%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141028114303+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141028114303+00'00') /Title (Protestant Dublin, 1660-1760: Architecture and Iconography) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4140 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Protestant Dublin, 1660-1760: Architecture and Iconography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Usher?s )] TJ ET BT 108.008 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Protestant Dublin)] TJ ET BT 194.348 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sets out its stall from the beginning: it is a study of symbolic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconographic landscape of Dublin, the essential purpose of which is to explore ?how the physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment conveyed meanings relating [sic] to institutional authority? \(p. 3\). The title leaves no doubt as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the location of the physical environment, and the nature of the authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most well-known and well-worn faces that the Irish capital has presented to the world is its 18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century urban fabric: ?Georgian? Dublin. If one were to compare the first extant map of Dublin ? that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Speed, published in 1612 ? with the best-known ? John Rocque?s, published in 1756 ? it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strikingly obvious that in the 142 years between them, medieval Dublin was stripped away and replaced by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streetplan that is still largely intact as the city underwent a remarkable transformation. Dublin was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconfigured by the Anglican aristocracy usually described as the ?Ascendancy?. The subject of Usher?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is the manner in which this Protestant aristocracy constructed a Protestant capital city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Usher?s starting point is the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. His terminal date is 1760, just after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of the Wide Streets Commission that developed much of the streetscape that survives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central Dublin. The timeframe makes sense. After the Restoration Dublin experienced an unprecedented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic and physical expansion that easily outstripped that of the rest of the country; estimates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1278)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 28 June, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Usher)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230223899)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Gibney)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7461 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin?s population in the early to mid 17th century vary, but by 1700 it had perhaps as many as 60,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants. Dublin was traditionally a hub for administration, education, finance, trade and, inevitably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. It now became a magnet for the Protestant elite who had benefited from the upheavals of the 1640s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1650s, and whose descendents became the gentry of the 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The physical fabric of the city changed dramatically in the decades after the Restoration, with the creation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St Stephen's Green and the viceregal demesne in the Phoenix Park, along with the development of new and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly prestigious residential areas north and south of the River Liffey. By the 1730s Dublin had also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired a number of significant public buildings: the Royal Hospital at Kilmainham \(1680?4\), the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barracks \(now the National Museum Collins Barracks, and at the time of its completion in 1710 the largest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barracks in Europe\), the reconstructed Dublin Castle, the ?Old Library? of Trinity College Dublin \(1712?32\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and above all Edward Lovett Pearce?s grandiose Parliament House \(1729?31\). Such buildings were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressions of confidence and power, and while 18th-century Dublin was a key centre for cultural life in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of spheres, it was defined by the fact that it was by then, in large part, an aristocratic city. ?Ireland?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Usher, ?was a country whose built environment \(especially in Dublin\) was moulded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anglicised elites? \(pp. 7?8\); but these were also Protestant elites, and Dublin was to be reworked into what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, officially, a Protestant capital city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter is largely concerned with how royal \(and Protestant\) authority was embedded in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streetscape in the years after 1660. Usher is alert to the importance of civic ritual in the official life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city \(such as the riding of the franchises, the symbolic reaffirming of the city council's authority by travelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the municipal boundaries\). However, the architecture and streetscape of Dublin may not have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to the task of maximising the impact of these public ceremonials. This was especially true of traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forums of royal power, such as the grim and ramshackle edifice of the castle \(which, after all, housed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viceregal court\). Like earlier scholars such as Maurice Craig and J. C. Beckett, Usher recognises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the towering figure of James Butler, duke of Ormond, who served as viceroy after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoration and who was well aware of the value of such pageantry. Official ceremonies \(such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processions, and the raucous celebrations that could accompany them\) often used the castle as a focal point, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in doing so ?dragged it ? into the iconographic web of the greater urban area? \(p. 25\). In other words, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere presence of the castle, with its connotations of power, could count for as much as any building that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be deliberately designed to reflect authority. The Phoenix Park, for instance, was another symbol of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority \(and brainchild of Ormond\); but it was, and still is, a park, rather than a consciously crafted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building. The fact that it was there at all got the message across. The first new public building to be erected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Dublin after the restoration was the massive edifice of William Robinson?s Royal Hospital \(1680?4\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famously established as a home for old soldiers along the lines of Les Invalides in Paris. But in symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms this was a subtle monument to Ormond \(whose arms adorn the building\) above all else. These two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related \(and adjacent\) projects suggest that ?the Butlers had cast a net of progress and civility over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical and cultural landscapes of Dublin and Ireland? \(p. 30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ormond?s authority was not, however, the same as the authority of either monarch or established church. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other centres of power spoke to other meanings. Chichester House, the seat of the Irish parliament, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat underwhelming structure during this period: ?splendour belonged elsewhere? \(p. 32\). One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implication to be drawn from this was of Dublin's \(and Ireland?s\) subordination to England. Dublin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corporation, on the other hand, was located in the Tholsel, at the heart of the medieval core of the city. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was another centre of power imbued with a complex iconography drawn from, and indicative of, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifics of Dublin?s past. There was also a strictly functional element to the reworking of the official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streetscape that took place in this period. The renovation and reconstruction of Dublin?s churches in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century was partly aimed at reflecting new ?administrative demands? on the established church. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, meanings could be invested in particular buildings regardless of any obvious aesthetic value or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic purpose. The two medieval cathedrals of Christ Church and St Patrick's, for instance, were seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite dilapidated, but retained their prestige in civic terms \(and as burial sites\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The statues of monarchs erected in Dublin after 1660 also illustrate the manner in which meaning could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed on the streetscape. They were generally erected by the ?municipality?, and conformed to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7538 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established models and conventions. Grinling Gibbons? statue of William III ? William of Orange ? on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(College Green, just outside the parliament house, was the most significant of all, and its unveiling in 1701 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was accompanied by fervent and enthusiastic celebrations. The statue was actually based on a statue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles II at Windsor, but the subject and its location were more important than its style. The later statues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George I \(on Essex Bridge, near the centre of commerce and the 18th-century port\) and George II \(in St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen's Green, near the centre of style\), were far less prominent in symbolic terms: a revealing indication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the priorities of Protestant Dublin. ?The Protestantism of the statues lay in the percieved merits of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals they depicted? \(p. 128\). By that criterion, William III was undoubtedly more significant than his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian successors: here was the defender of a Protestant constitution conveniently located outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building that most obviously embodied Protestant ?ascendency? \(a meaning subtly reaffirmed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionism of Francis Wheatley?s famous painting of 1780\). Yet there was nothing on either the statue or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parliament house that reflected this in and of itself. Once again, presence was enough; at least until 1929, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it was destroyed by a republican bomb. And even that was not the first protest registered against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statue \(though it was certainly the last\): in 1710 it had been defaced by Trinity students who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably hostile to ?revolution principles?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The role of iconography in urban geography has been recognised in relation to other cities and cultures. But, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Usher, a key problem in studies of contested iconography is an emphasis on ?implantation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction?; on events like the construction and destruction of the statue of William. Consequently, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period in between, and the possibility of an earlier lack of controversy, are seldom considered? \(p. 5\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other words, in the course of their existence, what culture \(or cultures\) do these symbols actually speak to, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what do they say? The statue of William had a greater significance in Dublin than its Hanoverian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts precisely because he was venerated as the deliverer of Protestant Ireland, and Usher is right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point out that there is more to such statues than simply the fact of their eventual destruction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Public statuary is dealt with in chapter three and acts as a bridge between the 17th and 18th centuries. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourth chapter, on ?architectures of authority?, is essentially a continuation of the first. Where buildings such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the castle dominated chapter one, iconic buildings such as the Parliament House ? which could be a focal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point for protest as well as Protestant confidence ? were naturally of more importance after 1700. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commercial power was reflected in the construction of the Royal Exchange \(now City Hall\) in the 1770s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and James Gandon?s Customs House thereafter. The final chapter concerns itself with another obvious \(if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less grandiose\) manifestation of Dublin?s new role as Protestant capital city: the creation of a city for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant residents, with the development of St Stephen's Green south of the Liffey in the 1660s, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estates laid out by figures such as Humphrey Jervis and Luke Gardiner north of the river.