%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922200411+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922200411+01'00') /Title (Gilgamesh Among Us: Modern Encounters with the Ancient Epic) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2894 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh Among Us: Modern Encounters with the Ancient Epic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodore Ziolkowski has been writing in the fields of German literature \(especially Hermann Hesse\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative literature for some 50 years. One of his abiding interests has been an examination of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happens to the mythology, themes and plots embedded in works of ancient literature when modern writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other artists encounter them. Previous books to emerge from his study at Princeton have explored the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on modern creativity and intellectual life first of the Roman poets Virgil \(1993\) and Ovid \(2005\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then of the Cretan myths of Europa, the Minotaur and Icarus \(2008\). This new book surveys the reception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and influence of a yet older piece of literature, the Epic of Gilgamesh.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1280)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodore Ziolkowski)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801450358)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornell University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ithaca, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew R. George)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7598 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Epic of Gilgamesh is a Babylonian poem with an ancient history stretching across 17 centuries, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 1750 to 100 BC. The surviving manuscripts are clay tablets inscribed in cuneiform script in several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different languages ? Akkadian in Mesopotamia and Syria, and Hittite and Hurrian in Anatolia ? excavated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the ruin fields of the Middle East from 1850 to the present. The poem?s literary antecedents reveal an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even older history, for some of the episodes that occur in the poem also feature in shorter poems about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh composed in Sumerian, the language of the oldest large corpus of literature in human history. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these compositions are fragmentary to a greater or lesser degree, and are still in the process of reconstruction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as further manuscripts are discovered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The labour of reconstruction falls into the academic field of Assyriology, where the skills in decipherment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and philology of a tiny number of adepts have resurrected Gilgamesh and other ancient literature from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oblivion that lasted 19 centuries. Something of the history of this labour can be learned from Ziolkowski?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow east-coast comparatist, David Damrosch, of Columbia and Harvard, whose contemporary account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the archaeology and Assyriology in their Orientalist contexts is entitled )] TJ ET BT 379.316 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Buried Book. The Loss and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rediscovery of the Great Epic of Gilgamesh)] TJ ET BT 245.984 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.984 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.984 585.747 m 262.976 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 262.976 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ziolkowski?s new book continues Damrosch?s story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh?s rediscovery as a modern cultural phenomenon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziolkowski refers only in passing to the progress of generations of Assyriologists? work on the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts. Indeed, there is no up-to-date comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 317.624 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forschungsgeschichte )] TJ ET BT 427.940 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Gilgamesh. Successive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discoveries, from 1850 to the present, have led to ever-increasing knowledge of the Babylonian poem and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analogues in other languages. But for Ziolkowski?s purpose, the Assyriologists? story is only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background to a cultural history of the reception of Gilgamesh in modern times, especially its popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception and its impact on literature, art and music.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziolkowski?s study is divided into historical episodes. The first is the period up to the Second World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning with Leonidas Hamilton?s ?Ishtar and Izdubar? \(1884\). This extraordinary feat of invention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already demonstrates what happens when writers who do not feel constrained to render an ancient text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithfully allow their imaginations to direct their work. In this case the result was a Swinburnesque romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fantasy, far removed from the darker concerns that even then could be seen to be the matter of the poem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh. John Maier, a previous critic of Hamilton?s work, observed that Hamilton interspersed his work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Babylonian words of his own making, passed off as quotations of an original text.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.316 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.316 362.163 m 465.308 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 465.308 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamilton clearly intended that his readers would think that what they were reading was a text very close to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ancient poem. From any point of view, this was a fraudulent trick. Assyriologists have a deep mistrust of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation by those who cannot read the original languages, and that mistrust begins with Hamilton.