%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150729044229+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150729044229+01'00') /Title (God?s Instruments: Political Conduct in the England of Oliver Cromwell) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3981 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(God?s Instruments: Political Conduct in the England of Oliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cromwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a judiciously edited and structured collection of arguably the most important of Blair Worden?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays. It is always possible to question the reasons for republishing essays that have appeared elsewhere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in this case, as none of these essays have been resting in obscurity and they are all available in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print and electronic forms via institutional libraries the world over. A number, however, are very new and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this manifestation may well be the first appearance that some readers are aware of. In any case the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here can be answered positively and firmly, as while the essays are each in themselves important, the value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book is far greater than the sum of its already estimable parts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Worden argues his case for creating the volume somewhat modestly and states clearly that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(OUP that approached him with the project; nevertheless the opportunity provided allowed him to address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he perceived as problems with the earlier versions of some of the essays, and in half of the cases to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make substantial changes to them to expand on his understanding, or incorporate within them other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches which have made themselves apparent during the intervening years. However, he has actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made fewer changes to the earliest essays, and this is a bold move, as one would expect essays now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaching 30 years of published life to require more alteration. His justification, which bears supportive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1277)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 28 June, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blair Worden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199570492)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(440pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martyn Bennett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 4595 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation, is that those essays were an attempt to challenge existing orthodoxies in the historical process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the ideology of Puritanism. Puritanism as a manifestation of ideologies had been subsumed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological approaches which in many ways reduced religious expression to the status of a code ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant only in what it revealed about the development of capitalism. It was not enough that those very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologies were themselves already well-removed from the sympathies and understandings of the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, it was as if the 20th-century observers were lecturing the Puritans on what they really meant in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naive statements. The three essays, ?Cromwell and the sins of Achan?, ?Providence and politics? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Toleration and the Protectorate?, are as refreshing now as they were to read originally for those of us who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unconvinced by approaches to religion which suggested that somehow we modern and more knowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people knew instinctively what Cromwell and his fellow godly people really meant when they gave voice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their beliefs. Thus in those essays we can begin to appreciate the need to try and comprehend what people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant when they spoke of God and their relationship to him and, moreover, how they were struggling to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand and justify their actions and reactions to events, which as Professor Worden points out, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unexpected in their extent?. Cromwell and others were truly wrestling with God, or at least the sort of runes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God was casting in the shape of the events and outcomes of the Civil Wars, in an effort to discover what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted them to do by looking at his rewards and punishments. When Cromwell and his colleagues strove to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express in words what they understood from their divinations, they were not making codified references to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinist history which had yet to be defined as such ? their statements were grounded in personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious experience and understanding. When Charles I \(and later the regicides or the act of regicide\) were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified with Achan it was a real attempt to understand the cause of the country?s woes, not a plaster of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excuse to cover social and economic revolution or evolution. Achan was identified by God as the root cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Israelites? catastrophic defeat following their successful capture of Jericho. Such a defeat was seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analogous to the catastrophe of Civil War and the Irish Rebellion and thus another Achan was found in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person of Charles I. The lesson was clear, only the destruction of Achan and his family could expiate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reprobate state of the nation. This searching for historical and religious precedent was a genuine attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the run up to the regicide and later, the dark, depressing days following the debacle at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hispaniola. The three essays remain \(unaltered\) at the heart of our understanding of the thought processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the ?Puritans?, and \(through association with the attempt to understand the meaning of Achan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story\) of those Royalists who sought also to use providential readings as a means of understanding the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British monarchies, when they attempted to find a cause for what they saw as the evil of the republic.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7504 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The five more heavily-altered essays, of which Professor Worden makes a spirited \(and unnecessary\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence, are longer expositions, and are more recent, dating chiefly, at least in terms of publication, to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present century , even if there were earlier versions of the ideas behind them. The book as a whole provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an incisive analysis of the history of the period and the Protectorate in particular, in terms of how it operated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and functioned and who was responsible for what happening. The essay on the Protectorate Council is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable in its own right: the detailed and perceptive analysis of the day-to-day functioning of the Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership enables us to see the nascent state at work and the seriousness with which that work was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken. Its coupling here with the essay on the single rule is exceedingly useful and instructive, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places the day-to-day activities in the context of the relative importance of the Council itself. In many ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the essays hint at the failure of the Council to demonstrate clearly its role in government, thus opening it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusations of being an ineffective lap dog dominated by its \(single\) master. The essay sandwiched between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two, that covering ?Cromwell and the Protectorate?, broadens the discussion and explores the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider world to understand Cromwell ? a point made in the chapter on the Council ? or the real nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Republic. The Council was clearly understood to be subordinate to Cromwell and the centrality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell was enhanced by the \(often wilful\) failure to understand the nature of the relationships at the heart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of government. It is not too fanciful to suggest that in a nascent regime such as the Protectorate, there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little understanding within the state either as regards its nature, for in its short life it remained unformed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomplete. What was not appreciated was that Cromwell and his co-instruments did not represent a despotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime feathering a small number of nests. Perhaps in time this collective failing would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcome: the irony was there was no time for the regime, its governmental machinery and even the internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to it to mature and stabilise. Together the triumvirate of essays provide one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative studies of the Protectorate?s failings and foibles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essay which covers the relationship between the University of Oxford and Cromwell at first glance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears almost to stand alone ? although the book?s final chapter reduces this impression. Nevertheless, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an exploration of Cromwell?s relationship with a single institution may be seen as incongruous when viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beside essays dealing with the State Council, Parliament and government as a whole. Yet the essay adds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain ?roundness? or? fulsomeness? to the collection, and the joke \(rightly\) retained about the Higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education Funding Council for England \(HEFCE\) adds welcome context. Seeing how the ideas and beliefs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the protectorate and its operatives permeated the higher education sector shows a practical application of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their spiritual understanding and the need for reform and control within the education system which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide their successors and many of their operatives, and also the means to fill the empty pulpits of the dark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corners of the nation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight focusses on mid 17th?century meaning of religious and civil liberty, beginning with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th?century understanding that Cromwell had not only instituted that dynamic pair, but had set it in motion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be the greatest glory of the 19th century. This supplanted the adulation hitherto afforded to the Glorious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution on the same grounds. Professor Worden looks at how these two facets became intertwined. