%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 46 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916024549+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916024549+01'00') /Title (Cities into Battlefields: Metropolitan Scenarios, Experiences and Commemorations of Total War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3941 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cities into Battlefields: Metropolitan Scenarios, Experiences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Commemorations of Total War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writing some thirty years ago, Brian Bond noted that ?strictly speaking, total war is just as much a myth as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total victory or total peace?.\(1\) Undoubtedly, too, some wars ? even world wars ? were more total than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others. If in the First World War civilians suffered indirectly from shortages, separations, blockade, etc., it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was still the solders that did most of the dying. Yet in World War Two those on the urban ?home fronts? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were equally at risk ? seen as legitimate targets because they were essential producers for the war effort. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this, of course, is wholly new. Sherman, for example, used armed force against civilians \(as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern form of )] TJ ET BT 113.000 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(chevauche)] TJ ET BT 168.968 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), although mostly he targeted property, not people.\(2\) Nonetheless, the degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of state- led mobilization, and the consequent ability to out-produce opponents, or degrade their socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial capacity/will, has come to govern our understanding of the totality of modern warfare.\(3\) Total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war can thus be constructed as the willingness of individuals to subordinate themselves to the demands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state.\(4\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stefan Goebel?s and Derek Keene?s ambitious collection of essays takes up the theme that ?mass-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialized warfare blurred distinctions between home and front, soldiers and civilians? \(p. 4\), and seeks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1274)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 21 June, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stefan Goebel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derek Keene)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754660385)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nick Hayes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7761 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to tease out the social costs of this as it was played out in a predominantly urban environment. This is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed, for, quite clearly, if total war is episodic \(in terms of mobilization and military intensity\), its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative intensities, too, have a strong urban/spatial component. Nonetheless, one of the odd things about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection is that, despite a very long introduction of some 46 pages, there is actually very little formalized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of total war per se, other than to acknowledge in passing its complex and illusive qualities. For a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book with total war in the title this seems strange. The key questions set are: ?How was urban space affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the totalizing tendency in warfare in the first half of the twentieth century? And how did cityscapes shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way people thought about war, experience violence and remember its legacy?? \(p. 4\). There are studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the metropolises of London, Paris, Belgrade, Vienna, Budapest, Warsaw, Stalingrad \(and in passing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berlin and Baghdad\), Hiroshima and Tokyo; and the smaller cities of Coventry and Edirne \(the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second capital\). With one exception, the essays focus on the First and Second World Wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exception is again Edirne, which surrendered after five months of siege by the Bulgarians during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First Balkans War. The social impact of siege ? sometimes at higher costs ? stretches back into time \(witness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalem, Tenochtitlan\) \(also pp. 5-6\). Indeed, when I talk to my ?earlier? colleagues, I hear stories of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor being brutally evicted from besieged cities into a no-man?s land between two hostile armies, simply to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(save food. Whether this was before or after each side catapulted plagued bodies in or out is beyond my level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of expertise. We might ponder, too, on whether the siege of Edirne \(population 90,000\) constituted a total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war even in microcosm; it seems contextually counter-intuitive \(small city, minor war\). Yet, in Eyal Ginio?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account, ?totality? lies not with the event but the aftermath. With the city recast as a bulwark against yet one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more Christian Crusade aimed at obliterating a Muslim presence in Europe, non-Muslim inhabitants became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?other? \(partly through atrocities literature and assertions of treachery\). Liberated Edirne then became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(site of mass pilgrimage, a ?focal point of collective ceremonies of purification, commemoration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejuvenation and celebration of Muslim unity? \(p. 94\) ? a ?symbol of a possible turn of fortune for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman nation and its attachment to Islam? \(p. 99\). Yet does this re-imagining constitute totality? Measure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this happening against Hannah Arendt?s acute observation that defeat in a ?truly? total war meant the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholesale collapse of the state, not just a reconstituted identity.