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Usher is at pains to avoid interpreting the symbolic landscape of Dublin in colonial or imperialist terms; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that the authority that was to be embedded in the streetscape was Protestant is largely incidental, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took forms that were by no means unusual in British and continental terms. A ?colonial? paradigm is, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Usher?s view, too simplistic; his emphasis is on Dublin?s role as a ?Protestant? city, rather than an imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. Yet this is one instance when his grasp of nuance seems to slip. It is true, as he himself seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise, that a paradigm of colonialism is not automatically applicable to every aspect of Irish history. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, however, applicable to some elements of that history, and conquest and colonisation were fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the Irish historical experience from the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 17th. And the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial community that emerged in this era was Protestant in composition. Usher is wary that such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis can lead to a simple adversial dichotomy between coloniser and colonised, and of the crude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reductionism that can arise from this. But the interpretive model of colonialism is not antithetical to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical complexity of Protestant Ireland, as revealed by scholars such as Toby Barnard, David Dickson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean Connolly, and Jacqueline Hill \(all of whom are name-checked here\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Usher makes a very strong case that Dublin?s iconography, while essentially Protestant, simply drew its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic and its practical functions from a range of British and European sources. It was not automatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended as some kind of cumulative message to the vanquished from the victor. But it did not have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present such a message: by 1660 the ?Protestant \(and wholly Anglican\) body politic? \(p. 8\) of Ireland had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely been confirmed in their position and status. That confirmation became definitive after the Jacobite-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3968 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williamite War of 1689?91, and facts on the ground surely spoke for themselves, irrespective of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence or insecurity of the Protestant elites who were preoccupied with reconstructing Dublin. It is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextual quibble that does not materially alter the substance of the book. But given that Usher does ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly ? suggest comparisons with British and European cities, and ends with an imprecation for further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, one could equally suggest that a comparative framework for Dublin should include urban areas in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations that might be recognised more explicitly as British colonies: Boston or Philadelphia come to mind, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to mention the cities scattered across the globe by other European empires.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet this is a relatively minor issue, and points towards another day?s work rather than the book under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review. )] TJ ET BT 72.668 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Protestant Dublin )] TJ ET BT 162.008 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an erudite, scholarly and shrewd work. It is also very well written, being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly lively and readable. Usher takes Protestant Ireland on its own terms, has scoured a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary and secondary sources, weaves his material into an impressive whole, and displays a notable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alertness to subtlety and nuance as he does so. While his focus is on the physical framework of the city, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not exclude social, economic, and political history: all make an appearance as required, and in lieu of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any systematic account of \(admittedly obscure\) public opinion, the book is interspersed with a running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary culled from popular ballads and broadsides. Amongst other things, )] TJ ET BT 419.972 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Protestant Dublin)] TJ ET BT 506.312 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely useful compendium of architectural and social detail, with a good balance of anecdote and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument. It is very well illustrated, with 85 black and white images \(many taken by the author\) in 206 pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of text. The fact that Usher manages to fuse a wealth of fragmented detail into a coherent study makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Protestant Dublin)] TJ ET BT 120.356 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a notable contribution to the underworked field of Irish cultural history, and, given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th?century Dublin was one of the largest cities in Europe, it is surely also a notable contribution to urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. All in all, this book is a most impressive achievement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to respond.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 456.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 438.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 438.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1278)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 437.193 m 328.316 437.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 412.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/22697)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 437.5075 328.3157 449.3875 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1278) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000004835 00000 n 0000004944 00000 n 0000005054 00000 n 0000005163 00000 n 0000008724 00000 n 0000008852 00000 n 0000008936 00000 n 0000009001 00000 n 0000016515 00000 n 0000016580 00000 n 0000024171 00000 n 0000024255 00000 n 0000028276 00000 n 0000028404 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28500 %%EOF