%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150524152011+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150524152011+01'00') /Title (The Irish in Victorian Britain: the Local Dimension) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4751 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Irish in Victorian Britain: the Local Dimension)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although by far the oldest and most numerous ethnic minority in Britain, the Irish have received relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little attention within British social history or indeed the sociology of migration, race and ethnicity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary disciplines have for too long been the focus point of )] TJ ET BT 324.308 273.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Irish Studies)] TJ ET BT 389.324 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and it seems the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of this large, mobile, ethnic and \(on the whole\) religiously distinct group has been somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected. At this time, the field is developing with new researchers becoming interested in this moderately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("invisible" group. )] TJ ET BT 122.144 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish in Victorian Britain)] TJ ET BT 263.492 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been addressed in two previous volumes, and now this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new book of essays, by Roger Swift and Sheridan Gilley. Their first collection of essays entitled )] TJ ET BT 499.292 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian City)] TJ ET BT 102.356 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1985\) presented an eclectic collection of what was then a relatively new subject area having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only been covered substantially in the post-war period by one monograph from J. A. Jackson \(who in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways set the template for this field of study\) and two local studies from London and Leeds. That book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a classic overview of the subject by M. A.G. Tuathaigh before moving into what became familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes within the subject. Inherent within the historiography was the view that the Irish community in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain as subaltern subjects, problematised, criminalised, suffering from various forms of discrimination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and delineated as mainly poor Catholic males. That book discussed issues of integration and assimilation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political engagement with working class politics and the media, anti-Irish violence and the use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Orange Card" for electoral advantage by the Conservative and Unionist Party in local elections - a historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency that is as relevant today within as it was in the 1850s and 60s especially if we consider the refugee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of those Irish fleeing the privations of the Great Famine. Another important strand of that first volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(128)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 May, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Swift)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheridan Gilley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781851824448)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four Courts Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Peach)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7682 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the significance of the Catholic Church to the migrant Irish community; a significant theme as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church was itself undergoing a period of post-Reformation renewal that was supported and enriched by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion of its Irish born congregations. That first volume also included a number of localised studies on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bristol, York, Edinburgh and a comparative exposition of communal violence in Glasgow and Liverpool. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second Swift and Gilley volume entitled )] TJ ET BT 252.332 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish in Britain)] TJ ET BT 345.344 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1815-1939 \(1989\) expanded the field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study and revised a number of the post-Jackson positions, while developing further the themes of settlement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregation, integration, politics and political literary texts, as well as Irish migrants; influences upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour-market and crime. The volume included one particular provincial essay on the town of Stafford.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now the third Swift and Gilley volume expands this theme of local specificity in the migrant Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, situating the emigrants within their regional economic, political and social contexts. Thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume underlines the heterogeneity of the Irish migrant experience and begins to pull away from the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson historical focus into areas and fields that are under researched. All three volumes include useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliographies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall the new volume is a useful exposition of new research in the area that has been bolstered by recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs by scholars such as Paul Leary, Frank Neal and Donald MacRaild. A useful introduction by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors is followed by Paul O'Leary's contribution; an essay focused upon the mainly hostile reaction that)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Great Famine)] TJ ET BT 127.340 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( migrants received in Wales. He emphasises the importance a strong sense of regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity and the specific economic and political context in determining this reaction. O'Leary suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the regional study might be more useful that the historiographical micro-study of towns and cities that have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated the field so far. An example of this new emphasis on the smaller Irish community and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of local context is presented by Louise Miskell's interesting account of the Irish in Cambourne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall between 1861 and 1882. Her research challenges some of the historiographical assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stemming from the analysis of larger communities that concentrate on the poor, low-skilled, urban dwelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish. Miskell argues that the anti-Irish riot of 1882 was determined by the local context in peripheral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornish society rather than a generic anti-Irishness. She also points briefly to the effect of local contexts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaping residential patterns and challenges the idea of the 'Irish area' as a construction based as much upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local memory as ethnic clustering. She also points out the fact that the Irish were spread throughout the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy and not just concentrated in the low-skill labouring sector. As such she presents important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of the heterogeneity of Irish experience in nineteenth century Britain as well as the salience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory and the constructive discursive nature of ethno-geography in It's demotic and official resonances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No regional study of the Irish in Britain would be complete without surveying London. Apart from one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph published in the late 1970s by Lynn Hollen Lees, there has been little published work, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacqueline Turton's examination of the poor Irish in London utilising the work of Henry Mayhew's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations for the )] TJ ET BT 138.344 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morning Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 231.344 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is long over due. The essay is a useful exposition of