\(5\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jovana Kne?evi?, writing about the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Belgrade 1915?18, similarly chooses to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus not on the brutality of siege, or that many, many citizens fled, but instead on the subsequent battle for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity and belonging between occupiers and the diminished number of inhabitants, played out through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voids of rumour and official propaganda. Cocooned within the city, as one contemporary recalled: ?We do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not know the truth, this is all just inaccurate news and conjecture!? \(p. 117\). Many Serbs thought ?the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no longer their own. Perhaps the streets and cafes were crowded, but they were not crowded with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locals? \(p. 110\). ?Most people saw themselves as being ?enslaved?, and frequently referred to themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?slaves? \()] TJ ET BT 80.996 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(robovi)] TJ ET BT 112.328 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in their personal writings and exchanges? \(p. 104\). In short, ?Belgraders resented having to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share their homes and city with these uninvited and unwelcome guests? \(p. 110\). The relative totality of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also remains unclear: at least if construed against the consequences of earlier siege conflicts, where failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrender promptly brought actual enslavement or worse. Indeed, one of the paradoxes when dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mass destructive power of 20th-century total war is that frequently, when compared with the past, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present is at least no worse. For example, the Thirty Years War devastated Germany, reducing its urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population by 33 per cent and its rural population by 45 per cent. In the 20th century captured solders had an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectation of humane treatment, not death or enslavement. Thus, certain ?rules of the game? had changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the better, although the high level of atrocities committed on the Eastern Front after 1941 makes you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temper such a view.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet contemporaries certainly thought that modern warfare was quantitatively and qualitatively different \(but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maybe that is true of all contemporaries?\). Winston Churchill argued that ?The Great War ? differs from all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient wars in the immense power of the combatants and their fearful agencies of destruction, and from all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern wars in the utter ruthlessness with which it was fought? by supposed ?)] TJ ET BT 410.972 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(civilised, scientific, Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(States?)] TJ ET BT 68.684 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(my italics\).\(6\) We might well think that Churchill had a point when reading Antony Beevor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of Stalingrad \(here and elsewhere\). This was a ?war fought for values that were not material and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore finite, but spiritual and therefore infinite?.\(7\) Both Stalin and Hitler ?utterly dehumanized their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7605 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies through propaganda and their complete control of the media?. They were also, he adds, totally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?prepared to waste the lives of the own men? \(p. 153\). Beevor particularly has in mind the punishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battalions and blocking units used by both sides ?to ensure ? total compliance? by their solders. This was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new form of warfare, concentrated in the ruins of civilian lives? \(p. 154\). ?Street-fighting?, John Frances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, was ?just as costly in the Middle Ages as at Stalingrad?.\(8\) Yet Stalingrad took the form of extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban warfare amid the ?detritus of war?, reminiscent of the Western Front of 1914?18, but here occurring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the wreckage of people?s homes. Other comparatives aside, the scale, intensity, location and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbarity of Stalingrad mark it out as being of a different order to the battles listed elsewhere in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection. John Meuller has observed that, while the 20th century did not invent horrific wars, for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time people were thoroughly repulsed by these horrors, ?being aware that viable alternatives existed?.\(9\) In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this light, Stalingrad, Berlin and Hiroshima take on a new meaning and poignancy in our imaginations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nowhere is this better illustrated than in the inter-war flirtations with collective security and pacifism: that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war ought to be abolished because the consequences were too obscene. The naval bombardment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scarborough, Whitby and Hartlepool in 1914 claimed a significant number of civilian lives. Yet it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less intense aerial bombing raids that were remembered for the future: to be, as Grayzel notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mythologized in various wartime cultural media? \(p. 52\). This ?new means of waging war? ? the ?terror to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come? was deemed apocalyptic: ?the notion that civilization itself was at stake gained rhetorical power with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attacks? on women and children. Urban life itself was at risk \(p. 62\). Again, targeting cities was not new; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was only the technology that was different \(and each successive generation frets over the impact of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destructive technologies\). Yet what had changed was the scale of hyperbole that accompanied even official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predictions. As Richard Titmuss later noted, British estimated casualty rates were ridiculously wide of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mark; coping with a predicted initial casualty rate of some 200,000 per week was simply impossible for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical planners to contemplate.