%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 29 0 R 34 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140918154222+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140918154222+01'00') /Title (The Origins of Nationalism: An Alternative History from Ancient Rome to Early Modern Germany) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4295 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Origins of Nationalism: An Alternative History from Ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Rome to Early Modern Germany)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of nationality \(a term used to designate historically and constitutively diverse nations\) poses a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of acute methodological, historical, and philosophical problems. One problem, that of moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy, is how to come to terms with the complexity of our existence, specifically, the ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of acknowledging both the individual )] TJ ET BT 285.980 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(qua)] TJ ET BT 303.980 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( individual as moral agent and the accepted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligations and preferences of the individual as a member of a nation. Although this ethical problem ? long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognized by different analysts, ranging, for example, from Adam Smith in part four, chapter two of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Theory of Moral Sentiments)] TJ ET BT 189.344 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(see his discussion of approbation which ?involves in it a sense of propriety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite distinct from the principle of utility?\) to Otto von Gierke?s lecture of 1902, )] TJ ET BT 424.976 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Das Wesen der )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(menschlichen Verbnde)] TJ ET BT 148.988 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? is of pressing importance, it will not be addressed here as it is not taken up at any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length in Caspar Hirschi?s book under review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second problem is methodological, the principle of methodological individualism. Even though we rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept ? to use Hans Freyer?s felicitous characterization from )] TJ ET BT 332.924 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theorie des objektiven Geistes: eine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Einleitung in der Kulturphilosophie)] TJ ET BT 205.700 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? a ?natural liberalism? of the social situation, that is, action is self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent or self-centered, such that there is a natural sovereignty of the individual and not a ?group mind?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1281)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caspar Hirschi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521764117)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Grosby)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7937 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we also recognize that human action is often influenced by ideas that are by no means unique to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual. The recognition of this problem is also not new. It is the problem of how, given the principle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological individualism, to understand the ?sharing? of ideas between individuals; it is the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture for the historical and social sciences; and it has often been formulated as the problem of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. I remain convinced that the problem of understanding national culture is legitimate. Thus, the works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Herder and Wilhelm von Humboldt ought not to be subjected to facile criticism, as is too often the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion; rather, their works deserve not only, of course, a critical but also a generous engagement, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects of their concern are also our own. How to understand a national culture, given the principle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological individualism, is a problem that confronts every work on nationality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A third problem has to do with temporal depth as a factor in the constitution of certain social relations. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation necessarily contains meaningful references to the past and yet it is constituted in the present, that is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?under [specific] political and cultural conditions? such that ?it becomes possible to conceive and create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([nations]? \(p. 24\). This, if you will, domination of the present, characterized by Hirschi throughout this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?constructivism?, should not be lost sight of, as that temporal depth is not a mechanical reception of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past into the present; it is not the lifeless hand of the past on the present. On the contrary, all traditions are, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varying degrees, subject to modification in their reception over time, for example, the continual changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman law in, among others, the works of Johann Apel \(1486?1536\) as a significant factor in the formation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a territorially uniform law of the land that, as such, undermined the previous bodies of ?special law? ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process underway before the Reformation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The change of tradition in its reception ? both its adaptation to, and contribution to the formation of, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present ? has been observed often enough, both in the philosophy of history, for example, by Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott, and in works on tradition, for example, by T. S. Eliot and Edward Shils. The change, usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested, can be radical, even when there is a premium placed on preserving tradition, as in religion; for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, the strikingly odd metaphor of the ?circumcision of the foreskin of the heart? \(Deuteronomy 10:16, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30:6, Jeremiah 4:4\) which, because of its oddness must be a critical, expansive commentary on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commandment to circumcise the foreskin of the penis; Paul?s wildly and self-admittedly allegorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the two covenants \(Galatians 4: 24-25\); and the conception of the ?new Jerusalem? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Revelation 3:12,21:2\), let alone, as is well known, the various chosen peoples of their respectively ?new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israels? in the late medieval and early modern history of Europe and America.