Mayhew's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early form of methodologically problematic sociological oral history. The piece presents information on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(routes taken to London from Ireland , settlement, work and social conditions, crime, associational cultures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intolerance. There is much of interest within the essay, although a little weak on the role of prejudice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anti-Irishness, there are some interesting passages and conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's second city has also been cruelly neglected in published studies. Carl Chinn's somewhat eclectic but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthy essay covers the Irish in early Victorian Birmingham. Empirically focused, his detailed analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1851 census covers the usual preoccupations of the economic and social historiography; general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demography and residence patterns, economic engagement of the migrant, the importance of kinship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks etc.. Although Chinn uses the idea of the "Irish community" somewhat loosely, this essay is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first to focus on the important industrial centre of Birmingham and as such is a welcome addition to the field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has so far been somewhat eclipsed by work on the North of Britain. Frank Neal's contributes another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even more empirically detailed "work in progress" on Irish settlement in the North East and North West of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. Using his personal database of over 35000 records of the Irish born and their children, he also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the 1851 census to extract a wealth of detail of the lives of Irish migrants in this area. Again the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local economic context is fore-grounded in its influence upon settlement and work patterns. The wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information, statistics and tables will be of great use to historians and as his work progresses will )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7412 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly become a valuable historical resource. Another detailed census study on Stafford is provided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Herson who has been conducting research into the Irish population of this small town for some time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing another aspect of the settled Irish communities of the nineteenth century. Herson has extracted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large amount of detailed information much based upon following individual families. The chapter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially useful for its inclusion of Protestant Irish. He is able for instance to show that Protestant Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants were more skilled and therefore more affluent than their Catholic countrymen being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmingly represented in skilled manual or managerial and professional employment. Along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinn, the re-introduction of the family network as important is another welcome divergence from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional historiography and a great deal of work awaits similar studies elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another strand within all three books is the important role played by the Catholic Church in relation to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of Irish migrants. Marie McClelland's contribution examines the role of the Church in providing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education for Irish migrants in Hull and in particular the importance of Catholic Nuns. Her description of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Catholic education in the town maps the problems and successes of the Catholic institutions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing a reliable education for Catholic's in the face of some hostility from the local educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and others. The focus of a secular role within the Church's functions was obviously important in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the establishment and integration of the Irish Catholic community. Frank Boyce - somewhat at odds with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book's title - takes a look at the Irish Catholic community within the Liverpool docklands from the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, concentrating to some extent on its disappearance from the 1950s to the present day. Utilising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival and oral sources he describes the community now lost and the importance the parish was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cementing group identity. This is a useful and sensitive narrative of the community and one senses almost a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note of regret at its passing or rather transformation from a religious into a secular "community centre" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The political strand of the historiography is covered in three essays, one by John Belchem - ostensibly about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Liverpool Irish middle classes but more focused on the political engagement of the group. Belchem has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done much work on the associational culture of the Irish ethnic enclave in Liverpool and declares a mission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rescue the community from "historical caricature and stigma". This essay builds upon his previous work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially engaging with the role of the middle class Irish in building an Irish nationalism as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recording some of the ethnic entrepreneurs of the city. Belchem is quite correct to point out the over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on poor Catholic migrants within the historiography, there was a notable middle-class Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element in nineteenth century Britain that is only just coming to light as researchers begin to ask relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions. The neglect of the Irish middle classes is connected to the prejudices surrounding the Irish in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. Arguably within the British national discourse, the memory of the Irish is still that of an unskilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor labourer with a drink problem and predisposed to violence. These prejudices have subliminally affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research agendas in the past. A second political essay is provided by John Hutchinson and Alan O'Day who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the political tensions between the generations of Irish nationalists and "new" upwardly mobile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section of middle class migrant more willing to form a new identity for Irishness based upon sport, literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and language in London of the 1890s. Also, Gerard Moran provides an interesting examination of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist politics in Lancashire by examining the Brotherhood of Saint Patrick, "the first organisation after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Famine to organise the Irish into a movement focusing on Irish problems, not confining itself exclusively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to political issues". This is an important area as the organisational networks of the Irish diaspora have again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been under researched. All of these essays in their own way add to the empirical knowledge that is the raw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material of historical research and understanding, operating within a conventional social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Mary Hickman in an important essay within the book argues for an alternative historiography for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish in Britain. Her inherently structuralist thesis disputes the segregationist/assimillationist model that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterises much of the literature, pointing out that the discourse focuses on the group itself and its relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("successes" or "failures" in relation to the host state/society without problematising the role that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receiving society poses to the migrant. Her critique censures the "inherent