\(10\) The realities, of course, were very different, so that across the war in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total only some 60,000 British civilians were killed \(with 86,000 seriously injured and 149,000 slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(injured\). Peter Stansky, in looking at the first day of the Blitz ? although other stories become intermingled ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless asserts \(erroneously\) that: ?Up until the middle of 1944 there were more civilian deaths than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military ones? \(p. 64\).\(11\) These were ?ordinary victims?, ?those who had not deliberately chosen to put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves at risk? \(p. 63\). Everyone, apparently, knew someone who had been killed or badly wounded, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew of places and buildings hit or destroyed, and felt that a bomb might fall nearby \(p. 64\). Perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although even within the metropolitan centres spatially levels of destruction and suffering varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly. The vital point, he believes, however, is that terror and terror bombing \(if that?s what the Blitz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was\) \(12\), is not an ?absolute? but lives in the imagination as being a possibility \(p. 64\). But the totality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terror, too, has to be based on probability, measured and tempered by lived experience: as an abstract or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semi-abstract it has less impact, for in practice there was, despite pre-war medical predictions, no mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of hysterical neurosis. Indeed, the incidence of such illnesses actually fell, as did the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suicides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reality for Coventry, as Stefan Goebel recalls, was a legacy not just of destruction but also of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembrance. It is a story of how a ?war-torn provincial city matured into a, if not the, ?commemorative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolis? of post-war Europe? \(p. 163\), and of how a new word, ?Coventration? \()] TJ ET BT 441.260 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coventrieren)] TJ ET BT 504.584 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) gave rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an unspeakable deed and idea \(p. 165\). He argues, not unreasonably, that the semantics of ?Coventration? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a more powerful impact than the bombs themselves \(for the rubble was cleared, the 568 dead buried and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city rebuilt \(p. 164\)\). ?Collective memory?, Goebel observes, is a ?collected memory?; it requires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?organization, guidance and direction \(p. 169\). It also works best at a local level within clearly defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities. By 1962, in an activity much favoured by local councillors, the city had twinned with 23 other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities to spread its message, although links to Hiroshima were brusquely rejected, perhaps because Coventry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feared being overshadowed in its international ambitions in commemorative politics \(p. 171\). Through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics of international reconciliation ? at which the new cathedral stood centre stage ? truth itself became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject of exaggeration. This utilised a new narrative, that if all were guilty ? as with the bombing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dresden ? then all too were victims, although the church unwisely prosecuted this debate using the figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplied by David Irvine \(pp. 180?2\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7428 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reality for Paris was completely different. As Patrice Higonet reminds us in his refreshingly sardonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay on ?The French capital and total war?, the city suffered very little physical damage. ??Paris in the age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of total war? ? fortunately, that notion represents difficulties? \(p. 73\). There were ?dark sides? ? food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortages, fuel shortages ? but, ?in many respects, life went on in occupied Paris much as it always had? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1939 \(pp.76?7\). For Paris, there were two clear exceptions, the Communists and Jews, where the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought misery and death. Modern wars, he concludes, are about ?moulding men?s minds? ? in this sense the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two world wars changed what ?Parisians thought about themselves and the place of their city in the world? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.79\). Very few joined the Resistance, and very few also joined the fascist parties. Most, instead, tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forget their immediate surroundings and sought escapist entertainment \(pp. 80?1\). As Maureen Healy notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too, in her essay, the Nazi regime killed far more Viennese citizens ? on racial and political grounds ? than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did enemy bombers \(p. 120\). Interestingly, its citizenry became inward looking, relatively unconcerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about foreign policy and military operations; because of ?low spirits any and all interest in the big events ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappeared? \(p. 121\). Thus at the city level the definition of ?enemy? changed. In the First World War, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food shortages became endemic, the tensions were ethnic: between the German-speaking majority and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?other? city dwellers ? Jews, Czechs and Hungarians ? labelled as black-marketeers and hoarders. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second War, the ?other? was quickly redefined as non-native Germans, so that even German-speaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viennese were hostile to an external German presence and the greater Germany project. It was primarily a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passive resistance, splattered with occasional vibrant scenes of defiance, perhaps diluted by the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation of domestic anti-Semitic sentiment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one of the more thought-provoking essays, Tim Cole examines the socio-urban processes of ghettoization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Warsaw \(from 1940\) and Budapest \(1944\). In Warsaw the practices of mental mapping were already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underway, in a manner very similar to Victorian constructs of slumland: certain streets were deemed unsafe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(physically for Jews\); other Jewish areas were deemed contagious ? filled with ?imaginary? diseases ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?infected? and, therefore, physically quarantined. Subsequent ghettoization impacted significantly on both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jew and non-Jew: no ?tradesman or storekeeper wants to move to a strange section? \(p. 141\). Some 250,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people \(138,000 being Jewish\) relocated over a two week period, although boundaries remained fluid. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Budapest, the process was less structured. Following the Nazi occupation of 1944, the concern was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating a single Jewish quarter would open up the rest of the city to allied bombing. Yet plans to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mini-ghettos around strategic sites were abandoned in favour of designating each individual house or block )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be Jewish or non-Jewish according to majority occupation. This reduced significantly the internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disruption, but also brought forward a flurry of petitions from Jews and gentiles alike who did not want to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move: although some argued, too, that their apartment buildings were ?unhealthy and entirely unsuitable for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?non-Jews?? \(p. 147\). Thus, Cole concludes, in both cities the final locations were decided not by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?imaginary geographies? but by pragmatic concerns for getting the job done quickly \(p. 149\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, there are two essays on Japanese public history; on how Hiroshima and Tokyo have chosen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent their pasts. If we focus, in terms of totality, on the means employed rather than the objectives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obtained then events like Hiroshima \(and Nagasaki\) stand clear: being absolutely total. The obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question is how this past should be remembered; accepting that pasts cannot be re-created, only retold in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain selected ways. The object of Lisa Yoneyama?s essay is to question the ?limits of compassion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical knowledge when considering such matters as war, atrocities and other historical injuries? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp.186?7\). Hiroshima commemorates the first ?successful? use of nuclear weapons. It was a site, too, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated the ?interchangeability between two concepts, the ?atomic weapon? and ?world peace??. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she reads as an oxymoron, illustrative of US ?techno-military supremacy? \(pp. 187?8\). She notes, too, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy over how the history of bombing ? its rationale ? should be presented, and the ambiguities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning within such national representations. Given the nature of the event a diversity of view is hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The shifting ambiguities of representation are also central to Julie Higashi?s focused essay ?The spirit of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains intact?, which examines public memorialization in Tokyo: of what is kept, of what is restored, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is promoted and how this has changed. Certain representations were impervious: the impressive Masujiro )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Omura column ? a figurative representation of the father of the modern Japanese army ? symbolized )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 10112 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unshakable loyalty to the state? \(p. 206\). It survived both wartime collections for metals and the post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US cull of statues and monuments that roused feeling of militarism and nationalism. The Yushukan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museum, by contrast, was required to sever its militaristic links. Now, however, it has reverted to being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military museum, offering positive representations of Japan?s past that centres on worship of the emperor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the glorification of the war dead: promoted as ?the correct modern history of Japan? \(p. 212\). The newly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built Showakan museum, a response to a strong demand from the War Bereaved Families Association, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly focuses on Japanese war and post-wartime suffering. Higashi concludes that as a consequence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such devices remaining intact and gaining power, Tokyo has become ?even more haunted by the past than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever? \(p. 218\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several of the essays attempt cross city comparisons, some contemporaneously, some offering contrasts with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more recent events like 9/11. By and large, these add little to the overall theme of the collection, and, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, detract from the core themes themselves. A common problem with most collections is their inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparate character, because essays are generally not written to order but reflect, quite naturally, the on-going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or past research interests of the contributors. Urban space helps give this collection a vectored form, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although this unity, when married to differing aspects of totalising experience, memory or activity brings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with it its own challenges. Nonetheless, as might be expected, what the collection does show is that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no one common impact, no one common outcome, no one common experience or response, and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that people then, as now, were viewing totality ? however loosely defined ? in differing ways. The breadth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall of the collection is more than satisfactory, even accepting the problems of definition and focus that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this brings, but the research base and adding-to-knowledge element within it is mixed. Some essays ? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example by Cole, Healy, Kne?evi? and Gino ? have strong empirical bases; others less so. What we have, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, essentially, is an interesting and diverse collection of essays on the impact of modern warfare on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual cites, where notions of any totality reside as much in the imagination as in the realities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices of everyday urban life. Indeed, even here there must be questions about contemporary provenance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and understanding because the experiences for many people were very, very different.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Bond, )] TJ ET BT 125.684 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Society in Europe, 1870-1970)] TJ ET BT 313.664 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1984\), p. 168.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.988 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.988 375.411 m 484.976 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hew Strachan, ?Total war in the twentieth century?, in )] TJ ET BT 329.624 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Total War and Historical Change: Europe )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1914-1955)] TJ ET BT 116.012 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Arthur Marwick \(Milton Keynes, 2001\), pp. 256, 267.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.308 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.308 346.899 m 453.296 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Becket, ?Total war?, in )] TJ ET BT 196.976 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warfare in the Twentieth Century: Theory and Practice)] TJ ET BT 464.624 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Colin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McInnes and Gary Sheffield \(London, )] TJ ET BT 250.640 319.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(1988)] TJ ET BT 274.640 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), pp. 12?13; Mark Harrison, ?Resource mobilization for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War II: The USA, UK, USSR and Germany, 1938-1945?, )] TJ ET BT 377.960 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 502.604 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1988\), 171?92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.336 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.336 289.875 m 194.324 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stachan, ?Total war?, p. 264.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.984 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.984 275.619 m 257.972 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Arendt, )] TJ ET BT 143.660 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Revolution)] TJ ET BT 213.320 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1963\), p. 5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.956 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.956 261.363 m 408.944 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winston Churchill, )] TJ ET BT 159.020 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Crisis, Volume 1)] TJ ET BT 293.360 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1923\), pp. 2?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.012 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.012 247.107 m 470.000 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strachan, ?Total war?, p. 262.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.980 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.980 232.851 m 261.968 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Frances, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades, 1000?1300 )] TJ ET BT 408.320 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1999\), p. 109.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 204.339 m 118.004 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Mueller, ?Changing attitudes towards war: the impact of the First World War?, )] TJ ET BT 472.292 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Science)] TJ ET BT 145.004 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21 \(1991\), 12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.996 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.996 175.827 m 272.984 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Titmuss, )] TJ ET BT 149.684 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Problems of Social Policy)] TJ ET BT 274.676 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1950\), pp. 13?14, 325?7; C. L. Dunn, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Emergency Medical Services, Volume 1)] TJ ET BT 275.960 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1952\), p. 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.284 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.284 147.315 m 447.272 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Number of casualties up to Sept. 1944 were as follows. British Armed Forces: Killed - 176,081/ )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Missing ? 38,275. Merchant Seamen: Killed ? 29,629. Civilians \(inc. Civil Defence\): Killed ? 57,298. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These figures are from )] TJ ET BT 175.976 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Statistics Relating to the War Effort of the United Kingdom)] TJ ET BT 460.328 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cmd. 6564\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1944\), p. 9. Civilian deaths include 5,476 killed from June to Sept. 1944 by flying bomb )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacks. British military deaths over the same period are estimated at 20,000-22,000. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.296 77.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.296 75.635 m 533.288 75.635 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 63.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Overy )] TJ ET BT 141.992 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Air Wars 1939?1945)] TJ ET BT 263.660 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1980\), pp. 34?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.312 63.173 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.312 61.379 m 454.304 61.379 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 36.917 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9877 375.7255 484.9757 387.6055 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.3077 347.2135 453.2957 359.0935 ] >> 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