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 409.592 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 409.592 371.907 m 423.584 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.584 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And, in this regard, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ought to remember Luther?s desire to excise the Epistle of James from the Bible. One should not view the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hermeneutic principle of )] TJ ET BT 154.988 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sola scriptura)] TJ ET BT 221.996 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Luther and especially Calvin, whose interpretations of the Bible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earned him the opprobrium of being a ?Judaizer?, as biblical literalism. Nevertheless, however opportunistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and transformative the reception of tradition might be and often is, it presupposes already existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachments and conceptions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caspar Hirschi?s )] TJ ET BT 118.664 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Nationalism: An Alternative History from Ancient Rome to Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germany)] TJ ET BT 78.668 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a worthy contribution to the scholarly literature on nationalism as its analysis of the constitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the nation of Germany during the medieval and early modern period properly and productively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicates our understanding of what Hirschi asserts is ?the protean nature of the nation? \(p. 13\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protean nature of nationality, recognized explicitly as such by Herder in his youthful )] TJ ET BT 442.616 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Auch eine Philosophie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit)] TJ ET BT 242.984 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, raises a predictable paradox for the historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the one hand, what Frederic Maitland said in his Sidgwick Lecture of 1903, ?Moral Personality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Legal Personality?, about English history \(that ?We are not logical enough to be elementary?\) may rightly be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded beyond his defence of the tradition of common law against the Roman law doctrine of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporations to apply to the historian?s investigation into the specific, idiosyncratic processes of most social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations. One consequence of this recognition is Hirschi?s justified scepticism of ?the macro-sociologist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach of most modernist theories? of nationality \(p. 13\); and his criticism of Ernest Gellner?s \(and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that matter Benedict Anderson?s\) so very logical, functionalist, and materialist analysis of nationalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter two, ?The modernist paradigm: strengths and weaknesses?, is a tour de force. The manifest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaknesses of the modernist theories of nationality have been observed often enough, for example, by John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Armstrong, Anthony Smith, Aviel Roshwald, and others, so that their criticisms and those by Hirschi )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 409.5917 372.2215 423.5837 384.1015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7019 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need not be repeated in any detail here. Suffice it to say that the modernist theories suffer from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretically antiquated, unequivocal historical distinction between )] TJ ET BT 358.976 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gemeinschaft)] TJ ET BT 424.964 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 448.292 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesellschaft)] TJ ET BT 507.620 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hirschi also rightly observes \(pp .26?7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, on the other hand, in dealing with myriad facts specific to a particular context implied by the use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the description ?protean?, the historian cannot avoid employing analytical categories of generalization. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herein lies the paradox; and so, despite Hirschi?s misgivings about ?using ?objective? criteria, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, customs, etc.? that ?have never been specific enough? in formulating a definition of the nation \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35\), he understandably cannot avoid, in his own definition, as developed in chapter three, ?Foundations of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new nationalism theory?, and subsequently, reference to such categories:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nation can be understood as an abstract community formed by a multipolar and equal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to other communities of the same category \(i.e. other nations\), from which it )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separates itself by claiming singular qualities, a distinct territory, political and cultural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and an exclusive honor \(p. 47\))] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(natio)] TJ ET BT 88.688 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( came to mean a political, cultural and linguistic community, inhabiting a territory of its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own and sharing an exclusive honor among its members \(p. 88\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even though, as Anthony Smith and others have repeatedly observed, there is no such thing as ?the? nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because there is only ?a? nation among others, the character of these ?singular qualities?, for example, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a common language \(even with wide variation in dialects\) and, in particular, a distinct territory are of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance if the definition of the nation is to have heuristic merit. It seems to me that however much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hirschi understandably and rightly wishes to concentrate on the particulars of any historical formation \(for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example how nations are the historically specific ?products and producers of a competitive culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage in endless contests about material and symbolic values? \(p. 47\)\), about which he is surely correct, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are still compelled to distinguish between nation, city-kingdom or city-state \(or in the context of the Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman Empire, the free city\) and empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, Hirschi employs these categorial distinctions when he rightly and repeatedly observes throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this engaging book that the imperialist political culture of the Holy Roman Empire co-existed with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmented territorial structure \(the same may be said, )] TJ ET BT 297.620 317.