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter continues with the ?Babel und Bibel? controversy in Germany stirred up by Friedrich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delitzsch?s Berlin lecture of 1902, and describes the impact of Arthur Ungnad?s translation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Babylonian Gilgamesh \(1911\) on the psychoanalysts Freud and Jung, and on the poets Rilke and Hesse. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first responses by painters and artists are also considered. The chapter ends with a juxtaposition of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renderings of the poem?s seduction scene, one into clunky dactylic hexameters by a British Assyriologist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Campbell Thompson, 1929\) and the other into attractive free verse by an American poet working from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1924 translation of the German Assyriologist Hermann Ranke \(William Ellery Leonard, 1934\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison brings to the fore another issue in Assyriological translation, and in the translation of literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in dead languages generally. Often those who do not control the ancient languages are nevertheless ? some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would say for that reason ? better at writing an English that contemporary readers find to their taste. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziolkowski?s first chapter thus raises at its extremities important issues in translation that beset the fields of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient and alien literature, especially these two questions: can a reader know whether he is reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something literal or free, and can an academic translator make an ancient poem readable in the way a poet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziolkowski?s second chapter covers the 1940s and 1950s. He begins by categorizing the relationship of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material to the original Gilgamesh. First are translations proper, literal and free; these are mentioned only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insofar as they are sources used by writers and other artists working in three other categories: \(a\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.9837 586.0615 262.9757 597.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.3157 362.4775 465.3077 374.3575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6310 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fictionalizing and dramatic revisions?, \(b\) works ?set in the writer?s own time? but modelled on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pattern? of the ancient text, and \(c\) ?thematic or motivic analogues? with a ?loose thematic connection with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the source work?. These categories are fully populated by the following studies, which range in time from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Lucas? rationalizing version, a narrative poem entitled ?Gilgamesh: King of Erech? \(1948\), to Hans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jahnn?s trilogy, )] TJ ET BT 113.012 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Flu ohne Ufer)] TJ ET BT 187.004 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1949?61\), an elaboration of the Gilgamesh theme that Ziolkowski describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?one of the most remarkable novels of the twentieth century?. The chapter considers the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Gilgamesh in art and the beginnings of the musical reaction to his story, notably the Czech )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composer Bohuslav Martinu?s much recorded oratorio of 1955. It concludes with an important observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the poem?s differing receptions in Germany, where it had achieved a much greater cultural prominence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the war, and the English-speaking world, where translations had as yet had little impact on writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and artists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three covers the period 1959?78, which Ziolkowski finds a time when Gilgamesh was increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularized, especially in the English-speaking world. Translations had become available in a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of modern languages and were reaching a wide readership. Through the extraordinary success of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass-market adaptation by Nancy Sandars, first published as a Penguin Classic in 1960, the approximate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content of the Babylonian and Sumerian poems gained very wide exposure and caught the imagination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many writers, dramatists, musicians and artists. Ziolkowski moves swiftly through the throng, mentioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some in passing, dwelling longer on others. Here are Herbert Mason, who sought to ?revivify? Gilgamesh in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a personal and emotional poem published by the New English Library as )] TJ ET BT 386.636 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh: A Verse Narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1970\); Louis Zukofsky, who included the tale of Gilgamesh in Canto 23 of ?A? \(1975\), described by one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critic as ?perhaps the most obscure poetry written in English this century? \(which is some accolade, given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the competition\); and Gil Gamesh, the baseball star of Philip Roth?s )] TJ ET BT 364.664 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great American Novel)] TJ ET BT 494.312 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1973\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s and 1970s also saw Gilgamesh \(and his bosom friend Enkidu\) co-opted to serve various social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political agenda, particularly the movement for civil rights of homosexuals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziolkowski characterizes the last decades of the 20th century as a period of even greater contemporization. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth chapter further demonstrates how 20th-century intellectuals, particularly writers, co-opted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of Gilgamesh for their own purposes: psychoanalysts of the schools of Freud \(Luke and Pruyser\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jung \(Kluger\), literary deconstructionists \(Leutenegger\), historical novelists \(Silverberg\), literary ecologists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Braem, Mielke\), and so on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shortly after the turn of the century a succession of events ? notably the destruction of the World Trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre by Eastern fanatics inspired by religious fundamentalists and the occupation of Muslim countries by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western armies despatched by political ideologists ? brought a new reaction to the Middle East and Islam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Ziolkowski shows soon coloured the reception of Gilgamesh. Stephen Mitchell?s adaptation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poem for a modern American readership is notable not only for its explicit treatment of sexual intercourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(adding gratuitous pornographic detail to the original to meet the perceived demands of modern readers\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also for its introduction, where Mitchell finds Gilgamesh?s raid on the Cedar Forest and ill-advised slaughter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its guardian a counterpart of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and toppling of Saddam Hussein. The Sumerian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poem?s subtle criticism of Gilgamesh?s foreign adventure calls attention to the dubious morality of the pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emptive strike as a military strategy. Here too is Joan London?s fine novel )] TJ ET BT 393.968 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh)] TJ ET BT 445.964 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poem is the structural key to a modern narrative about a quest and return set in Australia, London and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle East during the Second World War.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8527 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziolkowski?s book brings together an extraordinary assemblage of creative endeavour, literary, musical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic, all bound in some way to the ancient poem recovered by Assyriology. Only a few of them have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned here. As a consequence of my own interest in the ancient text of Gilgamesh, writers have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes sent me their books inspired by the old hero. Only one such gift does not find a place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziolkowski?s narrative: a volume of Italian poetry by Antonello Catani called )] TJ ET BT 410.300 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ghilgamesh e altre poesie)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 538.952 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 538.952 726.051 m 552.944 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 552.944 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which begins with the eponymous composition, a collection of seven short meditative poems that refer by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name to characters from ancient Near Eastern mythology. The author writes that ?il poema s? ispira all? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antica epopea mesopotamica di Ghilgamesh? \(the poem is inspired by the ancient Mesopotamian epic of G.\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It falls into Ziolkowski?s category of ?thematic or motivic analogue?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziolkowski?s preoccupation is with English and German literature and culture. These specialisms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily provided his hunting ground. In the last 25 years academic translations by Spanish and Italians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been published in mass-market form: Giovanni Pettinato?s )] TJ ET BT 344.648 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La saga di Gilgamesh )] TJ ET BT 453.320 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1992\), Jorge Silva )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castillo?s )] TJ ET BT 84.356 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh o la angustia por la muerte )] TJ ET BT 273.356 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1996\), Jos Luis Sampedro?s )] TJ ET BT 421.004 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La epopeya de Gilgamesh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2004\), and Joaqun Sanmartn?s )] TJ ET BT 194.996 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Epopeya de Gilgame, rey de Uruk )] TJ ET BT 364.952 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.944 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.944 585.747 m 413.936 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.936 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Likewise mass-market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations have been published in Denmark and Norway: Ulla and Aage Westenholz?s )] TJ ET BT 460.592 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh, Enuma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elish: Guder og mennesker i oldtidens Babylon )] TJ ET BT 264.992 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1997\) and Jens Braarvig?s )] TJ ET BT 398.960 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh og Atrahasis: To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(babylonske helter )] TJ ET BT 122.000 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.992 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.992 542.979 m 170.984 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 170.984 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These, like comparable works in English and German, have surely spawned the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic creativity that is Ziolkowski?s subject. He does dwell a while on Jos Ortega?s )] TJ ET BT 451.628 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh y la muerte)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the first of a trilogy of novels published in the 1990s, but commentators more deeply immersed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary literary, musical and artistic culture of the Mediterranean and Scandinavian