistic activity, the telegraph and news agencies, and illustrated journalism ? all except the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last originating in America. The appearance of innovative publications such as the )] TJ ET BT 431.612 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illustrated Times)] TJ ET BT 513.284 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better known )] TJ ET BT 100.004 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illustrated London News )] TJ ET BT 221.684 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is successfully integrated with broader narratives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strongest chapter, ?The stimulus of war?, argues convincingly that the American Civil War \(1861?5\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ?a decisive turning point in the history of journalism? \(p. 80\). It created a huge demand for news, led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in the physical size, visual appeal and writing style of US newspapers, established war reporting as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a staple ingredient of journalism and emphasised speed, largely thanks to the telegraph \(p. 85\). Similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes occurred in British journalism during the Franco-Prussian War \(1870?1\). Chapter five, ?Expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the press?, examines the implications of the huge growth in newspaper titles and circulations in the third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarter of the century in both countries, in regional centres as well as the two metropoles. Developments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising and distribution are dealt with, alongside the growth of investigative journalism in America and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the separate tradition of social exploration by British journalists such as Henry Mayhew and James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenwood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six, ?Gossip and other matters?, argues that American journalistic tropes such as gossip and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interview were transmitted by individual journalists moving between the two countries or working for each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other?s papers. Chapters seven and eight compare and contrast two journalists apiece to follow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in the 1880s \(Joseph Pulitzer and W. T. Stead\) and the 1890s \(William Randolph Hearst and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.6037 766.8775 462.5957 778.7575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7774 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred Harmsworth\). The former are seen as similar in their use of sensationalism in the service of high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals, while the latter epitomised ?Anglo-American popular journalism [in the] form that was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterise it for much of the succeeding hundred years? \(p. 183\). Although Hearst and Harmsworth both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had democratic instincts, they invested more capital, applied more industrial methods and acquired more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titles than ever before, borrowing magazine formats and using sensation chiefly for commercial ends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter takes stock of newspapers on both sides of the Atlantic in the years before 1914, finding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that British popular dailies were now Americanized in their processes and contents. They had fewer, smaller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading articles, less Parliamentary news, more features, and their news was more sensational, and gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using intrusive, competitive, proactive ?American? techniques. Occupational debates within journalism over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class differentials, professionalization and training are discussed, before a half-page conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Wiener is an expert on British press history, having edited two influential collections on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unstamped press and the new journalism, among many other works.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.308 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.308 614.259 m 374.300 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.300 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here he attempts a synthesis of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national historiographies that have been kept apart for too long, spanning eight decades ? an unusually long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period in recent British media historiography, a field which still struggles to provide a coherent account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what happened to newspaper journalism across the 19th century as a whole. For this synthesis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodization, Professor Wiener should be applauded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His comparative approach ensures that the sum is greater than the parts, casting new light on familiar stories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and future studies of a cultural practice as inter-textual as journalism would do well to pursue this approach. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comparisons also reveal the contingency of journalistic developments on each side of the Atlantic, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example the use of the telegraph. In America, newspapers only began to fully exploit its potential two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades after its invention, thanks to wartime demand for news in the early 1860s; in Britain, changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market conditions after the telegraph companies were nationalised in 1870 \(not 1868 [p. 97]\) enabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial arrangements favourable to the largest newspaper market, the provincial press, only months )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before another war stimulated widespread use. So much for technological determinism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Wiener focuses on the titles published in two newspaper cities, New York and London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably to make his project manageable. He acknowledges that American journalism had many centres, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with different histories, but chooses New York as the ?epicenter? of journalistic change throughout the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and the magnet drawing journalistic talent from across the nation. The choice of London is less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic, he believes, because a ?London-centered ?national press? existed from the outset of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century? \(p. 7\), ?key elements of mass circulation journalism? came from London, and because, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like New York, it drew the brightest and best to a ?forcing ground for journalistic creativity? \(p. 5\). These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parameters are problematic: while London was the centre of British journalism, the majority of the nation?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers ? which were weeklies rather than dailies ? were published elsewhere for most of Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiener?s period, and there was no ?national? press, as we understand the term today, until the 20th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 262.371 m 48.008 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This focus on an unrepresentative minority of the press ? metropolitan dailies ? immediately limits the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of Professor Wiener?s conclusions. To foreground London dailies in a history of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalism is rather like choosing Saudi Arabia for an international study of women?s suffrage; interesting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but not where the action is. Most American newspapers were undoubtedly more dynamic, innovative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to read than London dailies, but to choose these publications as the British comparators is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misrepresent this country?s Victorian press, whose magazines and weekly newspapers, in London and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the British Isles, responded to a growing readership of women, children and working-class men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many exciting ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s unrepresentative scope is related to its unrepresentative sources. Professor Wiener brings order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a wide array of secondary literature \(books rather than journal articles\), but his primary sources are chiefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs and biographies of well known journalists and contemporary comment from elite metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodicals, with occasional reference to the newspapers themselves. Lucy Brown described journalists? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs as ?usually of very poor quality, rambling, and anecdotal?, inaccurate and vague )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.924 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.924 79.299 m 481.916 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.916 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiener is less sceptical. Such memoirs tend to follow a rags-to-riches plotline, in which any mention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reporting rather than editing, or provincial rather than metropolitan experience, is confined to the early )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.3077 614.5735 374.2997 626.4535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 262.6855 48.0077 274.5655 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.9237 79.6135 481.9157 91.4935 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8226 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters and used as a narrative device to emphasise the heady heights of the writer?s later career. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical material shares another problem with the periodical comment \(selected mainly from critics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new journalism\) in that both sources emphasise change at the expense of continuity, making invisible the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many aspects of journalism that continued as before. Here, more use of the trade press would have helped. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More surprising, in the era of digitised newspapers, is the lack of content analysis to support the quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims of a study arguing for change and causation in specific types of editorial material, many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends easily tracked by word-searching. Instead, this is a journalists' history of journalism, from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoint of the industry?s great men. Indeed, the choice of illustrations ? eight portraits ? confirms the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely biographical approach. A book partly about how newspapers changed their appearance would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefited from examples of typography, layout and newspaper illustration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lack of content analysis occasionally leads Professor Wiener to make unsupported assertions or factual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(errors. For instance, he argues that ?serious? news was being )] TJ ET BT 329.276 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(replaced )] TJ ET BT 374.264 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by ?feather-brained? features or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensational reporting at the turn of the century \(p. 219\); my own content analysis of a handful of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers in the second half of the 19th century confirms Mark Hampton?s more nuanced view )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.248 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.248 597.747 m 518.240 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 518.240 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old and new types of journalism ran in parallel. The huge increase in the number of titles, physical size and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pagination of newspapers meant that there was more of everything, whether measured in column inches or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(percentages \(methods which often produce different results\). Provincial publishers segmented their local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets, offering new journalism in halfpenny evening papers, in the weekly miscellany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper/magazines so ably studied by Law or in separate supplements, alongside the ?old journalism? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morning titles and traditional weekly papers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Wiener says that advertising in British newspapers ?took off? after 1853, when it was no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxed, but was ?less of a fixture of journalism than in the United States? \(p. 107\) ? in fact, it had already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken off in Britain. In 1850, adverts made up around 50 per cent of )] TJ ET BT 361.952 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 411.620 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and some profitable county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weeklies, well above the 25 per cent mark quoted for American papers, and increased until the 1870s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further, British papers may have had fewer disreputable personal ads, but commercial announcements for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abortifacients such as penny royal \(guaranteed to clear ?female obstructions?\) and cures for sexually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmitted diseases, premature ejaculation \(?Manhood: the causes of its premature decline? \) and the effects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?solitary habits? were commonplace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Content analysis also contradicts the assertion that, before the 1830s, papers in both countries ignored local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news \(pp. 34?5, 63?4\). In fact, London dailies and provincial weeklies alike published plenty ? metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers such as )] TJ ET BT 106.328 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 127.328 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times, Standard )] TJ ET BT 209.000 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 229.328 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morning Chronicle )] TJ ET BT 325.328 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried reports of London?s district courts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vestry meetings, while non-metropolitan papers saw their prime duty as publishing a much broader array of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local news, including courts, local government, sport, market prices, shipping news, births, marriages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deaths and columns of ?human interest? news headed ?Offences, Accidents &c?. The lack of provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news in London papers was not a sign of lack of interest \(p. 67\), but a sign that )] TJ ET BT 415.964 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times )] TJ ET BT 468.632 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dailies functioned as local/regional papers, circulating largely in south-east England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decision to exclude the provincial majority of newspapers from his account leads Professor Wiener into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other errors. A few examples will suffice. The )] TJ ET BT 258.620 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Evening News )] TJ ET BT 369.620 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only ranks as one of the first papers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publish a Saturday football special \(p. 202\) if the dozen or so provincial ones launched from the early 1880s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards are discounted. Professor Wiener correctly identifies an important strand of British gossip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalism in ?London letters?, Parliamentary sketch-writing and Parliamentary lobby reporting \(pp. 141?6\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but dates these developments too late: provincial newspapers published ?postscripts? and ?London letters? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the late 18th century onwards, long before this genre appeared in the London daily press; the lobby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system for sourcing political gossip was also a provincial press innovation. At mid-century, especially after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1855, the huge expansion of provincial newspaper publishing does not support the claim that American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?regional newspapers flourished to a degree unimaginable in Britain? \(p. 57\), while evidence of newspaper-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading from public reading rooms and newsagents clashes with Professor Wiener?s belief that ?London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers maintained a large circulation lead among provincial readers? in the third quarter of the century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 107\). Professor Wiener suggests that reporters in Britain were mere shorthand stenographers until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third quarter of the century, when they adopted the mid-century American practice of actively seeking news. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.2477 598.0615 518.2397 609.9415 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 9070 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the ?paragraphist?, and the activity of ?paragraphing? or seeking out gossip and anecdote ? ?human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest? stories -- was established in Britain from the 1820s at least, among freelance penny-a-liners and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial district correspondents and staff reporters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s stated lack of engagement with theory \(p. 5\) means that it is stronger on the who, what, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and when than the why or the how; there is little attempt to explain why particular developments happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they did and where they did. Speed, highlighted in the book?s subtitle, is presented as a motif rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a theory, but is never conceptualised. What was the significance of speed, beyond competitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage when more than one title operated in any one market? Increasing speed is often a theme in retired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalists? memoirs, both because printing and reporting genuinely became faster, but also because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling that the world is moving faster is a common part of the ageing process. Publishers and journalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like to boast about speed, but how important was it to readers? Other terms would benefit from definition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and examination, such as ?cultural democracy?, ?reporting? or the ?human interest? genre of journalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Wiener justifiably identifies the turn-of-the-century )] TJ ET BT 332.624 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mail)] TJ ET BT 384.956 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as the epitome of new journalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its combination of ?an Americanized emphasis on news? and magazine features \(p. 202\). Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?magazinization? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.992 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.992 571.491 m 134.984 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.984 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the British press might be a more fruitful motif than speed, capturing the migration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of many journalistic genres from magazines to papers. Some of these, such as illustrations and others not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed here such as serial fiction and reader competitions, were either unrelated or actually opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speed. Magazinization could also be read as feminisation, surely an undertone in Matthew Arnold?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the new journalism as ?feather-brained?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, a book about the transmission of cultural practices from one place to another requires discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mechanisms of such transmission. Professor Wiener?s biographical approach provides convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence for one transmission route, showing how personnel moved back and forth across the Atlantic \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(129?36\), but the movement of journalists within the British Isles was also significant; Stead, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began his working life \(as an editor, never a reporter [p. 174]\) in the distinctive journalistic culture of North-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East England, which in turn was influenced by the print tradition of Scotland, another more democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country. Stead borrowed ideas from both Scotland and America to turn the )] TJ ET BT 395.624 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Northern Echo )] TJ ET BT 470.288 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a daily organ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of new journalism \(it is unlikely that he was influenced by Pulitzer [p. 170], who only bought his first St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis paper in 1879, eight years after Stead began editing the )] TJ ET BT 331.964 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Northern Echo)] TJ ET BT 403.628 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). However, there is little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention of another route, the conscious and unconscious imitation of journalistic genres made possible by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the circulation of newspapers and the reading practices of publishers and journalists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, while this book?s scope, sources and methods seriously misrepresent the breadth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamism of 19th-century British journalism, it has many strengths. It provides a convincing long view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes to daily papers in two important cities \(offering a biographical route into the web of mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence\), adds empirical support to the current interest in links between journalistic and novelistic genres, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and is a useful exercise in comparative, transnational history in a field sorely in need of such approaches.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 198.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joel Wiener, ?How new was the new journalism?? in )] TJ ET BT 321.956 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Papers for the Millions: The New journalism in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, 1850s to 1914)] TJ ET BT 172.028 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Joel Wiener \(London, 1988\), pp. 47?71; Joel Wiener, ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americanization of the British press, 1830?1914?, )] TJ ET BT 308.648 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Newspaper and Periodical History)] TJ ET BT 526.316 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1994\), 61?74.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.336 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.336 154.083 m 188.324 154.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 141.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham Law, )] TJ ET BT 132.992 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Serializing Fiction in the Victorian Press )] TJ ET BT 333.668 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.328 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.328 139.827 m 487.316 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joel Wiener, )] TJ ET BT 127.664 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War of the Unstamped: the Movement to Repeal the British Newspaper Tax, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1830?1836 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1969\); )] TJ ET BT 202.676 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Papers for the Millions)] TJ ET BT 314.348 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.348 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.348 111.315 m 371.336 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Hobbs, ?When the provincial press was the national press \(c.1836?c.1900\)?, )] TJ ET BT 474.920 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Regional and Local Studies)] TJ ET BT 249.020 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 \(2009\), 16?43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.340 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.340 82.803 m 388.328 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy Brown, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian News and Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 290.348 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1985\))] TJ ET BT 362.996 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 368.996 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p.75.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.996 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.996 68.547 m 446.984 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Hampton, )] TJ ET BT 143.672 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of the Press in Britain, 1850?1950)] TJ ET BT 348.020 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.336 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.336 54.291 m 503.324 54.291 l S endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.9917 571.8055 134.9837 583.6855 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.3357 154.3975 188.3237 166.2775 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.3277 140.1415 487.3157 152.0215 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.3477 111.6295 371.3357 123.5095 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.3397 83.1175 388.3277 94.9975 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 392.9957 68.8615 446.9837 80.7415 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.3357 54.6055 503.3237 66.4855 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 1209 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Tulloch, ?The eternal recurrence of New Journalism? in )] TJ ET BT 361.268 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tabloid tales: Global Debates over )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Media Standards)] TJ ET BT 146.348 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. 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