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mutatis mutandis)] TJ ET BT 379.964 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of the Roman Catholic Church\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making this observation, I am simply noting that in any analysis of nationality, these fragmented territories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can not be taken for granted for the very category of ?distinct territory? or ?defined territory? \(p. 14\) must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarified. The existence of a distinct, defined territory implies a great deal, for example, established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries, the jurisdiction of a law code, and a relatively stable self-conception of the collectivity. \(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability of that self-conception can only be relative, for the reasons mentioned above having to do with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception of tradition.\) It is of course the case that a territory, in contrast to an area of land, is a cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical artifact \(in Hirschi?s parlance, ?constructed?\); nonetheless, it is also the )] TJ ET BT 428.936 218.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sine qua non)] TJ ET BT 490.268 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of nation. And it is here where one finds Hirschi seemingly sidestepping an important complication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his otherwise rich and welcomed contribution by not considering explicitly this question: in what ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was there and wasn?t there a German nation during the early modern period? I have no doubt whatsoever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that one finds significant adumbrations of German nationality during this period; and if any one does have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt, this book will or should convincingly dispel it. \(My use of ?adumbrations? is because the complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes involved in the constitution of any nation, as expressed in the shared, layered self-conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous individuals, are obscured ? no, more, ignored ? through a misguided attention to one particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date to indicate the existence of a nation.\) However, when one turns one?s attention to the ?German nation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, as the Empire was called at the beginning of the 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, it is not the relation of the German nation to the French or the Italian that is need of careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explication, but rather: 1\) the problematic eastern border \(territorial and symbolic\) with Poland; 2\) the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8667 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation of Prussia to the German nation; and 3\) the latter?s relation to Austria. These three considerations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call into question the ?distinctness? of the ?defined? territory, and all that is implied by that distinctness. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking up these complicated \(and, to be sure, contested\) processes of the formation and development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German nationality during this period, the analyst might reasonably turn to Friedrich Meinecke?s category )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kulturnation)] TJ ET BT 109.028 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as laid out in )] TJ ET BT 176.696 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltbrgertum and Nationalstaat)] TJ ET BT 338.708 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.708 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.708 738.051 m 355.700 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 355.700 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( All that we ask of such an analyst is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he or she does so self-consciously.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The particularly noteworthy and worthwhile aspect of Hirschi?s definition of the nation is its focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multipolarity of nationality in contrast to the bi-polarity of empire, that is, the very category of nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumes an ascendant ?conception of space [that] can be described as multicentric. Nations are formed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their relations to other nations? \(p. 39\). This national, multicentric relation of equality of existential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence is in contrast to the imperial distinction between civilized and barbarian, ?based on the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal that the centre of political power had to coincide with the centre of civilization and education? \(p. 43\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems to me that there is merit to this line of argument; thus, the Roman empire?s inability to transcend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this conception of bi-polarity is likely a part of the answer to the problem posed by Arnaldo Momigliano in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Disadvantages of Monotheism for a Universal State? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.960 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.960 583.491 m 331.952 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.952 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as to why the Empire never turned to some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of federal structure. According to Hirschi, the decisive developments of this new discourse of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multipolarity of nationality that ?gave rise to Europe?s unique inner dynamic, both politically and culturally? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 44\) were the consolidation of the previously fragmented territorial legacy of the Roman empire into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing, multipolar territorial structures beginning with the aftermath of Charlemagne?s reign, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently abetted by the reception of Roman law as a vehicle for patriotism \(here, Hirschi, in chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four, ?Killing and dying for love: the common fatherland?, rightly draws upon Kantorowicz?s analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the conception of )] TJ ET BT 198.320 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pro patria mori)] TJ ET BT 272.996 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); the realization or simulation of that patriotism at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council of Constance \(1414?18\) such that one finds ?a national competition or honor? \(pp.15, 81?8\), as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented by Hirschi in chapter five, ?Competing for honor; the making of nations in medieval Europe?; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the further extension and deepening of that discourse by the humanist nationalism during the 15th through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th centuries, one example of which was the discovery in the mid-1450s and subsequent exploitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tacitus? )] TJ ET BT 77.672 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germania)] TJ ET BT 126.332 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp.168?71\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to commend in this analysis of the emergence of a multicentric discourse of nationality, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least of which is its drawing attention to factors long before what is too often and too simply viewed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decisive moment in the creation of nations, the Peace of Westphalia \(1648\). Nonetheless, one already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds repeatedly in Genesis 10 \(verses 5,20,31\) a classificatory distinction revolving explicitly around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, territory, and descent; and surely a multicentric equality is implied in the Septuagint?