countries could no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt add much to Ziolkowski?s study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However many more creative works have sprung from the seeds sown by Gilgamesh, it is certain that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would support Ziolkowski?s conclusion, that ?Gilgamesh constitutes a finely tuned seismograph whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception registers to a significant degree many of the major upheavals of the past century? \(p. 197\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Students of literature understand that it is exactly this ability to bear profound meaning to new and different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readerships that is the mark of a great work. When Ziolkowski identifies Gilgamesh as ?that great foundation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stone of world literature? he has good grounds. Similarly David Damrosch has made room for Gilgamesh in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Longman Anthology of World Literature )] TJ ET BT 249.356 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and devoted to it the first case-study in his book on )] TJ ET BT 497.672 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Literature?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.688 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.688 359.907 m 135.680 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.680 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The endorsement of Gilgamesh in this way and its emergence into the company of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what are now identified as the ?great books? is fully explained by the reception history that Ziolkowski )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For this reviewer a salient problem is how Assyriologists respond to the phenomena Ziolkowski documents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially to those renderings of the poem of Gilgamesh that fall into the category ?fictionalizing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic revisions?. Like Classicists, Assyriologists elucidate ancient literature through epigraphy, philology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and historical study, and would like also to be guardians of this ancient literature. They recoil at ?unfaithful? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularising translations and excoriate adaptations and retellings, not only on grounds of historical accuracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also because of their capacity to mislead even those who should know better.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of academic study of Gilgamesh outside Assyriology shows that even well-respected scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been deluded into using free adaptations, e.g. Sandars? prose version of 1959 and even Mason?s poem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1970, as if they were reliable sources for the original text. The non-academic reader is just as likely to fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into this trap. Looking up Gilgamesh on any internet bookseller one finds a bewildering array of competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titles, undifferentiated in terms of faithfulness to the original and all put forward by their publishers as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somehow the best on the market. In the face of this proliferation of free translations and freer adaptations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the answer to the first question about translation prompted above by Ziolkowski?s first chapter ? can a reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know whether he is reading something literal or free? ? is more than ever negative. Distinguishing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother from her daughters becomes progressively harder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writers of free adaptations of Gilgamesh almost always acknowledge the distance between the original text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their own version. The real villains here are those publishers who, knowing that Gilgamesh sells books, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 538.9517 726.3655 552.9437 738.2455 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.9437 586.0615 413.9357 597.9415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.9917 543.2935 170.9837 555.1735 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.6877 360.2215 135.6797 372.1015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 7225 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place unwarranted claims of authenticity on book covers for commercial reasons. Free-market capitalism is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus a force in the evolving reception of any cultural artefact where judgement of authenticity made by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third party cannot be verified or falsified by common knowledge and experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To answer the second question raised earlier, the perception also remains that no academic translator can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make an ancient poem readable in the way a poet can. This perception persuades most writers that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(converting an ancient poem into a modern language, it is necessary to take freedoms with the original in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way that with more modern classics normally happens only in transferring the text to another medium, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film or television. A film version of a novel often outrages those who know the book. Except among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics the same outrage does not greet adaptations of ancient literature. The absence of the original text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from most people?s personal experience allows writers to adapt with impunity. Thus, since ancient Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceased to be within the competence of most educated people, free versions of the )] TJ ET BT 425.588 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iliad)] TJ ET BT 448.256 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 471.584 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Odyssey)] TJ ET BT 511.568 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become more numerous, and met with less protest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Ziolkowski shows, Gilgamesh has already travelled far down this road. There is, like it or not, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stopping it. Assyriologists have never been able to control the reception of Gilgamesh. Such control, of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the property of all, is unrealistic. Indeed, it is now, more than ever, as vain an aspiration as the hero?