empiricism" of most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography that produces a systematic exceptionalism from the sources, professional knowledge of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes a "substitute for thought". Hickman calls for a new approach that systematises the various factors )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7720 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of "race" ethnicity, class, religion, politics etc. to provide a new analysis of how Irish experiences in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were configured in relation to these factors. She is very critical of the assimilation model arguing that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disengages migrants from the structural factors such as class and access to employment, undervalues the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of "race" and ethnicity in determining class position and ignores the role the Irish played in the construction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a cross-class racist British nationalism. The role of the state is also transparent in much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography according to Hickman, the particular articulation of which structures the institutional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural context of the receiving society. For Hickman, the Irish in Britain arrived at a crucial time of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British state's nation building project, a project that was concerned with constructing an idea of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homogenised and centralised state and culture. Irish Catholic peasants became within this context the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defining "Other" from which a cross class "national-racial unit" was constructed, That is to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishness/Britishness. This unit was defined by Protestantism and the inculcation of "respectability", or in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other words bourgeois values, into the working classes. Thus the new nineteenth century institutions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police, education, mass media etc. were involved in a nation building project part of which was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of a new political subject and thereby the state reconstructed its self and its hegemony. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish were problematised within this project and for Hickman the focus of attention for historians should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon this historical context rather than the relative success or otherwise of Irish migrants integration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies which has been the legacy of the current historiography. Hickman's thesis presents new challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to historians in this area and opens up a potentially rich seam of a more cross disciplinary approach utilising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the concepts and methodologies of sociology, cultural studies and law among others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The construction of British and Irish national identities were crucial at this point in history, as was the need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to shore up what was to become the ascendant economic and political configuration of Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere. Liberal democracy has told many stories about itself within the nation building project of Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and one has been the idea of assimilation as positive acculturation rather than a negative ethnic suicide. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story that is lacking is how the Irish helped to define who was and was not Irish, English, Scottish, Welsh, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornish, Manx and British. Lynda Colley's work in this area significantly skirts the role of the Irish and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best is a neglect of the facts. The role of continental and colonial people's was important, but if we are to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the role of religion on British identity then the Irish need to be taken seriously as the internal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external "Other" to British nationalism. In light of long term anti-Catholicism, medium term political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-colonial agitation at home and abroad as well as medium to short term tensions created by mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration of impoverished peasants in the Great Famine period, the role of the Irish as a political, religious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic and class antithesis to the bourgeois, freeborn, colonial Protestant Englishman becomes clear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, this new collection opens up some new areas for research within the established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography with some strands emigrating away from the subaltern slant and numbers game. The shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the regional and small scale studies as well as middle class and family networks are to be welcomed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a rich source for future empirical work. The political and religious strands are still under researched and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the essays included are important as are the mapping of Irish communities as yet untouched by study or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published work. In the light of all the empirical work available and to be done, the introduction of a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical element to the field is a welcome challenge. This said however, the book on the whole sticks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely to received wisdom and scarcely tries to challenge or push historiographical boundaries too far. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When compared to other works such as Patrick O'Sullivan's diasporically and cross disciplinarian collections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish in the New Communities )] TJ ET BT 201.356 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6 volumes 1992\) or Donald MacRaild's )] TJ ET BT 397.496 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture, Conflict and Migration: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish in Victorian Cumbria)] TJ ET BT 184.028 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\) and his excellent )] TJ ET BT 305.672 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Immigrants in Modern Britain, 1750-1922)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1999\), this new volume feels a little too content with the received wisdoms of the field. This can suggest - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorrectly - that the past two decades of study on Irish migration and settlement in Britain has moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively little.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One stimulating area of research has been opened up by Hickman, however. As the oldest, most prolific and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culturally integrated of migrants to the British isles in the modern period, the Irish communities and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions they provoked and coaxed from their resident neighbours and vice versa has much to tell us about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues of identity formation, ethnic and religious prejudice as well as nation building, the invention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions of ethnic memory and imagined communities at an important time in Britain's history. Many of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1260 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of prejudice that the Irish experienced in nineteenth century Britain are remarkably consistent with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern expressions of racism and intolerance towards immigrants. Arguably, the notions of Irish and British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are meaningless with out each other. Thus the study of this group in this period should be at the centre rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the periphery of British history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/128)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/737)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/128) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000005446 00000 n 0000005555 00000 n 0000005665 00000 n 0000005774 00000 n 0000009335 00000 n 0000009463 00000 n 0000009547 00000 n 0000009612 00000 n 0000017347 00000 n 0000017412 00000 n 0000024877 00000 n 0000024942 00000 n 0000032715 00000 n 0000032799 00000 n 0000034112 00000 n 0000034240 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34335 %%EOF