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deuteronomy 32:8, ?When the Most High divided the nations \(????\), when he separated humankind, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fixed the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the gods? \(literally, ?according to the angels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of God?\). Furthermore, although the Vulgate?s translation of Deuteronomy 32:8 does not follow the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Septuagint, it still implies the same, ?When the Most High divided the nations \()] TJ ET BT 416.348 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gentes)] TJ ET BT 447.008 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), when he separated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humankind, he fixed the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel?. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Israel in the Vulgate is usually referred to as a )] TJ ET BT 287.624 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gens)] TJ ET BT 309.620 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it is not quite right to state unequivocally that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Jerome?s Latin translation of the Bible in the late fourth century led the way to [an imperial bi-polarity by] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calling all peoples outside the Judaeo-Christian world )] TJ ET BT 294.992 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nationes)] TJ ET BT 335.660 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 79\); for, in both Deuteronomy 17:14 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1 Samuel 8:5, Israel pleads to become a )] TJ ET BT 227.648 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(natio)] TJ ET BT 252.320 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( among )] TJ ET BT 290.984 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nationes)] TJ ET BT 331.652 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, Israelite self-conception, as conveyed in the Old Testament, can not be put on the same plane as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing with a dominant, imperial discourse; but an analysis of nationality outside the context of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern German history would note an apparent, to be sure tamed and partial, multipolarity of the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Persian ?Cyrus cylinder?: the rebuilding of other people?s temples, the implied recognition that the worship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the gods of those other peoples was legitimate, and the return of exiles to their respective lands. Certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews understood Cyrus? edict that way \(Ezra 1:1-4, Isaiah 44:28\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relevance of the reference to ancient Israel here is because, as many have observed, the reception of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image, as a designation for both a particular people and its bounded land, from the Bible has been one factor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the early formation of European nations. And Hirschi notes how the image of ancient Israel contributed to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.7077 738.3655 355.6997 750.2455 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.9597 583.8055 331.9517 595.6855 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 8594 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the self-understanding of, among others, the French, Czechs, and Swiss \(pp. 66?8, 212?14\). Although I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applaud Hirschi?s insistence on distinguishing nationalism from religion and he is surely correct that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation between nationalism and religion requires a nuanced analysis \(p. 213\), the cultural significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the retrieval of the image of ancient Israel deserves to be pondered. Doing so is surely a difficult matter; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it seems to me that understanding further the significance of the ?turn? to the Old Testament is a pressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(task for analysts of Occidental nationality; for within a monotheistic civilization that emphasizes, at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrinally, the universal brotherhood of the individual, as the New Testament does, the image of ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel has been the vehicle that conveys, however tension-ridden, a symbolic intertwining of the particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the universal. In contrast, the tradition of Rome, analyzed well by Hirschi, can not avoid being burdened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by three problems: i\) polytheism; ii\) imperial ambition \(consider, for example, Plutarch?s description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cato?s ?bi-polar?, if you will, hatred for all things Greek and his demand that Carthage be utterly destroyed\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and iii\) the Roman Church?s dogmatic rejection of this world. No doubt, recognition of this burden accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in large measure for the turn to the Old Testament as a way to legitimate, within monotheism, territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentation, including that of the Church that long predates the conciliarism of the Council of Constance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The careful and often subtle analysis of this book indicates that Hirschi is capable of taking on this task of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elucidating the significance of this turn; the earlier de facto territorial divisions within the Church; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual groundwork laid for both the conciliar movement of the Council of Constance and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidation of national states as exemplified by the previous controversies, bearing within them the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem of clarifying the ?self? of self-government, over the )] TJ ET BT 327.944 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lex Regia)] TJ ET BT 376.268 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the )] TJ ET BT 409.928 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Corpus Iuris)] TJ ET BT 470.936 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether or not the )] TJ ET BT 124.664 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(translatio)] TJ ET BT 171.344 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was only a )] TJ ET BT 228.668 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(concessio)] TJ ET BT 275.324 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and the early 14th?century work of individuals such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John of Paris \()] TJ ET BT 103.676 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tractatus de regia potestate et papali)] TJ ET BT 284.012 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), not surprisingly concurrent with the outcome of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict between the ?royal religion? of Philip the Fair and Boniface VIII: the formulation of the )] TJ ET BT 499.268 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rex glorie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1311\) that ?like the people of Israel . . the kingdom of France, as a peculiar people chosen by God to carry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out divine mandates, is distinguished by marks of special honor and grace?