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quest for immortality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 493.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Damrosch, )] TJ ET BT 151.664 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Buried Book. The Loss and Rediscovery of the Great Epic of Gilgamesh )] TJ ET BT 520.964 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.000 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.000 477.459 m 202.988 477.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John R. Maier, ?The file on Leonidas Le Cenci Hamilton?, )] TJ ET BT 349.640 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Literary Realism, 1870?1910)] TJ ET BT 540.296 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11 \(1978\), 96.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.008 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.008 448.947 m 185.996 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonello Catani, )] TJ ET BT 152.348 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ghilgamesh e altre poesie)] TJ ET BT 278.000 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Athens, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.988 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.988 434.691 m 409.976 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giovanni Pettinato,)] TJ ET BT 157.352 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La saga di Gilgamesh )] TJ ET BT 266.024 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Milan, 1992\); Jorge Silva Castillo; )] TJ ET BT 439.364 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh o la angustia )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(por la muerte )] TJ ET BT 132.344 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Mexico, 1996\); Jos Luis Sampedro, )] TJ ET BT 315.992 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La epopeya de Gilgamesh)] TJ ET BT 440.972 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Barcelona, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joaqun Sanmartn )] TJ ET BT 156.680 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Epopeya de Gilgame, rey de Uruk )] TJ ET BT 326.636 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Barcelona, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.276 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.276 391.923 m 470.264 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulla and Aage Westenholz, )] TJ ET BT 198.980 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh, Enuma Elish: Guder og mennesker i oldtidens Babylon )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Copenhagen, 1997\); Jens Braarvig, )] TJ ET BT 239.984 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gilgamesh og Atrahasis: To babylonske helter )] TJ ET BT 466.640 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oslo, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.300 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.300 363.411 m 557.960 363.411 l S BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 349.155 m 90.344 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Damrosch, )] TJ ET BT 151.664 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Longman Anthology of World Literature )] TJ ET BT 349.340 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6 vols., New York, NY, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 505.316 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Literature? )] TJ ET BT 154.688 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 2003\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.008 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.008 320.643 m 311.996 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(berfrois)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.berfrois.com/2011/11/theodore-ziolkowski-gilgamesh/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 265.875 m 353.996 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 356.996 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 262.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 244.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 244.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1280)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 243.369 m 328.316 243.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 218.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/23693)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.berfrois.com/2011/11/theodore-ziolkowski-gilgamesh/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.9997 477.7735 202.9877 489.6535 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 132.0077 449.2615 185.9957 461.1415 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 355.9877 435.0055 409.9757 446.8855 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.2757 392.2375 470.2637 404.1175 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.2997 363.7255 557.9597 375.6055 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 349.4695 90.3437 361.3495 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.0077 320.9575 311.9957 332.8375 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 266.1895 353.9957 278.0695 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.berfrois.com/2011/11/theodore-ziolkowski-gilgamesh/) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 243.6835 328.3157 255.5635 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1280) >> endobj xref 0 58 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000003597 00000 n 0000003706 00000 n 0000003816 00000 n 0000003925 00000 n 0000007486 00000 n 0000007614 00000 n 0000007698 00000 n 0000007789 00000 n 0000015440 00000 n 0000015470 00000 n 0000015598 00000 n 0000015634 00000 n 0000015664 00000 n 0000015792 00000 n 0000015828 00000 n 0000015893 00000 n 0000022256 00000 n 0000022361 00000 n 0000030941 00000 n 0000030971 00000 n 0000031099 00000 n 0000031135 00000 n 0000031165 00000 n 0000031293 00000 n 0000031329 00000 n 0000031359 00000 n 0000031487 00000 n 0000031523 00000 n 0000031553 00000 n 0000031681 00000 n 0000031717 00000 n 0000031857 00000 n 0000039135 00000 n 0000039263 00000 n 0000039318 00000 n 0000039446 00000 n 0000039501 00000 n 0000039629 00000 n 0000039684 00000 n 0000039812 00000 n 0000039867 00000 n 0000039995 00000 n 0000040050 00000 n 0000040176 00000 n 0000040231 00000 n 0000040359 00000 n 0000040414 00000 n 0000040541 00000 n 0000040655 00000 n 0000040783 00000 n trailer << /Size 58 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40879 %%EOF