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly was natural in 1642 to refer to the two together but using different terms. Political liberty and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties of parliament were loudly called for and proclaimed by turn, but religion was described generally as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being under threat from popery or innovations; liberty in religion was a weakness, not a strength. It took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several years for religious liberty to be twinned with political liberty, rather than the pairing being political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty and a defence of religion, and Professor Worden precisely defines the changes which enabled that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to alter, identifying four chief stages to the point at which all contending groups at the fall of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protectorate were able to assert that they stood for both civil and religious liberties. Whilst the fragmentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of religious hegemony in the mid 1640s was an important spur to the call for religious liberty, the phrase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came into use in Leveller texts in the late 1640s when the fruits of victory won by the ?sectarian? New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Model Army appeared under threat; one of those fruits being religious liberty: ironically perhaps, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell who brought the dualism to the political forefront: another example perhaps of the way that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of the Civil War period were unlooked for. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two essays move away from the central focus of the rest of the collection. Professor Worden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies a series of themes which permeate Milton?s writings, one of these being liberty which mutated or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6795 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather developed as the revolution itself developed. It is seen here as at its best as a state of the mind or soul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the unfettered exercise of choice. Here Milton was really discussing the way an individual chose the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of his or her relationship to God rather than the broader definitions which later liberals attached to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term and thus identified with Milton, which brings us back to the theme of the misinterpretation by later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of texts produced in the revolution. The exploration of the work of John Milton is an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one, tracing Milton?s shift to political writing from the sort of intercessionary prose that had marked the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, which coincided with the regicide. It was this, as well as some of his secular arguments such as that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of divorce, which drew upon Milton opprobrium, but also in 1660 led him into the dangerous world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Royalist revenge and anger. This explains in part his decade-long withdrawal from prose, and into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completion of his great poetical work, )] TJ ET BT 219.656 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paradise Lost)] TJ ET BT 286.664 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which \(whilst political and concerned with spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice\) probably mistakenly seemed less threatening that his political prose. That Milton remained a didactic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer even in the years when he was under the shadow of the Restoration acts as an interesting counterpoint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the book?s earlier explorations of the almost runic interpretations of providence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay takes a surprising turn, given the book?s title, by looking at Edward Hyde, Earl of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon, the widely-acknowledged great historian of the period. Clarendon was of course a Royalist. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often portrayed as a moderating figure in the king?s circle in the early 1640s, in the company of Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Culpepper and Viscount Falkland. However, as Professor Worden points out, Clarendon should not to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistaken for an empathetic political moderate. Nor was he one who held the institution of parliament in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great awe. Clarendon did not hold with the extreme end of the divinity of monarchs \(the belief in divine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right\) but he was a believer in a powerful monarch limited by a constitution \(not to be mistaken for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believer in mixed monarchy\), but limited more importantly by his or her own understanding and guided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wise counsel \(by people, in fact, like Clarendon himself\). We need to remember that Clarendon believed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king was not tough enough in some areas of governance and it was this weakness that cost him the throne. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Clarendon?s often judicious and principled history of the period provides a valued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterpoint to the perceptions of the parliamentarian godly, without the excess of bile brought on by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of 15 years of defeat and exile perceptible in other Royalist histories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This then is a valuable collection of work which presents a rounded view ? a circumnavigation if you like ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the republican experience. It has been a pleasure to read the earlier essays again at a more leisurely pace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the schedule of a publication process has not demanded immediacy. It is a collection which deserves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be treasured \(and will be, by this author at least ? and surely he will be in good company\); it will be revisited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for its salutary and important wisdom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author does not wish to respond, merely stating that: 'I would risk damaging my character by lingering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Martyn Bennett's very generous remarks'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Educuation)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 248.115 m 270.668 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historytoday.com/blair-worden/historys-heroic-age)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 219.603 m 336.644 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.644 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History in Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyinreview.org/bw_instrum.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 191.091 m 271.688 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.688 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 187.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 169.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 169.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1277)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 168.585 m 328.316 168.585 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 143.608 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/22693)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=419592)] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.historytoday.com/blair-worden/historys-heroic-age)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.008 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.historyinreview.org/bw_instrum.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 248.4295 270.6677 260.3095 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=419592) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 219.9175 336.6437 231.7975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historytoday.com/blair-worden/historys-heroic-age) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 191.4055 271.6877 203.2855 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyinreview.org/bw_instrum.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 168.8995 328.3157 180.7795 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1277) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000004688 00000 n 0000004797 00000 n 0000004907 00000 n 0000005016 00000 n 0000008577 00000 n 0000008705 00000 n 0000008789 00000 n 0000008854 00000 n 0000013502 00000 n 0000013567 00000 n 0000021124 00000 n 0000021229 00000 n 0000028077 00000 n 0000028204 00000 n 0000028320 00000 n 0000028447 00000 n 0000028559 00000 n 0000028686 00000 n 0000028784 00000 n 0000028912 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29008 %%EOF