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.968 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.968 467.187 m 410.960 467.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taking on this task will require a more expansive survey of the humanist intellectuals than what appears in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what I take to be the most important chapter and contribution of this book, the lengthy chapter seven, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Humanist nationalism? \(pp. 119?79\). Hirschi is spot on to emphasize the humanists? retrieval of earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts, their subsequent editing, and the humanists? philological investigations for nationality \(pp. 158?9\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is, the elevation of the importance of history to understand ? or, as formulated by Hirschi, ?construct? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present, for example, not only the discovery and editing of Tacitus? )] TJ ET BT 379.292 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germania)] TJ ET BT 427.952 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but also the exploitation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its various accounts such as that of Arminius to assert a temporal continuity of the past with the present, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another example of which is Beatus Rhenanus? )] TJ ET BT 264.308 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Three Books on German History)] TJ ET BT 420.956 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1531\(pp. 207?9\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich evidence of this excellent chapter serves to substantiate Hirschi?s argument for the crucial role played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the humanists in formulating a national discourse that, in turn, contributed decisively to the formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationality. Although outside the purview of the book, his argument can rightly be extended to encompass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other areas, for example, the establishment and defense of the English common law by Coke, Selden, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hale, hence the arguments over the continuity of the ?good old law?, all of which presuppose the temporal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth of the historical outlook \(and which ? note well ? would not have been possible without the earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bracton and that peculiar institution of English legal education, the Inns of Court\). However, deserving of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention are those numerous humanists ? for example, Carlo Sigonio, Joseph Scaliger, Isaac Casaubon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Petrus Cunaeus, Johannes Althusius, of course Hugo Grotius and John Selden, and many more ? who, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of the past, looked past Rome to ancient Israel. Our problem is to ascertain the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why they did. When pursuing this problem we will not be content with an explanation that limits itself to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of the Reformation; for doing so begs the questions that are important in the investigation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occidental nationality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hirsch?s admirable focus on the humanists and events of the 15th through 17th centuries clearly supports his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that nationality is not exclusively modern. He is right. This focus also supports his argument for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decisive role intellectuals played in formulating a discourse necessary for nationality to emerge; and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is why he describes his analysis of nationality as ?constructivist?. There is merit here, too, especially in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the multipolarity of that discourse; but there is a danger to this ?constructivist? analysis because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the capriciousness or arbitrariness and an often unwarranted intentionality implied by the term. It is the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.9677 467.5015 410.9597 479.3815 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8475 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case that all social relations, including face-to-face, involve ?acts of the imagination?, that is, some symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referent )] TJ ET BT 74.324 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perceived)] TJ ET BT 120.968 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by each of the members of the relation to be adhering or inhering in each of them. Hirschi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is right to observe that this perception can not be taken for granted; it has its own historical development. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the recognition of this symbolic or imaginative factor, for example, such that a territory exists or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that language achieves significance as a classificatory criterion of the self and others, does not mean that it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?imaginary?, as if the social relation were a unicorn. Take, for example, speaking a common language. Now, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first, there is the standardization of language; in the context of this book, the influence of Luther?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation of the Bible \(p. 105\). Too many analysts begin their investigation with nationality at this point, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often because of their misguided insistence that the decisive factor for the existence of the nation can only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state-directed policies. Of course, the bearing of these policies or the work of intellectuals on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standardization of language is not to be denied; but, as Hirschi properly notes, there is a great deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence from as early as the 11th century and increasingly thereafter for Germans being distinguished from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others by the language they spoke \(pp. 104?8\). Behind this distinction is the fact of \(needless to say\) an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uneven linguistic differentiation from one area of land to another. However, for language to be a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiating referent of a nation, crucial is the attribution of significance to that distinction; and Hirschi is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once again, correct to draw our attention to numerous intellectual and historical factors that contributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that attribution. But also crucial is that the ?construction? or ?invention? of language as a symbolic boundary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a nation was possible because of the underlying anthropological fact of the spontaneous order of its areal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation. Here, I am simply exploiting Hume?s observation in )] TJ ET BT 363.644 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Treatise of Human Nature)] TJ ET BT 500.312 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of our relations are artificial, in the sense that they are the result of the intervention of our thought or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection, they are not arbitrary, hence, my earlier distinction between ?the acts of the imagination? and ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginary?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reference to Hume?s distinction and my adaptation of it as between ?the acts of the imagination? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the imaginary? returns us again to the two problems confronting an analysis of nationality: the temporal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth of the reception of tradition and the sharing such that a culture exists; but they do so now with a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different concerns that, it seems to me, unavoidably nag historical investigations and the human sciences in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general. Not all conceptual creations become traditions, and not all traditions persist, albeit with dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes, over time. Furthermore, not all traditions become objects of what is important to Hirschi?s analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nationality, honor; and not all are widely shared such that a culture exists. We would like to know why is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it that some conceptual creations persist as \(contested\) traditions, are \(unevenly\) shared, and become objects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of honor? These are, after all, reasonable questions to raise, if we do not lose sight of just why we are so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in the phenomenon of nationality such that it is the subject of so many historical investigations. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think that key to addressing those problems is the recognition that the nation is one among several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectivities of existential significance. Hirschi implies as much when he refers to the ?bigger family? in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the goal of patriotism as convincing citizens or subjects ?that there is a bigger family which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they belong to and which deserves an even stronger dedication than [to] their own [family]? \(p. 51\), earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of which are found in Herodotus? )] TJ ET BT 246.968 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 282.968 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(8.144\), Plato?s )] TJ ET BT 364.628 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republic)] TJ ET BT 407.288 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(V.470 c-d\), and especially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Platonic dialogue )] TJ ET BT 120.680 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Menexenus)] TJ ET BT 174.656 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(237?44\). To recognize this significance is not to gainsay the necessity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful historical analysis of the particular processes involved in the formation of those collectivities, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis that ought to include their categorial differentiation from one another. If we conclude with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philological investigations of Hirschi?s humanists, then to postulate the likelihood of this existential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance is by no means an audacious claim; for all that need be done is to consider the etymology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(natio)] TJ ET BT 58.688 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 150.819 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For recent discussions of the latter, see recently Anthony D. Smith, ?Nation and covenant: the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution of ancient Israel to modern nationalism?, )] TJ ET BT 325.316 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Proceedings of the British Academy)] TJ ET BT 497.960 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 151 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2007\), 213?55, and Steven Grosby, ?Hebraism: the third culture?, in )] TJ ET BT 399.296 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judaic Sources and Western )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thought: Jerusalem?s Enduring Presence)] TJ ET BT 266.324 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Jonathan A. Jacobs \(Oxford, 2011\), pp.73?96.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.944 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.944 76.035 m 550.940 76.035 l S BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 61.779 m 78.008 61.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 48.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedrich Meinecke, )] TJ ET BT 164.324 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltbrgertum and Nationalstaat)] TJ ET BT 326.336 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(English translation, )] TJ ET BT 429.668 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cosmopolitanism and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 34.661 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National State)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.9437 76.3495 550.9397 88.2295 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 62.0935 78.0077 73.9735 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 1712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Princeton, NJ, 1970\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.340 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.340 795.075 m 226.328 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnaldo Momigliano, ?The Disadvantages of Monotheism for a Universal State?, in )] TJ ET BT 470.960 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Pagans, Jews, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Christians)] TJ ET BT 135.032 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Middletown, CT, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.028 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.028 766.563 m 313.016 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Strayer, )] TJ ET BT 140.336 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reign of Philip the Fair)] TJ ET BT 276.008 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.328 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.328 752.307 m 439.316 752.307 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1281)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 328.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/23697)] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 172.3397 795.3895 226.3277 807.2695 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.0277 766.8775 313.0157 778.7575 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.3277 752.6215 439.3157 764.5015 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 328.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1281) >> endobj xref 0 50 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000000698 00000 n 0000005045 00000 n 0000005154 00000 n 0000005264 00000 n 0000005373 00000 n 0000008934 00000 n 0000009062 00000 n 0000009146 00000 n 0000009230 00000 n 0000017220 00000 n 0000017250 00000 n 0000017378 00000 n 0000017414 00000 n 0000017479 00000 n 0000024551 00000 n 0000024642 00000 n 0000033362 00000 n 0000033392 00000 n 0000033520 00000 n 0000033556 00000 n 0000033586 00000 n 0000033714 00000 n 0000033750 00000 n 0000033834 00000 n 0000042481 00000 n 0000042511 00000 n 0000042639 00000 n 0000042675 00000 n 0000042766 00000 n 0000051294 00000 n 0000051420 00000 n 0000051475 00000 n 0000051599 00000 n 0000051654 00000 n 0000051759 00000 n 0000053524 00000 n 0000053652 00000 n 0000053707 00000 n 0000053835 00000 n 0000053890 00000 n 0000054018 00000 n 0000054073 00000 n 0000054201 00000 n trailer << /Size 50 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 54297 %%EOF